Podcasts de história

Como a Irlanda transformou "mulheres caídas" em escravas

Como a Irlanda transformou

Quando as Irmãs de Nossa Senhora da Caridade decidiram vender algumas terras que possuíam em Dublin, Irlanda, para pagar suas dívidas em 1992, as freiras seguiram os procedimentos adequados. Eles solicitaram aos oficiais permissão para mover os corpos de mulheres enterradas no cemitério de sua lavanderia Donnybrook, que entre 1837 e 1992 serviu como uma casa de trabalho e lar para "mulheres caídas".

Mas o cemitério de Donnybrook não era um lugar de descanso comum: era uma vala comum. Dentro estavam os corpos de dezenas de mulheres desconhecidas: as internas indocumentadas e descuidadas de uma das notórias lavanderias Madalena da Irlanda. Suas vidas - e mais tarde suas mortes - foram envoltas em segredo.

Por mais de dois séculos, as mulheres na Irlanda foram enviadas a instituições como Donnybrook como punição por fazer sexo fora do casamento. Mães solteiras, mulheres paqueradoras e outras pessoas consideradas impróprias para a sociedade foram forçadas a trabalhar sob a supervisão estrita de freiras por meses ou anos, às vezes até para o resto da vida.

Quando a vala comum em Donnybrook foi descoberta, as 155 tumbas não marcadas desencadearam um escândalo que expôs a extensão e os horrores das lavanderias Madalena. Enquanto as mulheres se apresentavam para compartilhar suas experiências de serem mantidas contra sua vontade em asilos restritos, o público irlandês reagiu com indignação.

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Quando o Movimento Madalena começou em meados do século 18, a campanha para colocar “mulheres caídas” para trabalhar foi apoiada pelas igrejas católica e protestante, com mulheres cumprindo penas curtas dentro dos asilos com o objetivo de reabilitação. Com o passar dos anos, porém, as lavanderias Madalena - batizadas em homenagem à figura bíblica Maria Madalena - tornaram-se instituições principalmente católicas, e as temporadas foram ficando cada vez mais longas. As mulheres enviadas para lá muitas vezes eram acusadas de “redimir-se” por meio da confecção de renda, costura ou lavagem de roupa.

Embora a maioria dos residentes não tivesse sido condenada por nenhum crime, as condições dentro eram parecidas com as de uma prisão. “A redenção pode às vezes envolver uma variedade de medidas coercitivas, incluindo cabeças raspadas, uniformes institucionais, dieta alimentar com pão e água, visitas restritas, correspondência supervisionada, confinamento solitário e até açoitamento”, escreve a historiadora Helen J. Self.

A primeira instituição desse tipo na Irlanda, o Asilo Magdalen para Mulheres Penitentes em Dublin, foi fundada pela Igreja Protestante da Irlanda em 1765. Na época, havia a preocupação de que a prostituição nas cidades irlandesas estivesse aumentando e que as mulheres "rebeldes" que tinham ser seduzida, ter relações sexuais fora do casamento ou engravidar fora do casamento eram suscetíveis a se tornarem prostitutas. Logo, os pais começaram a enviar suas filhas solteiras às instituições para esconder a gravidez.

Inicialmente, a maioria das mulheres ingressou nas instituições voluntariamente e cumpriu mandatos de vários anos, nos quais aprenderam uma profissão “respeitável”. A ideia era que eles usassem essas habilidades para ganhar dinheiro depois de serem libertados; seu trabalho apoiou a instituição enquanto eles estavam lá.

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Mas, com o tempo, as instituições se tornaram mais parecidas com prisões, com muitos grupos diferentes de mulheres sendo encaminhados pelo sistema, às vezes pelo governo irlandês. Havia internos importados de instituições psiquiátricas e prisões, mulheres com necessidades especiais, vítimas de estupro e violência sexual, adolescentes grávidas enviadas pelos pais e meninas consideradas paqueradoras ou tentadoras demais para os homens. Outros estavam lá sem motivo óbvio. Embora as instituições fossem administradas por ordens católicas, eram apoiadas pelo governo irlandês, que canalizava dinheiro para o sistema em troca de serviços de lavanderia.

As freiras comandavam as lavanderias com impunidade, às vezes espancando presidiárias e aplicando regras estritas de silêncio. “Você não sabia quando seria a próxima surra”, disse a sobrevivente Mary Smith em uma história oral.

Smith foi preso na lavanderia Sundays Well em Cork depois de ser estuprado; freiras disseram a ela que era "no caso de ela engravidar". Uma vez lá, ela foi forçada a cortar o cabelo e assumir um novo nome. Ela não tinha permissão para falar e foi designada a um trabalho árduo na lavanderia, onde freiras regularmente batiam nela por pequenas infrações e a forçavam a dormir no frio. Devido ao trauma que sofreu, Smith não se lembra exatamente de quanto tempo ela passava bem aos domingos. “Para mim, parecia a minha vida inteira”, disse ela.

Smith não estava sozinho. Freqüentemente, os nomes das mulheres foram retirados deles; eles foram referidos por números ou como “criança” ou “penitente”. Alguns presidiários - geralmente órfãos ou vítimas de estupro ou abuso - permaneceram lá por toda a vida; outros escaparam e foram levados de volta às instituições.

Outra sobrevivente, Marina Gambold, foi colocada em uma lavanderia por seu padre local. Ela se lembra de ser forçada a comer no chão depois de quebrar uma xícara e ficar trancada do lado de fora no frio por uma infração menor. “Eu trabalhava na lavanderia das oito da manhã até cerca das seis da tarde”, disse ela à BBC em 2013. “Eu estava morrendo de fome com a fome, recebia pão e pingava no café da manhã”.

Algumas mulheres grávidas foram transferidas para lares de mães solteiras, onde deram à luz e viveram temporariamente com seus bebês e trabalharam em condições semelhantes às das lavanderias. Os bebês geralmente eram tirados de suas mães e entregues a outras famílias. Em uma das casas mais notórias, a casa para mães e bebês Bon Secours, em Tuam, muitos bebês morreram. Em 2014, restos mortais de pelo menos 796 bebês foram encontrados em uma fossa séptica no quintal da casa; a instalação ainda está sendo investigada para reconstruir a história do que aconteceu lá.

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Como esse sistema abusivo durou 231 anos na Irlanda? Para começar, qualquer conversa sobre tratamento severo nas lavanderias Madalena e nas casas das mães tendia a ser rejeitada pelo público, já que as instituições eram administradas por ordens religiosas. Os sobreviventes que contaram a outras pessoas o que eles passaram muitas vezes foram envergonhados ou ignorados. Outras mulheres tinham vergonha de falar sobre seu passado e nunca contaram a ninguém sobre suas experiências. Os detalhes sobre os presos e suas vidas são escassos.

As estimativas do número de mulheres que passaram pelas lavanderias da Madalena Irlandesa variam, e a maioria das ordens religiosas se recusou a fornecer informações de arquivo para investigadores e historiadores. Pensa-se que cerca de 300.000 mulheres passaram pelas lavanderias no total, pelo menos 10.000 delas desde 1922. Mas, apesar de um grande número de sobreviventes, as lavanderias permaneceram incontestáveis ​​até a década de 1990.

Então, as Irmãs de Nossa Senhora da Caridade decidiram vender algumas de suas terras em 1992. Eles solicitaram que 133 corpos fossem removidos de sepulturas não marcadas na propriedade, mas os restos mortais de 155 pessoas foram encontrados. Quando os jornalistas souberam que existiam apenas 75 certidões de óbito, membros da comunidade assustados gritaram por mais informações. A freira reclamou que houve um erro administrativo, cremou todos os restos mortais e os enterrou novamente em outra vala comum.

A descoberta transformou as lavanderias Madalena de segredo aberto em notícia de primeira página. De repente, as mulheres começaram a testemunhar sobre suas experiências nas instituições e a pressionar o governo irlandês a responsabilizar a Igreja Católica e a levar a cabo casos com as Nações Unidas por violações dos direitos humanos. Logo, a ONU instou o Vaticano a examinar o assunto, afirmando que “as meninas [nas lavanderias] foram privadas de sua identidade, de educação e muitas vezes de alimentos e remédios essenciais e foram impostas com a obrigação de silêncio e proibidas de ter qualquer contato com o mundo exterior. ”

Enquanto a Igreja Católica permanecia em silêncio, o governo irlandês divulgou um relatório que reconhecia o amplo envolvimento do governo nas lavanderias e a profunda crueldade das instituições. Em 2013, o presidente da Irlanda se desculpou com as mulheres Madalena e anunciou um fundo de compensação. No entanto, os grupos religiosos que dirigiam as lavanderias se recusaram a contribuir para o fundo e recusaram pesquisadores em busca de mais informações sobre as lavanderias.

Devido em parte ao tumulto em torno da descoberta da vala comum, a última lavanderia Madalena finalmente foi fechada em 1996. Conhecida como a Lavanderia da Rua Gloucester, era o lar de 40 mulheres, a maioria delas idosas e muitas com deficiências de desenvolvimento. Nove não tinham parentes conhecidos; todos decidiram ficar com as freiras.

Embora Smith tenha conseguido recuperar sua própria vida, ela entende o dano que a institucionalização de longo prazo pode infligir. “Meu corpo entrou em choque quando fui lá. Quando aquela porta se fechou, minha vida acabou ”, lembrou Smith em sua história oral. "Você vê todas essas mulheres lá e sabe que vai acabar como elas e sofrer danos psicológicos pelo resto da vida."


Relembrando a história angustiante de seus primeiros escravistas na África - The Arabs & # 8211, enquanto a Abolição do Comércio de Escravos no Reino Unido é comemorada

O 25 de março foi, como de costume, comemorado como o dia em que a Grã-Bretanha aboliu oficialmente seu comércio de escravos em 1807. Mas quantos se lembram de que os escravos árabes foram os primeiros e últimos nos tempos modernos a enviar milhões de africanos para fora do continente como escravos ? E que os escravistas árabes preferiam mais mulheres africanas aos homens? Nós revisitamos nossos arquivos para este lembrete perspicaz por George Pavlu.

No livro dele, Escravos e escravidão, publicado em 1998, o escritor britânico Duncan Clarke define a escravidão como “a redução do próximo à condição de bem móvel, permitindo sua compra e venda como mercadoria”. Isso, em essência, é o que árabes e europeus fizeram com os africanos, para justificar o envio de milhões de africanos como escravos para terras longínquas na Ásia (em particular, no Oriente Médio) e nas Américas.

“O tráfico de escravos africanos, certamente um dos episódios mais trágicos e perturbadores da história da humanidade”, escreve Clarke, “teve suas origens na intervenção de forças das civilizações que se desenvolveram nas regiões do mar Mediterrâneo - a Europa de hoje e o Oriente Médio - na arena das civilizações mais fragmentadas da África Subsaariana.

“A África se tornou uma fonte de escravos para as culturas do mundo mediterrâneo muitos séculos antes da descoberta das Américas, mas foi essa descoberta e a mudança resultante no foco em direção ao Atlântico que levou ao crescimento explosivo culminante da escravidão com efeito tão trágico. ”

A escravidão, de fato, era uma característica central da vida no mundo mediterrâneo, especialmente na Mesopotâmia, no antigo Egito, na Grécia, na Roma Imperial e nas sociedades islâmicas do Oriente Médio e do Norte da África.

Então, entre 1600 e 1800, outros 1,4 milhão de africanos foram despachados pelos árabes. O século 19 representou o ponto mais alto do comércio árabe, para onde 12.000 africanos eram despachados todos os anos. O número total para o século 19 sozinho foi de 1,2 milhão de escravos na Arábia.

“A fonte mais importante de escravos na Europa medieval”, mostra a pesquisa de Clarke, “era a costa da Bósnia na costa oriental do Mar Adriático. A palavra "escravo" e seus cognatos na maioria das línguas europeias modernas é derivada de "sclavus", que significa "eslavo", o nome étnico dos habitantes desta região & # 8230

“Por várias razões, incluindo a dureza do terreno e a guerra endêmica entre os clãs locais, a Bósnia provou ser a mais conveniente e duradoura dessas regiões fornecedoras de escravos. Qualquer clã que obtivesse uma vantagem temporária sempre estava disposto a vender seus rivais capturados em troca de mercadorias do mundo mediterrâneo nos mercados da antiga cidade romanizada de Ragusa (atual Dubrovnik). De lá, os eslavos eram enviados como escravos por mercadores venezianos, para abastecer novos mercados no mundo islâmico. ”

Assim, "para o mundo islâmico", continua Clarke, "os eslavos foram a principal fonte de escravos nos cerca de 250 anos entre a derrota na batalha de Poitiers em 732 dC que forçou a consolidação de suas conquistas dramáticas em todo o Norte da África e o Península Ibérica, reduzindo o fluxo de cativos de guerra e a expansão da importação de negros africanos através do Saara por volta de 1000 dC ”.

O comércio de escravos terminou quando os turcos otomanos conquistaram a região em 1463. “O fechamento efetivo da última grande fonte de escravos do continente europeu”, diz Clarke, “portanto, por coincidência, ocorreu na mesma época que os portugueses explorações da costa da África Ocidental que iriam abrir a segunda e mais devastadora rota para a exploração de africanos como escravos. ”

Os números sobre o comércio de escravos árabes na África são difíceis de obter, mas o historiador Paul Lovejoy estima que cerca de 9,85 milhões de africanos foram enviados como escravos para a Arábia e, em pequenos números, para o subcontinente indiano. Lovejoy divide seus números da seguinte forma:

Entre 650 e 1600 DC, uma média de 5.000 africanos foram despachados pelos árabes. Isso perfaz um total aproximado de 7,25 milhões.

Então, entre 1600 e 1800, outros 1,4 milhão de africanos foram despachados pelos árabes. O século 19 representou o ponto mais alto do comércio árabe, para onde 12.000 africanos eram despachados todos os anos. O número total para o século 19 sozinho foi de 1,2 milhão de escravos na Arábia.

O jogo dos números

Assim, em termos de números, os 9,85 milhões da Arábia não ficam muito atrás da estimativa conservadora de quase 12 milhões de vítimas africanas do comércio de escravos no Atlântico. Alguns historiadores africanos, porém, rejeitam esses números por serem muito baixos. Eles sugerem que mais de 50 milhões de africanos foram embarcados apenas durante o comércio do Atlântico.

De acordo com Lovejoy, outros 4,1 milhões de africanos foram embarcados pelo Mar Vermelho para o Golfo Pérsico e a Índia. “Também este comércio, com a notável excepção de algum envolvimento português na área de Moçambique e das exportações francesas dos séculos XVIII e XIX para as ilhas sob o seu controlo no Oceano Índico, era em grande parte conduzido por muçulmanos”, acrescenta Duncan Clarke.

Ao longo do século 19, os governantes árabes omanis de Zanzibar enviaram centenas de milhares de escravos africanos para trabalhar nas plantações de cravo-da-índia na ilha. Foi esse comércio que deu tanta satisfação à Europa e à América, após abolir seu próprio comércio de escravos africanos, para destacar a maldade dos escravos árabes que continuaram a escravizar os africanos até as primeiras décadas do século XX. Até hoje, escravos árabes ainda trabalham no Sudão e na Mauritânia, comprando e vendendo negros africanos.

David Livingstone, o missionário / viajante / explorador britânico, ficou tão chateado com a maneira como os árabes trataram seus escravos africanos que escreveu em sua casa em 1870:

“Em menos do que eu gostaria de falar sobre isso, essas criaturas infelizes - 84 delas, seguiram seu caminho para a aldeia onde estávamos. Alguns deles, os mais velhos, eram mulheres de 20 a 22 anos, e havia jovens de 18 a 19, mas a grande maioria era composta por meninos e meninas de 7 a 14 ou 15 anos.

“Uma cena mais terrível do que esses homens, mulheres e crianças, acho que nunca vi. Dizer que eles estão emaciados não daria a você uma idéia do que os seres humanos podem suportar em certas circunstâncias. “Cada um deles tinha o pescoço em uma grande vara bifurcada, pesando de 30 a 40 libras, e cinco ou seis pés de comprimento, cortada com um garfo na ponta onde se espalham os galhos de uma árvore. “As mulheres eram amarradas com tiras de casca de árvore, que são, de todas as coisas, as mais cruéis de se amarrar. É claro que são macios e flexíveis quando arrancados das árvores pela primeira vez, mas algumas horas ao sol os tornam tão duros quanto as caixas de embalagem redondas de ferro. As criancinhas eram amarradas às mães por correias. “Ao passarmos pelo caminho que esses escravos haviam percorrido, fui mostrado um ponto no mato onde uma pobre mulher no dia anterior, incapaz de continuar a marcha, e provavelmente impedi-la, foi cortada pelo machado de um desses drivers escravos. “Fomos mais longe e foi-nos mostrado uma casa onde estava uma criança. Tinha nascido recentemente, e sua mãe não conseguia carregá-lo por debilidade e exaustão, então o traficante de escravos pegou esse pequeno bebê pelos pés, arremessou seus miolos contra uma das árvores e o jogou lá. ”

Essa foi a brutalidade infligida aos africanos pelos árabes. Como o comércio do Atlântico, a "passagem do meio" do comércio árabe foi igualmente horrível e aterrorizante. A "passagem do meio" descreve a jornada angustiante que durou vários meses da costa oeste da África para as Américas durante a qual milhões de africanos, embalados como sardinhas em navios negreiros, morreram de sede, fome, mar agitado e, às vezes, da pura brutalidade infligida por os escravistas europeus.

David Livingstone, o missionário / viajante / explorador britânico, ficou tão chateado com a maneira como os árabes trataram seus escravos africanos que escreveu em casa em 1870: “Em menos do que eu gostaria de falar sobre isso, essas criaturas infelizes - 84 deles, wended seu caminho para a aldeia onde estávamos. Alguns deles, os mais velhos, eram mulheres de 20 a 22 anos, e havia jovens de 18 a 19, mas a grande maioria era composta por meninos e meninas de 7 a 14 ou 15 anos de idade.

No comércio árabe, a marcha através do Saara, com correntes nas pernas e no pescoço, e como Livingstone descreveu acima, pescoços em grandes varas bifurcadas e mãos amarradas com tiras de casca de árvore, era particularmente difícil para os escravos africanos.

Diz Duncan Clarke: “As dificuldades dessas longas marchas pelo deserto foram consideráveis, e muitos viajantes posteriores relataram que as rotas estavam repletas de esqueletos ressecados daqueles que sucumbiram à exaustão e sede ao longo do caminho.”

Os escravistas árabes não apenas marcharam seus cativos africanos para a Arábia, mas também os venderam a escravos europeus.

Nos tempos modernos, a imagem popular da escravidão africana surge da visão de um homem atormentado sofrendo sob o açoite do trabalho incessante em alguma plantação de açúcar do “Novo Mundo”. No entanto, a verdadeira face da servidão encontra seu foco na migração forçada de milhões de meninas e mulheres jovens através do Saara e do Chifre da África para as instituições do concubinato islâmico.

Por que eles preferem mulheres

Enquanto no “Novo Mundo” europeu, a medida da estatura de um homem era mapeada e calibrada nas dimensões físicas do império construído sobre os tendões do trabalho masculino forçado, no Oriente islâmico a riqueza era um reflexo de prestígio, meninas o vaso do hubr masculino é, as esteiras do terreno do prazer masculino, o material maleável a ser moldado à vontade do mestre.

Assim, as escravas no mundo árabe eram frequentemente transformadas em concubinas que viviam em haréns e raramente como esposas, seus filhos se tornando livres. Um grande número de escravos e meninos foram castrados e transformados em eunucos que vigiavam os haréns. A castração foi uma operação particularmente brutal, com uma taxa de sobrevivência de apenas 10%.

“O efeito combinado de todos esses fatores”, diz Duncan Clarke, “foi uma demanda constante por escravos em todo o mundo islâmico, que tinha uma história de capa a ser atendida em guerras, ataques ou compras ao longo das fronteiras com regiões não islâmicas. Embora alguns desses escravos viessem da Rússia, dos Bálcãs e da Ásia central, a expansão contínua dos regimes islâmicos na África subsaariana fez dos africanos negros a principal fonte. ”

Tão invasiva foi a prática da escravidão na vida econômica, política, demográfica, cultural, social e religiosa da África e persistiu por tantos séculos, que embora seus efeitos variassem geograficamente e temporalmente em intensidade, a escravidão ultrapassou distâncias em escala e escopo qualquer desastre único ou combinação - natural ou causado pelo homem, que desceu sobre o continente.

Assim, as escravas no mundo árabe eram frequentemente transformadas em concubinas que viviam em haréns e raramente como esposas, seus filhos se tornando livres. Um grande número de escravos e meninos foram castrados e transformados em eunucos que vigiavam os haréns. A castração foi uma operação particularmente brutal, com uma taxa de sobrevivência de apenas 10%.

A escravidão inquestionavelmente impediu o crescimento populacional na África e, consequentemente, colocou uma tremenda pressão sobre o gênero e as relações conjugais durante os três séculos críticos da expansão europeia para a dominação global.

Nesse sentido, o tráfico de escravos árabes de orientação feminina, embora não seja motivado nem executado tendo como objetivo primordial os benefícios econômicos, causou danos demográficos muito maiores e, consequentemente, maior declínio econômico, com sua excessiva caça furtiva do potencial reprodutivo das áreas exploradas.

O impacto na África

Nenhum povo é uma lousa em branco sobre a qual possam ser inscritas misérias incalculáveis ​​e não espere nenhuma conta delas. O comércio de escravos árabes começou muito antes da conquista islâmica da África, permaneceu em um nível relativamente baixo em comparação com o comércio de escravos do Atlântico e não se tornou ilegal ou abolido, e foi mantido até bem depois da colonização da África. O comércio árabe foi proibido na Etiópia apenas em 1935, a fim de obter apoio internacional contra a invasão italiana.

No comércio do Atlântico, os escravos vieram predominantemente da costa oeste da África com uma proporção homem / mulher de dois para um. No comércio árabe, os escravos eram exclusivamente da savana e do Chifre da África, e favoreciam as mulheres em relação aos homens em uma proporção próxima de três para um.

Quando a escravidão na área do Mar Negro (a fonte tradicional das escravas de melhor qualidade para o mercado árabe) secou, ​​desencadeou-se uma demanda ainda maior por escravos “vermelhos” etíopes, em particular os Galla e Oromo por causa de sua beleza inquestionável e temperamento sexual voluntário.

E embora os europeus pagassem um preço mais alto pelos escravos do que pelas mulheres, o inverso acontecia com os árabes. Além disso, enquanto os escravistas europeus / do Novo Mundo lucravam principalmente com o trabalho masculino, os árabes viam lucro na satisfação sexual / potencial reprodutivo. (A descendência da união entre o mestre islâmico e a escrava nasceu livre, em respeito à paternidade islâmica da criança. Qualquer descendente do comércio atlântico nasceu na escravidão).

“As leis do Islã”, como atesta o historiador Hugh Thomas, “eram de certa forma mais benignas com respeito à escravidão do que as de Roma. Os escravos não deviam ser tratados como se fossem animais. Escravos e homens livres eram iguais do ponto de vista de Deus. O mestre não tinha poder de vida ou morte sobre sua propriedade escrava. ”

Mas para os africanos embarcados através do Mar Vermelho, as leis islâmicas "benignas" forneciam pouco conforto - eles ainda eram escravos de senhores islâmicos que tinham acesso sexual irrestrito a eles (se fossem mulheres) ou castrados e transformados em eunucos (se fossem homens).

O resultado deste perfil de gênero das respectivas classes escravas no Atlântico / Novo Mundo e no mundo Árabe / Oriental explica a grande e visível população de origem africana no Novo Mundo, onde as relações sexuais entre brancos e negros eram a exceção enquanto no No mundo árabe, onde a miscigenação era a prática, o tráfico de escravos deixou poucos vestígios visíveis.

Então, onde estão os descendentes dos escravos africanos enviados para a Arábia / Oriente? Não há grandes concentrações deles, em qualquer lugar do Oriente Médio ou da Ásia.

Há cinco anos, um documentário da TV britânica mostrou como os descendentes de escravos africanos no Paquistão são maltratados pelas autoridades. A discriminação racial era tão forte que um dos afrodescendentes contou diante das câmeras como, mesmo no esporte, eles não foram escolhidos para representar o Paquistão em nível nacional e internacional, por mais bons que fossem.

Declínio da população

Os efeitos demográficos da escravidão árabe na população de origem (aqueles que ficaram para trás) não podem ser negligenciados, e especificamente quando se considera os efeitos palpáveis ​​na fertilidade africana como consequência do número de mulheres grosseiramente reduzido.

Para garantir a sobrevivência, os africanos nas áreas de colheita adotaram uma variedade de medidas sociais, que na prática foram tão extremas quanto as circunstâncias exigiam. Estes giravam principalmente em torno da pureza sexual do estoque reprodutivo feminino restante da população, bem como acelerando a capacidade reprodutiva feminina.

Embora o número de escravas exportadas por ano da Savana e do Chifre fosse muito menor do que o número retirado da costa oeste no comércio do Atlântico, o impacto proporcional das populações remanescentes de Savana / Chifre foi muito mais severo.

O comércio árabe atingiu um total de talvez 5-8% das populações de origem & # 8211 e como mencionado anteriormente - como a proporção de fêmeas colhidas era excepcionalmente alta, isso resultou em um grande excedente de machos na população não colhida. Consequentemente, a área experimentou uma estagnação demográfica que beirava o declínio.

Em 1600, a população negra africana era de cerca de 50 milhões - cerca de 30% da população combinada do Novo Mundo, Europa, Oriente Médio e Norte da África. Em 1800, a população havia caído para 20% do total. Em 1900, no final do comércio de escravos, a população da África havia caído ainda mais para pouco mais de 10% do total - a população agora entrou em colapso a ponto de afetar negativamente a produção agrícola intensiva de mão-de-obra do continente.

Com efeito, enquanto as populações da Europa e da Ásia aumentaram ano a ano, a população da África diminuiu drasticamente devido à caça ilegal excessiva pelos escravistas, tanto árabes quanto europeus.

Na Arábia, a classe escrava (principalmente feminina), ao contrário da classe escrava do Novo Mundo, nunca poderia se manter como uma entidade social distinta - principalmente por causa da miscigenação. Isso criou uma demanda ainda maior por mais e mais novas escravas e, juntamente com os frequentes desastres naturais de seca e fome na Savana / Chifre, levou muitas famílias africanas a oferecer suas meninas à escravidão como última esperança de sobrevivência. Há muitas histórias de longas filas de centenas de meninas, principalmente Oromos da Etiópia, marchando pelo Chifre em direção ao Mar Vermelho em busca de escravidão.

Privadas de ideologia, ritual e do rito africano de passagem para a idade adulta e associação social, as escravas eram incomumente vulneráveis ​​à conversão ao Islã (os benefícios da alforria à parte). A manumissão descreve uma criança nascida de uma escrava e um pai islâmico livre, portanto, nasce livre.

Para a população que permanece na África, é para fazer algumas especulações sobre as mudanças que o trauma da escravidão pode ter causado no pensamento africano. A experiência de mudança repentina do destino (uma experiência comum quando confrontado com a ameaça sempre presente de escravos) tendeu a minar sistematicamente quaisquer esforços de planejamento de longo prazo além da necessidade constante de substituir membros perdidos.

Privadas de ideologia, ritual e do rito africano de passagem para a idade adulta e associação social, as escravas eram incomumente vulneráveis ​​à conversão ao Islã (os benefícios da alforria à parte). A manumissão descreve uma criança nascida de uma escrava e um pai islâmico livre, portanto, nasce livre.

É um erro igualar a simples sobrevivência da África à estagnação cultural, social ou econômica, pois o comércio de escravos visitou uma panóplia de desastres tragicamente interconectados na vida de todos os africanos por séculos, que eles abriram caminho até a própria “raça” memória ”do continente e do seu povo, em particular do sexo feminino, que só com o tempo e a bondade pode ser expurgado do psiquismo de África.

Como disse um comentarista: "Será que os efeitos corrosivos de quatro séculos de comércio em humanos, com sua tentação, seu oportunismo embutido, sua redução dos humanos a um valor monetário, seus ciclos de vingança e seu inevitável físico brutalidade, construíram falhas duradouras no padrão africano de pensamento e ação? ”


Eu fui vendido como escravo sexual

Algumas semanas atrás, Megan Stephens pegou um ônibus em um movimentado centro de cidade no norte da Inglaterra. Um homem estava sentado do outro lado do corredor dela. Ele usava óculos escuros e tinha bigode. Por um momento horrível, ela pensou que o reconheceu.

“Eu simplesmente congelei e perdi minha parada”, diz Megan. “Eu estava usando meu telefone como espelho para ver se era ele. Eu estava realmente paranóico. ”

O homem no ônibus tinha exatamente as mesmas características de alguém do passado. Como resultado do que essa pessoa fez com Megan, não tenho permissão para usar seu nome verdadeiro ou descrever onde ela mora. Posso dizer que ela tem 25 anos. Fora isso, ela me pediu para não mencionar nenhum detalhe que pudesse prejudicar seu anonimato.

Cada um dos dias de Megan é moldado pelo medo de que ela seja descoberta e que sua verdadeira identidade seja revelada. Isso porque há 11 anos, aos 14 anos, Megan foi traficada para a indústria do sexo.

De acordo com as Nações Unidas, ela foi uma das estimadas 2,4 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo que são vítimas de tráfico de seres humanos em algum momento, 80% das quais estão sendo exploradas como escravas sexuais. Uma mulher pode ganhar para um traficante entre £ 500 e £ 1.000 por semana e pode ser forçada a ter relações sexuais com vários parceiros no mesmo dia. Megan, no entanto, afirma que costumava render a seus agressores uma cifra semelhante a cada dia.

O homem que Megan viu fugazmente no ônibus a lembrou de um de seus traficantes: “Eu me senti mais assustada do que pensei que ficaria”, diz ela. “Eu estava em um ônibus cheio de gente no meio da cidade e fiquei apavorado. Absolutamente apavorado. ” Não era ele.

A história de Megan é horrível. É a história de como uma adolescente vulnerável de férias na Grécia com sua mãe foi traficada para a indústria do sexo e passou seis anos como prostituta - em bordéis, nas ruas, em quartos de hotel sombrios - antes de finalmente escapar de um vida de implacável abuso físico e sexual. É horrível não apenas por causa da violência sádica que ela suportou, mas também por causa da facilidade com que ela parecia cair nessa espiral de depravação e como ela achava difícil sair dela.

“Toda a sua identidade foi roubada”, diz Megan. “A menos que você esteja nessa posição, você não consegue entender.”

Nos encontramos em um hotel bege, escolhido pela conveniência e pela falta de características definidoras. Estamos aqui para falar sobre as memórias de Megan, Comprado e vendido, que foi produzido com a ajuda de um ghostwriter.

A ghostwriter, uma mulher gentil chamada Jane, senta-se conosco, para nos tranquilizar.

Lá fora está escuro e chovendo. Megan bebe uma xícara de café instantâneo enquanto fala. Quando ela fala, suas palavras parecem curiosamente desconectadas da neutralidade geral de seu comportamento. It feels as though I am looking at her through a pane of glass – her eyes are veiled, the lines of her face set deliberately not to show too much emotion. There is a dissonance between what she is saying and the way she is saying it, almost as though the only way she can get the sentences out is to be as calm and matter-of-fact as possible.

Megan says writing the book was “therapeutic” and helped her rediscover her voice. In a different life, she would have liked to have studied English literature at university.

“When I came out of it [the sex trade] I couldn’t speak to anyone,” Megan says. “I had no confidence. I flinched when someone shouted. I’ve been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder by a psychologist who talks about how I disassociate from my past. For me, it’s like it happened to someone else.”

Megan had a troubled upbringing. Her parents divorced when she was four and both her father and mother had problems with alcohol. Her childhood was chaotic and punctuated by fights: “I was never taught boundaries or rules or life skills.” At the age of 14, she went on holiday with her mother to Greece. She remembers, at the time, being “desperate to be loved”.

So when, on the first night away in a local bar in a seaside town, Megan caught the eye of Jak, a handsome Albanian man, and he started paying her attention, she responded. Within days she felt herself to be in love. Within weeks Megan had persuaded her mother not to return to England and had set up house with her new boyfriend.

Athens by night: Megan’s trafficker moved her to the capital where she was forced to have sex with many men every day. Fotografia: Alamy

Why did her mother allow it? Megan shrugs. “She was not a well person back then.”

In the book Megan recounts how her mother had also struck up a relationship with a local bar owner. Greece seemed to offer them both the opportunity to start again. Her mother moved in with the bar owner Megan moved in with Jak.

“When we left England we left our lives, really,” Megan says. “There was nothing left behind for us.”

Jak, dark-haired and dark-eyed, was attentive and kind at first, despite the language barrier which meant that neither of them could communicate beyond a few words. By her own admission, Megan was deeply naive.

“He treated me so well,” she says now. “I just believed him. I loved him and he loved me pretty much instantly. He was charming, really.”

But as time went on, this “charm” turned into control. Jak’s moods could shift without warning. He started talking about how his mother was ill with cancer and how the family needed more money for treatment. He told Megan he dreamed of having children with her, of living in a nice, big house in the future. In order to make that happen, he explained, they would have to move to Athens, where his cousins could get them café work. Megan agreed, even though it meant leaving her mother behind.

But the café work turned out to be something else entirely, and once they got to Athens, Megan found herself at the mercy of a network of pimps and traffickers. At first she wasn’t sure what was happening. It was only when Jak gave her a cardboard box and deposited her outside an office building telling her to deliver it to a man on the top floor that she began to suspect something was awry: “I remember shaking and stumbling up the stairs, because something felt odd.”

A man opened the door to her, took her into a small, windowless room with a single bed. At the foot of the bed was a video camera mounted on a tripod.

“And that was it,” Megan says now. “He… just… raped me, really. He was filming it and I was paralysed, because I was really shocked.”

Afterwards, with blood on the bedsheets, the man gave her a wad of €50 notes. As Megan was leaving, she saw the cardboard box she had been asked to deliver contained several packets of condoms. It was the first time she had ever had sex.

What, I wonder, would the Megan sitting in front of me today say to that scared teenage version of herself if she had the chance?

“I don’t know… ‘Get out, you stupid girl’?” she says, phrasing it as a question. “I still blame myself. I’m struggling with it. I’ve got quite a lot of anger at myself.”

But Megan didn’t get out. She began having sex with strangers for money – up to eight “clients” a day. She was in love with Jak, she says, and would “do anything for him”. He made her think that escort work was the only way to raise enough money for them to be together. He would shower her with affection one minute and, the next, humiliate her in public. If she said she wanted to stop, he would threaten to kill her mother. Gradually her confidence was eroded to the point of no return. She was utterly reliant on Jak and his network of underworld associates for everything: clothes, food, transport.

For a while she was a streetwalker in Italy (“That was horrible… I was scared of the other women as well as the clients. They were very, very tough characters”) and then she was forced to work in a series of brothels where men would pay €20 for a grubby, two-minute encounter. “It was just the way they operated,” Megan says. “They [the men] were queuing up outside. There were 10 to 15 rooms in the same place and it’s just… literally, you don’t stop… If I did 40 to 50 people, that would be nothing. It wasn’t enough.”

On one particular night, she says she had sex with 110 men before being violently sick. The owner of that brothel closed up early when he saw how ill she was. “I thought that was decent of him,” Megan writes, “which shows just how distorted my sense of normality had become.”

In the book Megan’s narrative seems to exist outside normal chronology. She was in a mental fog for much of it. She was ill – underweight and exhausted. She contracted syphilis and salmonella six times. And if she misbehaved, there was violent retribution – on one occasion, she was punched in the face by Jak and dragged across the floor by the roof of her mouth. “Things like that happened all the time,” she says blankly. “I can taste the blood even now.”

At some point, Jak left and handed her over to another pimp called Christoph, who moved her around wherever the work might be – from hotel to brothel to private apartment. All the time her captors told Megan to send postcards to her mother (who was still living with the bar owner in Greece) telling her she was working in a café and happy with her new life in Athens. She agreed because she felt helpless and didn’t want to put her mother in danger. She was also ashamed.

“These traffickers are really, really clever,” Megan says. “I want people to understand it’s not as easy as getting up and leaving. I should have got up and gone, but I didn’t because of the mental power they had over me. It is really powerful. It’s actually like they’ve taken over what identity you have and turned you into their property, a thing to be controlled. Robotic is the right word.”

This seems incredible, especially when Megan writes in the book that she helped a Polish girl escape by asking a rich client to book her a plane ticket back home. She says it simply never occurred to her to do the same for herself. Her own sense of worth had been diminished to such an extent that she no longer knew her own mind. And she was still only a teenager. She had been given no chance to grow into an adult capable of making her own decisions.

‘I don’t value sex at all. I think it’s horrible’: Megan on the legacy of being trafficked. Fotografia: Alamy

Megan was picked up a few times by the police, but was too frightened to tell them the truth in case they were in league with her abusers. She didn’t trust authority. “I was so, so paranoid,” she says. “At that point, I was scared of being killed.”

Eventually she suffered a psychotic episode and was sectioned in a Greek hospital for three months. Cocooned from the outside world, she began to feel safe enough to confide in some of the staff about what had happened to her. They contacted Megan’s mother, who, in spite of living just hours away, said she had no idea about the kind of life her daughter had been living. The two were reunited shortly afterwards. Como foi isso?

“Really I was just zombified because I was on so much medication. I was emotional. All I wanted to do was go and drink, and I definitely didn’t want to talk about it.”

Megan and her mother returned to the UK. A doctor put her on Prozac. For a long time she struggled with everyday existence. She was scared of crowds. She jumped at loud noises. She couldn’t find the words to explain what she had been through. She turned to alcohol as a crutch. She spent too much money and had a series of bad relationships.

“Inside I still feel like a kid, a 10-year-old,” she says. “I struggle with sex. I do not know what ‘making love’ is. Just… it… that way… it…” she fumbles for the right word, “it just makes me feel so odd, so different and not normal. There are relationships I have been in where I’ve had to be drunk to let anyone see me naked or let them do what they want to me. I struggle to say no to sex because I thought that was all men wanted. I actually hate that. I don’t value it [sex] at all. I think it’s horrible.”

Eventually she found the confidence to get a job as a shop assistant, and she confided some of her story to a colleague, who notified an anti-trafficking charity. The charity got in touch with Megan. Within days she was in a safe house in London.

“After all the turmoil and chaos I had been used to,” she says, “it was like living in a calm, well-organised family home.”

Today Megan is cautiously rebuilding her life. She has ambitions to set up a charity of her own to help trafficking victims like herself. She is in therapy and has been alcohol-free for seven months. She has a group of trusted friends, made through her local church, and she is rebuilding her relationship with her mother.

Does Megan blame anyone for what she has been through?

There is a long pause. “I don’t want to sit here and say: ‘I blame my mum,’” she starts, uneasily. “I believe my upbringing could have been better and I should have been protected more as a child, but I understand why that wasn’t the case.”

It is interesting that she doesn’t immediately point the finger at her abusers and a sign, perhaps, of the complicated intermeshing of love and fear she experienced at the hands of the men who exploited her. She confesses that, shortly after returning to the UK, she called her former pimp, Christoph, “because I just… I actually felt in love with him, I did. I look back and it’s horrible. I felt trained into it.”

It is only recently that she has finally felt free from that mental imprisonment. And yet the young woman in front of me is still clearly damaged, existing at one defensive remove from her own past. She isn’t yet sure how to be, or what kind of person she is when she’s not living in a state of constant terror.

I ask Megan to try to describe herself in three words. She finds this difficult.

“Strong,” she starts, hesitantly. “I feel strong.” A pause. “Determined. Could that be one?” she asks. I nod. “Yeah, and… hopeful,” she adds in a small voice. “That’s me.”


The Lost Children of Tuam

Ireland wanted to forget. But the dead don’t always stay buried.

On Tuesday afternoon, Ireland’s president, Michael D. Higgins, hosted a reception and gala dinner for survivors. But what moved Ms. Coppin most was the reception she met when her bus pulled up outside the site of the event.

“The crowd on the street was cheering us,” Ms. Coppin said. “We couldn’t believe it. Not just women, but men and children, too. It was wonderful — very emotional.”

Ms. Coppin left Ireland the first chance she got after leaving the laundry and made a new life for herself in England. There, overcoming the poor education she received in the industrial school, she eventually went to college and became an elementary schoolteacher. She met an English man and had two children.

“England was my savior, like many women who went there, or to different countries like America,” she said. “My choice was to get as far away as possible from Ireland.”

But the Ireland that Ms. Coppin left is a far cry from the one she encountered this week. Ms. Coppin was struck, she said, by the many young women who successfully came together — “so articulate and so educated” — to campaign for the repeal of Ireland’s constitutional ban on abortion.

She also noted the new willingness to confront the systemic practice of forced and illegal adoptions, often without records, which preserved an illusion of Catholic chastity while depriving unwed mothers of their children and children of their birth identities.

Despite the new mood of openness and acceptance, many of the Magdalene laundry survivors in Dublin this week were either too frail or too shy to talk about their experiences.

Norah Casey, a businesswoman and journalist who was one of the driving forces behind the event, said that more than half of those in attendance had come from abroad. Most were from Britain, and a few were from the United States and other countries.

“A lot of them didn’t even have passports to come here — they got the hell out of Ireland as soon as they could and never came back,” Ms. Casey said. “It is great to have them here, talking, but it is also very sad. I haven’t heard one of them say that life was good after they left the laundries. It got better, that’s all.”

Most of them have spent their lives trying to find parents and siblings or children who were taken from them, Ms. Casey said. Many don’t know who they really are.

“Magdalene asylums” were originally conceived by Christian churches in Western countries, including Britain and the United States, as charitable institutes to support “fallen women.”

In Ireland, the Magdalene institutions became associated primarily with the Catholic Church, and by the mid-20th century there were at least a dozen industrial laundries in the Republic of Ireland.

Some women were confined to the laundries for life and were forced to work long hours in poor conditions with bad food, no pay and little or no medical or educational support. The women and girls — even those who had come into the laundries directly from orphanages or “industrial schools” for juvenile detention — were told they should toil as penance for their sins.

In recent decades, the power of the church in Ireland has dwindled, in part because of a number of abuse scandals, not least among them the revelations of the suffering in the Magdalene laundries.


Uniform and clothing

Women prisoners selected for work at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, 1944. On arrival these women had their own clothes taken away and replaced by the smock uniform worn in the Nazi concentration camps. © 2011 Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority.

Original – A woman condemned to death in Mongolia is seen from the porthole of a crate inside which she is encumbered and left to die of starvation. (wikipedia)

Starving Mongolian Woman: This was published in National Geographic in 1913 by Stefan Passe. Mongolia was newly independent. A common punishment for criminals was being placed in a box like this in public possibly until starvation. (viralnova.com)

A sculpture in Mujibnagar, Dhaka depicts the tens of thousands of rapes of Bengali women by the Pakistani Military in 1971. (pinterest)

Simone Segouin, the 18 year old French Résistance fighter, French female collaborator punished by having her head shaved to publicly mark her, 1944.

The year of vengeance: How neighbours turned on each other and anarchy erupted in the aftermath of WWII

Humiliated: A French woman accused of sleeping with Germans has her head shaved by neighbors in a village near Marseilles

Humiliated: Her head shaved by angry neighbours, a tearful Corsican woman is stripped naked and taunted for consorting with German soldiers during their occupation
The truth is that World War II, which we remember as a great moral campaign, had wreaked incalculable damage on Europe’s ethical sensibilities. And in the desperate struggle for survival, many people would do whatever it took to get food and shelter.

In Allied-occupied Naples, the writer Norman Lewis watched as local women, their faces identifying them as ‘ordinary well-washed respectable shopping and gossiping housewives’, lined up to sell themselves to young American GIs for a few tins of food.

Another observer, the war correspondent Alan Moorehead, wrote that he had seen ‘the moral collapse’ of the Italian people, who had lost all pride in their ‘animal struggle for existence’.

Amid the trauma of war and occupation, the bounds of sexual decency had simply collapsed. In Holland one American soldier was propositioned by a 12-year-old girl. In Hungary scores of 13-year-old girls were admitted to hospital with venereal disease in Greece, doctors treated VD-infected girls as young as ten.

What was more, even in those countries liberated by the British and Americans, a deep tide of hatred swept through national life.

Everybody had come out of the war with somebody to hate.

In northern Italy, some 20,000 people were summarily murdered by their own countrymen in the last weeks of the war. And in French town squares, women accused of sleeping with German soldiers were stripped and shaved, their breasts marked with swastikas while mobs of men stood and laughed. Yet even today, many Frenchmen pretend these appalling scenes never happened. (dailymail.co.uk)

American soldiers were almost as bad as the Russian soldiers when it came to exploiting German women during and after WW2

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, then a young captain in the Red Army and a committed opponent to such outrages, describes the entry of his regiment into East Prussia in January 1945: “Yes! For three weeks the war had been going on inside Germany and all of us knew very well that if the girls were German they could be raped and then shot. This was almost a combat distinction. (uncensoredhistory.blogspot.com)

LEPA SVETOZARA RADIĆ (1925–1943) WAS A PARTISAN EXECUTED AT THE AGE OF 17 FOR SHOOTING AT GERMAN SOLDIERS DURING WW2

FEMALE NAZI WAR HANGED

Ota Benga (1883-1916) was an African Congolese Pygmy, who was put on display in the monkey house at the Bronx Zoo in New York in1906

Congolese women reality: Shackled together, enslaved in their own homeland, held as hostages until their men returned with enough rubber to make King Leopold and the Belgium people rich beyond their wildest dreams. While impoverishing and enslaving the native people. (usslave.blogspot.com)

Belgian women who had collaborated with the Germans are shaved, tarred and feathered and forced to give a Nazi salute.

Islamic slavery enslaving the women and children of a number of Arabian tribes (Quraiza,Khaybar, Mustaliq and Hawazin etc.).

Mauritânia is consistently ranked as the worst place in the world for slavery, with tens of thousands still trapped in total servitude across the country. ( mirage-a-trois.blogspot.com)

—“Hercegovinian woman”, a young housewife and mother carried away by Turkish troopers, her husband and baby lie dead at her feet Mention the word ‘slavery’, and it will immediately conjure up pictures of negroid cotton pickers and sad savages being marched in chains by Arab slave traders, but very little is ever said about the enslavement of white European Christians.—Read More:http://armeniansworld.com/?tag=white-slavery

This, it can reasonably be argued, merely proves how deep the brutalization went. But what about the Paphlagonian names Atotas in the Athenian silver mines, who claimed descent from one of the Trojan heroes and whose tomb inscription included the boast, ” No one could match me in skill”? The skill and artistry of slaves was to be seen everywhere, for they were not used only as crude labor in fields but were employed in the potteries and textile mills, on temples and other public buildings, to perform the most delicate work. The psychology of the slave in the ancient world was obviously more complicated than mere sullen resentment, at least under “normal” conditions. (madamepickwickartblog.com)

The Irish: The Forgotten White Slaves

Slave Auction, Jean Leon Jerome, 1866. Jews were the foremost entrepreneurs in the White Slave traffic, selling even young Jewesses as sex slaves along with abducted women ans children of other races. The girls were paraded naked before customers and always asked to open their mouth wide. Like horses, they had to let their teeth be inspected and tapped for soundness.

A prospective buyer on the Barbary Coast of North Africa carefully examining a female slave before bidding.

In all the great European cities, a certain type of prostitute was always to be found: exotic and semi-Asiatic in appearance. She was Jewish, and she was very much in demand. The word “Jewess” therefore entered the language as a loose synonym for “Jewish prostitute”.

When Keats refers to Jewish prostitutes in an unpublished poetic fragment quoted in a private letter (1819), he doesn’t call them “prostitutes”. He just calls them “Jewesses”. Porque? Because so many Jewesses estavam prostitutes that the two terms had virtually become interchangeable. “Nor in obscurèd purlieus would he seek / For curlèd Jewesses with ankles neat, / Who as they walk abroad make tinkling with their feet.” (darkmoon.me)

Jews had a monopoly on the slave trade. (deliberation.info)

Romanus Pontifex, issued on January 8, 1455, then sanctioned the purchase of black slaves from “the infidel”.

“… many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been … converted to the Catholic faith, and it is hoped, by the help of divine mercy, that if such progress be continued with them, either those peoples will be converted to the faith or at least the souls of many of them will be gained for Christ.”

It most certainly was not “Christ” he was looking to “gain” those poor slaves for, nor did he give a fig for their “souls”.

It was power and money, plain and simple, that he was after. He was trying to shore up naquela faction of the Nesilim – the Catholics – and their insane world-domination plans.

It was also under Nicholas V, in 1452, that his Dominican Inquisitor Nicholas Jacquier“confirms” witchcraft as heresy in Flail Against the Heresy of Witchcraft thereby justifying European witchhunts. This began the burning of over 200,000 people over the next two hundred years – mostly women – on the charge of Feitiçaria.

Slavery and burning witches began with this guy, he was the real thing – a slavemaster.

Nesilim nose – See book Scientology Roots, Chapter 5

The first African slaves arrived in Spain (Hispaniola) in 1501. By 1518, King Charles I of Spain approved the shipping of slaves directly from Africa as a trade.

Human slavery, despite all the flowery protestations of “humanism”, was the cornerstone of the fledgling British Empire. That term itself, British Empire, having been coined by slavemaster agent Dr. John Dee.

The first rumblings of what we call the Rise of the Slavemasters, had begun with Henry the VIII, Queen Elizabeth’s father. His was the House of Tudor, whom many considered had no rightful claim to the throne. Rightful, meaning as approved the Catholic Church, in other words. Henry accomplished many things during his reign, not the least was the breaking of the stranglehold that the Nesilim – the Holy Roman Empire – were exerting over what was termed “the world” – which was really just a small, obscure part of it. A few islands and some land on the continent.

The English, or “britons” all had their roots in the same race – a race which today we call “German”.

The English are the descendants of three Germanic tribes:

  • the Angles, who came from Angeln (in modern Germany): their whole nation emigrated to Britain, leaving their former land empty.
  • the Saxons, from Lower Saxony and
  • the Jutes, from the Jutland peninsula (Danish).

They, in turn, had been part of an emigration of the Nesilim, when they left their homeland of Nesa (modern Turkey), and settled first in Constantinople and then spreading to what is now Germany.

The name England (Old English: Engla land or Ængla land) originates from the first of the three tribes mentioned above. Their language, Anglo-Saxon or Old English, derived from West Germanic dialects. Anglo-Saxon was divided into four main dialects: West Saxon, Mercian, Northumbrian and Kentish.

After the Norman Conquest, their language changed into what is called Middle English, in the years leading up to the Rise of the Slavemasters.

This is the language we mostly find Dr. Dee having his “english” – as opposed to Latin – writings be in the form of.

All throughout this time period, what people refer to as “the Bible” was only in Latin, and very few people were even allowed to be taught this unnatural and invented language – a form of code – not dissimilar to the type of languages small children invent to speak to each other so that “grownups” don’t know what they are saying.

Note: There are no real records, of anyone using a language called Latin prior to the rise of the Holy Roman Empire. It is the invention of that empire, and the Catholic Church.

The use of this “special” language. This meant that priests and scholars could pretty much tell “the people” whatever they wanted as to what some book or tract said – or what Deus said even – and no one would be the wiser. That is how propaganda, (the word itself came from the Catholic Church) was handled antes de the 16th century.

To this day, many subjects have their own “special language” – in some cases using this same Latin – this act as a sort of ‘insider knowledge’. A fact, and an exclusory practice, which is in no way unintentional. (mikemcclaughry.wordpress.com)

German soldiers march Polish women to be shot in the woods

MASS RAPE AND ABUSE OF FRENCH WOMEN BY AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN WWII

The American soldiers too violated women during WW2 especially French women. If the motivation for rape for Russian soldiers was revenge for what the German army and SS did in their country, the Americans come through with an even smaller halo. Their motivation for violating French women was pure hedonism. And the sad part is that the American institutions, the press and the army, too egged them on. Perhaps the aim was to motivate the American soldiers to go and fight the Germans.

The U.S. military has considered the issue of prostitution and rape as a way to establish a form of supremacy.Remember, in 1945, the United States emerged as a world power. It was also a time when France, humiliated, realized that she had lost its superpower status. Sex becomes a way ‘to ensure U.S. dominance on a secondary power.

Mass Rape Of Italian Women By French Colonial Soldiers In 1944

War is hell. And The Second World War was undiluted hell. More soever for women. We have dealt in some details of the mass rape of German women by the invading Red Army soldiers in 1945. Comparatively lesser known is the mass rape of Italian women by the French Colonial soldiers in 1944. These soldiers later continued with their nefarious deeds in Stuttgart, Germany in early 1945.

The allies kept silent on this as the soldiers doing this were allied soldiers.

The senseless, brutal atrocities that women suffered during WW2 has not been adequately chronicled. It remains one of the most pathetic chapters of the Armageddon.

In Italy about 60,000 women from ages 11 to 85 suffered in May 1944.

In Italy, Moroccan mercenaries fighting with the free French forces in 1943 fought under contract terms that included free license to rape and plunder in enemy territory.

“Mamma Ciociara”: The monument at Castro dei Volsci in memory of those Italian women who suffered

Many women in Italy were raped the Italian government later offered the victims a modest pension in an effort to compensate the women for their trauma.


THE LONG ROAD TO ABOLITION

■ In 1807, parliament passed the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act, effective throughout the British empire.

■ It wasn’t until 1838 that slavery was abolished in British colonies through the Slavery Abolition Act, giving all slaves in the British empire their freedom

■ It is estimated about 12.5 million people were transported as slaves from Africa to the Americas and the Caribbean between the 16th century and 1807.

■ When the Slavery Abolition Act was passed, there were 46,000 slave owners in Britain, according to the Slave Compensation Commission, the government body established to evaluate the claims of the slave owners

■ British slave owners received a total of £20m (£16bn in today’s money) in compensation when slavery was abolished. Among those who received payouts were the ancestors of novelists George Orwell and Graham Greene.


These Religious Prisons Turned Orphans, Young Girls, and Pregnant Women into Slaves Inside Convent Walls

Interior of Magdalen Laundry in Dublin. Google Images.

5. A Mass Grave at &ldquoThe Home&rdquo in Tuam, County Galway, Ireland

Called &ldquoThe Home&rdquo by locals in Tuam, the Bon Secours order of nuns operated a mother and baby home in County Galway between 1921 and 1961. Unwed pregnant women harmed their families through shame that would prevent them from work and housing. If a family did not have money to send their daughters or sisters to England or America, they sent them to &ldquoThe Home,&rdquo a magdalen laundry. Inside the facility, the nuns provided food and shelter. After giving birth, the moms cared for their babies with assistance from orphaned girls and older inmates. Babies that survived infancy were adopted. Those that died were buried on property near &ldquoThe Home.&rdquo

As women suffered the trauma associated with giving up their child, they were forced to work in the laundry without pay. Many of the babies adopted from the facility were sent to America as a way to ensure that birth mothers would never find their babies. Between 1945 and 1965 over 2,220 Irish babies were adopted from the magdalen laundry. In 2014, an unmarked mass grave was found that contained over 700 dead infant and children buried without ceremony or in a coffin. Examiners determined that most of the dead succumbed to &ldquomalnutrition, measles, convulsions, tuberculosis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia.&rdquo


These Religious Prisons Turned Orphans, Young Girls, and Pregnant Women into Slaves Inside Convent Walls

Postcard of Gloucester Street Laundry, Dublin, Ireland. Folklore Project.

1. The Last Magdalen Laundry: The Gloucester Street Laundry in Dublin

Until recently, the powerful conservative Catholic Church controlled almost every aspect of life in the Republic of Ireland. Any young woman that found herself pregnant and unmarried had committed the most dire of all sins. Bringing shame, family members often sent their pregnant sisters and daughters to a magdalen home. The Gloucester Street Laundry in Dublin housed around 100 unwed mothers at a time. Forced to repent for her sin, these young women were hidden away inside the walls of a commercial laundry. Nuns provided shelter and meager food allotments while forcing them to work in laundries while they adopted out the bastard children.

The convent owned trucks. Boys and young men drove the trucks to Dublin hotels, picked up soiled linens, and then delivered them to the Gloucester Street Laundry. The nuns made sure that there was not contact between the divers and the &ldquopenitents.&rdquo Historians believe that over 40% of the inmates at the laundry entered as unwed pregnant young women. Many inmates returned to life in Dublin and beyond, their babies long removed from their care. Others remained institutionalized for the rest of their life. The Gloucester Street Laundry shuttered good on 25 October 1996. At the time of closure the oldest female resident was 79.


Fact vs. Fiction

The Irish slave narrative is based on the misinterpretation of the history of indentured servitude, which is how many poor Europeans migrated to North America and the Caribbean in the early colonial period, historians said.

Without a doubt, life was bad for indentured servants. They were often treated brutally. Not all of them entered servitude willingly. Some were political prisoners. Some were children.

“I’m not saying it was pleasant or anything — it was the opposite — but it was a completely different category from slavery,” said Liam Hogan, a research librarian in Ireland who has spearheaded the debunking effort. “It was a transitory state.”

The legal differences between indentured servitude and chattel slavery were profound, according to Matthew Reilly, an archaeologist who studies Barbados. Unlike slaves, servants were considered legally human. Their servitude was based on a contract that limited their service to a finite period of time, usually about seven years, in exchange for passage to the colonies. They did not pass their unfree status on to descendants.

Contemporary accounts in Ireland sometimes referred to these people as slaves, Mr. Hogan said. That was true in the sense that any form of coerced labor can be described as slavery, from Ancient Rome to modern-day human trafficking. But in colonial America and the Caribbean, the word “slavery” had a specific legal meaning. Europeans, by definition, were not included in it.

“An indenture implies two people have entered into a contract with each other but slavery is not a contract,” said Leslie Harris, a professor of African-American history at Northwestern University. “It is often about being a prisoner of war or being bought or sold bodily as part of a trade. That is a critical distinction.”

Image

How Ireland Turned ‘Fallen Women’ Into Slaves - HISTORY

- Virginia General Assembly declaration, 1705


One of the places we have the clearest views of that "terrible transformation" is the colony of Virginia. In the early years of the colony, many Africans and poor whites -- most of the laborers came from the English working class -- stood on the same ground. Black and white women worked side-by-side in the fields. Black and white men who broke their servant contract were equally punished.
• Arrival of first Africans to Virginia Colony
• Africans in court
Anthony Johnson was a free black man who owned property in Virginia
All were indentured servants. During their time as servants, they were fed and housed. Afterwards, they would be given what were known as "freedom dues," which usually included a piece of land and supplies, including a gun. Black-skinned or white-skinned, they became free.

Historically, the English only enslaved non-Christians, and not, in particular, Africans. And the status of slave (Europeans had African slaves prior to the colonization of the Americas) was not one that was life-long. A slave could become free by converting to Christianity. The first Virginia colonists did not even think of themselves as "white" or use that word to describe themselves. They saw themselves as Christians or Englishmen, or in terms of their social class. They were nobility, gentry, artisans, or servants.
One of the few recorded histories of an African in America that we can glean from early court records is that of "Antonio the negro," as he was named in the 1625 Virginia census. He was brought to the colony in 1621. At this time, English and Colonial law did not define racial slavery the census calls him not a slave but a "servant." Later, Antonio changed his name to Anthony Johnson, married an African American servant named Mary, and they had four children. Mary and Anthony also became free, and he soon owned land and cattle and even indentured servants of his own. By 1650, Anthony was still one of only 400 Africans in the colony among nearly 19,000 settlers. In Johnson's own county, at least 20 African men and women were free, and 13 owned their own homes.
In 1640, the year Johnson purchased his first property, three servants fled a Virginia plantation. Caught and returned to their owner, two had their servitude extended four years. However, the third, a black man named John Punch, was sentenced to "serve his said master or his assigns for the time of his natural life." He was made a slave.
• Virginia recognizes slavery
• Virginia slave codes
• Colonial laws

Traditionally, Englishmen believed they had a right to enslave a non-Christian or a captive taken in a just war. Africans and Indians might fit one or both of these definitions. But what if they learned English and converted to the Protestant church? Should they be released from bondage and given "freedom dues?" What if, on the other hand, status were determined not by (changeable ) religious faith but by (unchangeable) skin color?

In 1670 Virginia seized Johnson's land.

This disorder that the indentured servant system had created made racial slavery to southern slaveholders much more attractive, because what were black slaves now? Well, they were a permanent dependent labor force, who could be defined as a people set apart. They were racially set apart. They were outsiders. They were strangers and in many ways throughout the world, slavery has taken root, especially where people are considered outsiders and can be put in a permanent status of slavery.

Also, the indentured servants, especially once freed, began to pose a threat to the property-owning elite. The colonial establishment had placed restrictions on available lands, creating unrest among newly freed indentured servants. In 1676, working class men burned down Jamestown, making indentured servitude look even less attractive to Virginia leaders. Also, servants moved on, forcing a need for costly replacements slaves, especially ones you could identify by skin color, could not move on and become free competitors.


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