Podcasts de história

Frank Reynolds

Frank Reynolds

Frank Reynolds, filho de William George Reynolds, o artista, nasceu em Londres em 13 de fevereiro de 1876. Depois de estudar na Escola de Arte de Heatherley, Reynolds começou a trabalhar para Notícias Ilustradas de Londres. Ele também produziu cartuns para vários outros periódicos.

Reynolds começou a contribuir para Revista Punch em 1906. Ele também forneceu as ilustrações de vários livros de Charles Dickens, incluindo David Copperfield (1911), The Pickwick Papers (1912) e The Old Curiosity Shop (1913). Um colega cartunista, Cyril Bird, descreveu Reynolds como um John Leech "moderno".

Durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial, os desenhos de Reynolds apareceram regularmente em Revista Punch. Como Mark Bryant apontou: "Embora ele tenha desenhado muitas variedades de cartum, ele é particularmente lembrado por suas fotos anti-Kaiser em Soco durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial, notavelmente o famoso Estudo de uma família prussiana tendo seu ódio matinal. "

Reynolds contribuiu para vários periódicos, incluindo The London Magazine, O esboço e a The Windsor Magazine. Reynolds substituiu F. W. Townsend, seu cunhado, como editor de arte da revista em 1920 e ocupou o cargo até 1930.

Nos últimos anos, Reynolds se concentrou na ilustração de livros. Isso incluiu The Golf Book (1932), Off to the Pictures (1937) e Hamish McDuff (1937). Seu filho, John Reynolds (1909-1935) também foi um ilustrador de livros e forneceu os desenhos para 1066 And All That (1930).

Frank Reynolds morreu em 18 de abril de 1953.


It & # 039s Always Sunny in Philadelphia: Frank Reynolds & # 039 Arrival Mudou o show para melhor

Frank Reynolds se juntando ao It's Always Sunny na Filadélfia mudou o show para melhor, transformando-o no absurdo FX que os fãs conhecem e amam.

Chamando Sempre faz sol na Filadélfia um sucesso surpresa é um eufemismo. Este programa sobre as cinco piores pessoas que vivem na cidade do amor fraternal se tornou um pilar da programação da FX, com 14 temporadas no tanque. Mas a realidade é que, se Danny DeVito não tivesse se juntado ao elenco no início da 2ª temporada, Sempre faz sol na Filadélfia teria terminado anos atrás.

Quando o show foi lançado em agosto de 2005, ele estrelou quatro personagens principais que se conheciam há anos. Em alguns casos, suas amizades existiam desde uma idade muito jovem. Dennis Reynolds, Dee Reynolds, Ronald "Mac" McDonald e Charlie Kelly formaram essencialmente um vínculo por serem quatro terríveis seres humanos que levaram o egoísmo a um nível totalmente novo.

Mas na 1ª temporada, eram apenas os quatro. A gangue era um bando de idiotas que tentavam ferrar uns com os outros, junto com qualquer outra pessoa possível. Ao mesmo tempo, eles careciam da imaginação maluca que caracterizou suas travessuras ao longo dos anos. Como Jack Donaghy disse a Liz Lemon no primeiro episódio de 30 Rock, TGS precisava daquela terceira bateria para levar o show ao topo. Ou no caso de Sempre faz sol na Filadélfia, uma quinta bateria.

Na 2ª temporada, episódio 1, Dennis e Sweet Dee foram visitados por seu pai, Frank Reynolds. Interpretado pelo lendário Danny DeVito, Frank foi um empresário de sucesso e incrivelmente rico. Ele estava se divorciando e imediatamente afundou na sarjeta com a gangue. Frank acabaria entrando no grupo, principalmente comprando a parte do terreno onde estava o bar e forçando sua entrada.

Frank Reynolds acabou sendo exatamente o que o show precisava. Ele facilita muitos dos planos da gangue com sua vasta fortuna. Por mais perturbador que isso seja, ele também é o mais depravado de todos eles. Talvez haja algumas coisas horríveis que ele não é capaz de fazer. Na temporada 9, episódio 4, ele se viu preso em uma bobina de parquinho infantil, vestido apenas com sua cueca. Embora o motivo oficial nunca tenha sido revelado, a gangue presume que ele foi lá para dar prazer a si mesmo.

Frank oferece uma perspectiva completamente diferente sobre a gangue. Há muita história da qual ele não conhece. Como tal, a gangue tem que explicar as coisas para ele com frequência. Frank frequentemente representa o público enquanto extrai as informações de que os espectadores precisam para entender melhor o programa e seus personagens. Isso surgiu na 7ª temporada, episódio 7, quando eles tiveram que explicar Chardee MacDennis para Frank, um jogo verdadeiramente perturbador que eles criaram anos antes.

O personagem de Frank Reynolds foi a força extra Sempre faz sol na Filadélfia precisava chegar ao próximo nível. Ele foi o catalisador de várias histórias que não teriam existido sem ele. As profundezas da comédia a que o show caiu não teriam sido possíveis se Danny DeVito não tivesse se juntado ao elenco. Simplificando, Frank fez a premissa do show funcionar - e durar.


HISTÓRIA DE FAMÍLIA

O povo do condado de Cherokee conhece e confia em Frank Reynolds. Frank, de 45 anos, mora no Condado de Cherokee há 32 anos.

• Frank foi para Canton Elementary e frequentou a Cherokee High School antes de se formar na Riverside Military Academy.

• Frank também se formou na Universidade de Reinhardt, onde conheceu sua esposa, Dra. Jennifer DeBord Reynolds. Jennifer é residente ao longo da vida na área de Waleska. Jennifer é professora de Educação Especial do Condado de Cherokee e membro da Liga de Serviços do Condado de Cherokee. A mãe de Jennifer também é uma educadora aposentada do Condado de Cherokee.

• Os pais de Frank são Roy e Eileen Reynolds. O nome Reynolds tem uma história profunda no Condado de Cherokee que remonta a meados da década de 1930. Roy Reynolds Sênior foi dono e operou Reynolds Ford em Canton por quase 30 anos e também foi o prefeito de Canton por quatro mandatos no final dos anos 60 ao início dos anos 70.

• Roy Jr. era conhecido como o aviador naval local e piloto de linha aérea. Roy Jr. também carregou as “correntes” do time de futebol Cherokee High School por 36 anos. A mãe de Frank, Eileen, trabalhou para o Bank of Canton por 14 anos até se aposentar em 1999.

• Frank tem 2 irmãos e 3 irmãs. Todos os irmãos de Frank moram no condado de Cherokee: Roy, Gavin, Renee, Leslie Bland e Michele Prance. Roy é um major aposentado do escritório do Fulton County Marshal e atual técnico de Lacrosse no Condado de Cherokee. Gavin é um ex-xerife do condado de Cherokee. Leslie Bland é professora escolar do Condado de Cherokee com mais de 30 anos de experiência. Renee trabalha como técnica veterinária em Woodstock. Michele Prance é membro honorário da Cherokee County Service League após servir por 10 anos.

• Frank entende suas preocupações e necessidades para nossa comunidade. Como seu próximo xerife, Frank sempre terá o melhor interesse em mente.


Quem é o xerife Frank Reynolds? Wiki, Idade, Mulher, Patrimônio Líquido, Biografia

Frank Reynolds é um xerife que trabalha com o capitão Jay Baker no gabinete do xerife do condado de Cherokee. Em sua carreira, ele trabalhou no Iraque, e conhece bastante personalidade nas redes sociais. Os fãs de Frank Reynolds estão se perguntando como estão suas estrelas favoritas agora? Bem, nós iremos fornecer a você os detalhes internos, então fique por aqui!

Neste artigo, você lerá sobre Frank Reynolds Wikipedia, biografia, idade, altura, namorada, patrimônio líquido, família e fatos de amp.

Saiba mais sobre Frank Reynolds

Frank Reynolds nasceu em 1979 e o que significa que ele tinha 45 anos em 2021, ele nasceu de pais Roy e Eileen Reynolds, Frank tem 2 irmãos e 3 irmãs.

Em 2021, ele mora no Condado de Cherokee, teve uma carreira esplêndida e ganhou reputação com isso. Falando sobre sua carreira, ele serviu como Comandante de Operações de Campo da Patrulha Uniforme, Investigações Criminais, Oficiais de Recursos Escolares, Unidade de Tráfego, K9, Divisão de Treinamento, Padrões Profissionais e atuou como Especialista em Segurança Operacional, Iraque.

Frank foi para Canton Elementary e frequentou a Cherokee High School antes de se formar na Riverside Military Academy. Então, ele se formou na Universidade de Reinhardt, onde conheceu sua esposa, Dra. Jennifer DeBord Reynolds.

Jennifer mora há muito tempo na área de Waleska, trabalha como professora de Educação Especial do Condado de Cherokee e é membro da Liga de Serviços do Condado de Cherokee. Além disso, ela é uma educadora aposentada do Condado de Cherokee.

Além do Instagram, ele também tem um alcance de mídia social em várias plataformas, como TikTok, Twitter, Snapchat, Youtube e Telegram. Frank Reynolds foi criado no condado de Cherokee, no entanto, há poucas informações sobre o local onde ele morou antes. Além disso, ele gosta de viajar às vezes, e seus locais favoritos nos EUA são Las Vegas, Nova York e Miami Beach.

Agora, Frank Reynolds está levando um estilo de vida luxuoso que se tornou possível por meio de seu trabalho árduo. No Instagram, ele influencia as pessoas a atingirem seus objetivos.

Status de relacionamento e mais

Atualmente, Frank Reynolds está aproveitando sua vida de casado com um parceiro de vida perfeito. Frank é casado com a Dra. Jennifer DeBord Reynolds, o casal divide três filhos.

Vasculhar seu perfil no Instagram mostra que ele gosta de explorar lugares novos e aventureiros.

Patrimônio líquido e receita

Bem, a questão principal é Quanto Frank Reynolds Worth? Falando sobre o patrimônio líquido, ele valia $ 700K USD em 2021.

Frank Reynolds manteve um físico bem desenvolvido, ele tem 5 pés e 9 polegadas de altura e supostamente pesa 77 kg.


RETOMAR / HISTÓRICO DE TREINAMENTO

Experiência de trabalho
• Comandante de Operações de Campo da Patrulha Uniforme, Investigações Criminais, Oficiais de Recursos Escolares, Unidade de Trânsito, K9, Divisão de Treinamento, Padrões Profissionais.
• Supervisionar o orçamento anual atribuído, pessoal, equipamento e política
• Instrutor de Extensão Comunitária, Citizens Sheriff’s Academy
• Instrutor Adjunto da Academia de Polícia
• Comandante do Vigia Noturno, Bells Ferry Precinct
• Líder da equipe de atirador
• Comandante Tático, Iraque
• Especialista em segurança operacional, Iraque

Experiência Relacionada Anterior
• Gabinete do Xerife de Pickens, Capitão
• Departamento de Polícia de Acworth
• Departamento de Estado, WPPS HTP, IC BWUSA
• Gabinete do Xerife Cherokee, Comandante de Vigia

Educação
• Mestre em Administração Pública, Administração de Justiça, Columbus State University
• Bacharelado pela Universidade Reinhardt
• Grau de Associado da Universidade Reinhardt
• Riverside Military Academy

Treinamento de Gestão
• Command College, Columbus State University
• Academia Nacional do FBI, Classe 244
• Programa de Gestão Profissional, Columbus State University
• Certificado de Justiça Criminal, Universidade da Virgínia
• Treinamento de Executivos de Chefes de Polícia da Geórgia

Certificações profissionais / desenvolvimento de carreira
• Deputado Sênior GA
• Certificação Gerencial GA POST
• Certificação de Supervisão GA POST
• Certificação GA POST Advanced
• Certificação GA POST intermediário
• Oficial de treinamento de campo do GA POST
• GA POST Basic Jailor

Certificações de instrutor
• Instrutor Geral
• Instrutor de armas de fogo
• Instrutor menos letal
• Instrutor de saúde e bem-estar
• Instrutor de espingarda
• Instrutor de sobriedade de campo padronizado
• Instrutor de tática defensiva

Treinamento especializado
• Master SWAT
• SWAT avançado
• SWAT básico
• Atirador avançado
• Escola de atirador do Exército dos EUA
• Narcoterrorismo do Exército dos EUA
• Atirador de Polícia do Centro de Treinamento Policial Federal
• Segurança Olímpica de 1996
• Escola de Especialistas em Reconhecimento de Drogas
• Programa de Proteção Pessoal Mundial I e ​​II do Departamento de Estado

Envolvimento da comunidade
• Rotary Club de Canton
• Clube Otimista de Cantão
• Câmara de Comércio do Condado de Cherokee
• Sociedade Histórica do Condado de Cherokee, Membro do Conselho
• Editoriais publicados

Prêmios
• Oficial do Ano do Mães Contra o Dirigir Bêbado, MADD
• Prêmio Anual da Universidade Reinhardt 10 Under 10
• Reconhecimento especial do Departamento de Estado
• Medalha de Bravura
• Prêmio de Serviço Meritório
• Numerosas cartas de agradecimento e elogios


Conteúdo

Editar história primitiva

Filho de um fazendeiro de tabaco na Virgínia, Richard Joshua "RJ" Reynolds vendeu suas ações da empresa de seu pai em Patrick County, Virgínia, e aventurou-se até a cidade mais próxima com uma conexão ferroviária, Winston-Salem, para iniciar sua própria empresa de tabaco. [3] Ele comprou sua primeira fábrica da Igreja da Morávia e estabeleceu a "pequena fábrica vermelha" com trabalhadores sazonais. No primeiro ano, ele produziu 150.000 libras de tabaco na década de 1890, a produção aumentou para vários milhões de libras por ano. [3] Os edifícios da fábrica da empresa eram os maiores edifícios em Winston-Salem, com novas tecnologias, como energia a vapor e luz elétrica. [3] O segundo prédio da fábrica principal era a mais antiga fábrica Reynolds ainda de pé e foi vendida para o condado de Forsyth em 1990. [3]

No início dos anos 1900, Reynolds comprou a maioria das fábricas de tabaco concorrentes em Winston-Salem. [3] A empresa produzia 25% do tabaco de mascar da América. [3] O fumo de tabaco Prince Albert de 1907 se tornou o produto de vitrine nacional da empresa, o que gerou publicidade de alto nível na Union Square de Nova York. [3] O cigarro Camel se tornou o cigarro mais popular do país. A empresa Reynolds importou tanto papel de cigarro francês e tabaco turco para os cigarros Camel que Winston-Salem foi designada pelo governo federal dos Estados Unidos como uma porta de entrada oficial para os Estados Unidos, apesar da cidade estar a 200 milhas (320 km) para o interior. [3] Winston-Salem era o oitavo maior porto de entrada dos Estados Unidos em 1916. [3]

Em 1917, a empresa comprou 84 acres (34 ha) de propriedade em Winston-Salem e construiu 180 casas que vendeu a preço de custo aos trabalhadores, para formar um empreendimento denominado "Reynoldstown". [3]

Na época em que Reynolds morreu em 1918 (de câncer no pâncreas), sua empresa possuía 121 prédios em Winston-Salem. [3] Ele era tão importante para as operações da empresa que os executivos não penduraram o retrato de outro executivo-chefe ao lado do de Reynolds na sala do conselho da empresa até 41 anos depois. [3] O irmão de Reynolds, William Neal Reynolds, assumiu o comando após a morte de Reynolds, e seis anos depois Bowman Gray tornou-se o principal executivo. Naquela época, a Reynolds Co. era o principal contribuinte do estado da Carolina do Norte, pagando US $ 1 de cada US $ 2,50 pagos em impostos de renda no estado, e era uma das corporações mais lucrativas do mundo. [3] Ele produzia dois terços dos cigarros do estado. [3]

O sucesso da Reynolds Co. durante este período também pode ser medido pelo sucesso simultâneo de muitas empresas Winston-Salem que receberam grandes volumes de negócios da Reynolds: o Wachovia National Bank tornou-se um dos maiores bancos do Sudeste e o escritório de advocacia da empresa Womble Carlyle Sandridge & amp Rice se tornou o maior escritório de advocacia da Carolina do Norte. [4]

R.J. Reynolds Tobacco diversificou em outras áreas, comprando Pacific Hawaiian Products, os fabricantes de Hawaiian Punch, em 1962, Sea-Land Service em 1969, e Del Monte Foods em 1979. Sea-Land foi desmembrada em 1984. [5]

Devido à diversificação da empresa, a empresa mudou seu nome para R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc. em 1970. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. era uma subsidiária. [6]

RJR Nabisco Edit

R.J. A Reynolds Industries se fundiu com a Nabisco Brands em 1985, e o nome mudou para RJR Nabisco em agosto de 1986. [6] Em 1987, uma guerra de licitações ocorreu entre várias empresas financeiras para adquirir a RJR Nabisco. Finalmente, a empresa de aquisição de private equity Kohlberg Kravis and Roberts & amp Co (comumente referida como KKR) foi responsável pela aquisição alavancada da RJR Nabisco em 1988. Isso foi documentado em vários artigos em Jornal de Wall Street por Bryan Burrough e John Helyar. Mais tarde, esses artigos foram usados ​​como base para um livro best-seller, Bárbaros no Portão: A Queda de RJR Nabisco, [7] e então em um filme de televisão. Como resultado, em fevereiro de 1989, a RJR Nabisco pagou ao executivo F. Ross Johnson US $ 53.800.000 como parte de uma cláusula de golden handshake, o maior negócio desse tipo na história na época, [8] como indenização por demissão por sua aceitação da aquisição da KKR. Ele usou o dinheiro para abrir sua própria firma de investimentos, RJM Group, Inc. [9] Em 1999, a RJR Nabisco separou a R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, que começou a ser comercializada em 15 de junho como R.J. A Reynolds Tobacco Holdings, Inc., e um ano depois, anunciou que compraria a Nabisco Group Holdings Inc., a empresa que era a RJR Nabisco. Isso se seguiu à venda do Nabisco Holdings Group para a Philip Morris. [6]

História recente Editar

Em 1994, o então CEO James Johnston testemunhou sob juramento perante o Congresso, dizendo que não acreditava que a nicotina causasse dependência. [10] Em 1998, a empresa fazia parte do Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement com 46 estados dos EUA, concordando em pagar os custos de saúde relacionados ao fumo e restringir a publicidade em troca de proteção contra ações judiciais privadas.

Em 1999, R.J. Reynolds foi expulso da RJR Nabisco. No mesmo ano, a empresa vendeu todas as suas operações fora dos EUA para a Japan Tobacco, que transformou essas operações em seu braço internacional, JT International. Conseqüentemente, todos os Camels, Winstons ou Salems vendidos fora dos Estados Unidos são agora, na verdade, cigarros japoneses.

Em 2002, a empresa foi multada em US $ 15 milhões por distribuir cigarros grátis em eventos frequentados por crianças, e foi multada em US $ 20 milhões por quebrar o Acordo Mestre de 1998, que restringia o público-alvo de jovens em seus anúncios de tabaco. [11]

Em 2001–2011, a União Europeia esteve envolvida em três processos civis contra R.J. Reynolds no Tribunal Distrital dos Estados Unidos para o Distrito Leste de Nova York, acusando a empresa de vender cigarros no mercado negro para traficantes de drogas e mafiosos da Itália, Rússia, Colômbia e Bálcãs. Os processos foram malsucedidos. [12] [13] [14] [15]

Em 30 de julho de 2004, R.J. Reynolds fundiu-se com as operações americanas da British American Tobacco (operando sob o nome de Brown & amp Williamson). Uma nova holding controladora, Reynolds American Inc., foi estabelecida como parte da transação.

Em maio de 2006, o ex-R.J. O vice-presidente de vendas da Reynolds, Stan Smith, se confessou culpado de acusações de fraude em US $ 1,2 bilhão (CDN) do governo do Canadá por meio de uma operação de contrabando de cigarros. Smith confessou ter supervisionado a operação dos anos 1990 enquanto era funcionário da RJR. Cigarros de marcas canadenses eram contrabandeados de e para o Canadá, ou contrabandeados de Porto Rico e vendidos no mercado negro para evitar impostos. O juiz se referiu a isso como o maior caso de fraude da história canadense. [16]

Desde 2006, R.J. Reynolds foi o tema de uma campanha do Comitê Organizador de Trabalho Agrícola (FLOC) para reduzir a natureza exploradora de seu sistema de aquisição de tabaco. O objetivo do FLOC é reunir-se com executivos, produtores e trabalhadores da Reynolds em negociações coletivas para melhorar o pagamento e as condições de vida dos trabalhadores agrícolas. Embora existam muitas camadas de subcontratados dentro do sistema de aquisição que aparentemente absolvem Reynolds de responsabilidade, o FLOC afirma que seus executivos têm a capacidade de fazer mudanças no sistema devido à sua riqueza e enorme poder. Apesar das repetidas recusas de se encontrar com a CEO Susan Ivey, o FLOC continua a campanha contra R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. [17]

Em 2010, a Reynolds American anunciou que a empresa fecharia suas fábricas em Winston-Salem, Carolina do Norte e Porto Rico. A produção dessas plantas será transferida para a planta de Tobaccoville, Carolina do Norte. [18]

Em 15 de julho de 2014, a Reynolds American concordou em comprar a Lorillard Tobacco Company por US $ 27,4 bilhões. [19] O negócio também incluiu a venda das marcas Kool, Winston, Salem e blu para a Imperial Tobacco por US $ 7,1 bilhões. [20]

Em janeiro de 2017, a Reynolds American concordou com um acordo de US $ 49,4 bilhões a ser assumido pela British American Tobacco. [21] O negócio foi concluído em 25 de julho de 2017. [22]

A partir de 1972, R.J. Reynolds foi o patrocinador titular da NHRA Winston Drag Racing Series, da NASCAR Winston Cup Series e, até 1993, do IMSA Camel GT para carros esportivos.

O patrocínio da NHRA durou até 2001, antes que uma nova regra governante estabelecesse o Master Settlement Agreement, restringindo R.J. Reynolds a um patrocínio de um evento esportivo como resultado, eles escolheram a NASCAR, que durou até 2003.

A equipe Lotus de Fórmula 1 foi patrocinada pela Camel de 1987 a 1990.

A marca RJR Winston foi patrocinadora da Copa do Mundo FIFA de 1982, enquanto a outra marca RJR, Camel, foi patrocinadora da Copa do Mundo FIFA de 1986. [23]

No final de 2005, R.J. Reynolds abriu o Marshall McGearty Lounge no bairro Wicker Park de Winston-Salem como parte de uma estratégia de marketing para promover uma marca de cigarros "superpremium" e neutralizar as proibições locais de fumar em restaurantes e cafés que entraram em vigor em 2006. O lounge, que oferece treze variedades de cigarros exclusivos "feitos à mão", junto com álcool e "alimentos leves", foram "bem recebidos" na vizinhança e pelo mercado de luxo, de acordo com funcionários da empresa. O lounge está fechado devido às restrições ao fumo em ambientes fechados da Carolina do Norte.

A empresa planejava abrir um segundo local em Winston-Salem no verão de 2007, mas descartou esses planos semanas após a inauguração, citando o número crescente de restrições ao fumo em locais públicos por governos estaduais e locais. [24]

Joe Camel Editar

Em 1987, a RJR ressuscitou o mascote de sua marca de cigarro Camel, Joe Camel. Joe Camel, um camelo antropomórfico de desenho animado usando óculos escuros, era considerado um estratagema para atrair e despertar o interesse de menores de idade para o fumo. R.J. Reynolds afirmou que o "caráter suave" de Joe se destinava apenas a atrair os fumantes adultos.

Essa crítica foi reforçada por um estudo de 1991 publicado no Journal of the American Medical Association [25] mostrando que mais crianças de cinco e seis anos podiam reconhecer Joe Camel do que Mickey Mouse ou Fred Flintstone (coincidentemente, Fred Flintstone também foi usado uma vez para vender cigarros Winston da RJ Reynolds) e alegou que a campanha publicitária de Joe Camel tinha como alvo as crianças, apesar de RJ A afirmação de Reynolds de que a campanha havia sido pesquisada apenas entre adultos e era dirigida apenas a fumantes de outras marcas. Em resposta a essa crítica, a RJR instituiu "Vamos limpar o ar sobre o fumo", uma campanha de anúncios de página inteira consistindo inteiramente em texto grande, que negava as acusações e declarava que fumar é "um costume adulto".

Em 1953, RJ Reynolds acreditava internamente que os cigarros causavam câncer. Em 2 de fevereiro daquele ano, o químico pesquisador e executivo da RJ Reynolds Claude Teague lançou a 'Pesquisa de Pesquisa do Câncer', um documento interno confidencial para a alta administração da RJ Reynolds. [26] Ele concluiu que os dados clínicos confirmavam o fato de que o tabaco era "um fator etiológico importante na indução do câncer primário de pulmão". Ele também escreveu que muitas descobertas de estudos com animais "parecem indicar a presença de carcinógenos". [27]

Em maio de 2011, um júri do Circuito Miami-Dade premiou Julie Reese, uma fumante de Cape Coral de 82 anos representada pelo The Ferraro Law Firm, um veredicto total de $ 1 milhão de R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, após desenvolver câncer de laringe e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. O júri considerou Reynolds negligente, culpado de fraude por dissimulação e conspiração de fraude, e culpado de colocar um produto defeituoso no mercado. [28] [29]

Em 25 de fevereiro de 2020, o juiz-chefe Rodney Gilstrap do Distrito dos Estados Unidos para o Distrito Oriental do Texas determinou que Reynolds permanecia responsável por sua parte integral de um pagamento de liquidação anual de $ 8 bilhões com base em um acordo de liquidação que Reynolds celebrou com o Estado do Texas em 1998. [30] Reynolds havia alegado anteriormente que sua alienação de várias marcas para Imperial Tobacco Group Brands, LLC extinguiu sua obrigação de fazer pagamentos por essas marcas sob o Acordo de Compensação de 1998. O juiz-chefe Gilstrap discordou em uma opinião e ordem do memorando de 92 páginas, concluindo que a posição de Reynolds era "opressiva, injusta e irracional", além de ser contrária à lei vigente. [31]

R.J. As marcas Reynolds incluem Newport, Camel, Doral, Eclipse, Kent e Pall Mall. As marcas ainda fabricadas, mas que não recebem mais suporte de marketing significativo, incluem Capri, Carlton, GPC, Lucky Strike, Misty, Monarch, More, Now, Old Gold, Tareyton, Vantage e Viceroy. Marcas descontinuadas incluem Barclay, Belair e Real. A empresa também fabrica certas marcas próprias. Cinco das marcas da empresa estão entre as dez marcas de cigarros mais vendidas nos Estados Unidos e estima-se que um em cada três cigarros vendidos no país tenha sido fabricado pela R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. Em 2010 R.J. Reynolds adquiriu os direitos dos produtos de tabaco sem fumaça Kodiak e Grizzly dip.

Editar Uptown

Em 1990, a RJ Reynolds planejava lançar uma nova marca de cigarros chamada Uptown, voltada principalmente para afro-americanos. Para atrair os negros que buscavam um sabor menos pronunciado de mentol (semelhante ao Newport de Lorillard, que estava ganhando participação), Reynolds decidiu não usar o verde na embalagem e, em vez disso, usou preto e dourado, as cores dos cigarros europeus luxuosos. [32]

Estreitando ainda mais o marketing, os cigarros Uptown deveriam ser embalados com filtros voltados para baixo, o inverso do arranjo usual. Pesquisas de mercado indicaram que muitos negros abrem os pacotes pela parte inferior, possivelmente para evitar o esmagamento dos filtros. [32] Mais tarde, foi descoberto que os maços de cigarros eram abertos por um motivo diferente: "Esse fenômeno remonta pelo menos à Segunda Guerra Mundial, quando os cigarros eram uma mercadoria valiosa entre os soldados. Muitas vezes, um soldado temporariamente sem cigarros e sem fundos seria vagabundo a fumaça de um colega soldado. Foi falta de educação recusar tal pedido. No entanto, houve duas ocasiões em que uma recusa não foi considerada indelicada: se sobrou apenas um cigarro no maço e se o maço ainda não foi aberto. Um pacote aberto por baixo e colocado, como normalmente acontecia, no bolso da camisa pareceria fechado. Portanto, o soldado de posse de cigarros poderia evitar ter que dar muitos cigarros. "[33]

A blitz promocional estava programada para começar em 5 de fevereiro de 1990, e a Filadélfia foi selecionada como o mercado-teste por causa de sua grande população negra. Antes de começar, a campanha foi criticada por grupos religiosos, de saúde e de interesses negros que expressaram preocupação com a promoção do tabagismo para os negros. [34]

Em 19 de janeiro de 1990, Reynolds decidiu cancelar abruptamente o cigarro, dizendo que o marketing de teste não seria mais confiável por causa do que chamou de "a atenção injusta e tendenciosa que a marca recebeu". [34]

Editar no centro

R.J. Reynolds construiu a "Pequena Fábrica Vermelha" em 1892. Não se sabia se ela foi demolida ou se tornou parte do Edifício 256-1, um dos vários edifícios de tijolos vermelhos na Chestnut Street construídos entre 1911 e 1925. Grande parte do complexo do Edifício 256 queimada em um dos piores incêndios da cidade em 27 de agosto de 1998, quando as antigas fábricas estavam sendo reformadas para o Piedmont Triad Research Park. Albert Hall, ou Prédio 256-9, era feito de concreto e não queimava, mas apresentava danos causados ​​pela fumaça. Foi usado para treinamento até 1990 e estava sendo reformado em 1998. [35]

Em 1916, foi construído o primeiro de cinco edifícios conhecidos como Planta 64, entre a Quarta e a Quinta Ruas. [36] A planta 64 de 400.000 pés quadrados foi a planta Reynolds mais antiga remanescente quando foi renovada a um custo de $ 55 milhões em 242 apartamentos, com os primeiros residentes se mudando em 1 de julho de 2014. [37] [38]

O último prédio usado para fazer cigarros no centro da cidade foi o Prédio nº 12 em frente ao complexo do Prédio 256, que Forsyth County comprou quando a fabricação foi encerrada em 1990 [35] e terminou em 1916, [39] deveria ser reformado para escritórios do condado após um anúncio em 1999. [40] O Edifício 60 foi construído em 1923 e posteriormente renovado. [41] Três edifícios que faziam parte da "série 90" na Vine Street foram posteriormente renovados [42] o de 525 Vine foi construído em 1926, [43] enquanto os edifícios 90-3 e 90-1A em 635 Vine, usaram para processamento de tabaco, foram construídas no início dos anos 1960. [44] [45] O edifício 91, uma oficina mecânica construída em 1937, foi posteriormente reformado e passou a fazer parte do parque de pesquisas. [46] Bailey Power Plant, uma usina movida a carvão construída em 1947, incluía os edifícios 23-1, 23-2 e o edifício Morris, e foi usada até 1997 e mais tarde tornou-se parte do parque de pesquisa. [47] [48] [49]

A sede da empresa foi localizada no Edifício Reynolds em Winston-Salem por mais de 50 anos. Construído em 1929, o prédio de 21 andares foi projetado pelos mesmos arquitetos (Shreve & amp Lamb) que mais tarde projetaram o Empire State Building na cidade de Nova York. [50] [51]

Reynolds Boulevard Editar

O primeiro R.J. Os edifícios Reynolds no atual Reynolds Boulevard eram os edifícios de três andares, o edifício 2-1 construído em 1937 e o edifício 2-2 em 1955. Estes foram nomeados para o Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos em outubro de 2017 e em outubro 2019 CA Harrison Cos. LLC, desenvolvedor da planta 64, anunciou que os edifícios seriam renovados para apartamentos loft. [52]

Construída em 1961 a um custo de $ 32 milhões ($ 254 milhões em dólares de 2015), a fábrica de Whitaker Park tinha 790.300 pés quadrados de área de fabricação e foi considerada "a maior e mais moderna fábrica de cigarros do mundo". [53] Foi anunciado em maio de 2010 que a fabricação de cigarros cessaria em Whitaker Park em meados de 2011, o que já havia sido feito. A fabricação antes realizada na fábrica de Whitaker Park foi consolidada na mais moderna fábrica de Tobaccoville. Em 7 de janeiro de 2015, Reynolds anunciou que Whitaker Park estava sendo doado para Whitaker Park Development Authority Inc., iniciado em abril de 2011 pela Winston-Salem Business Inc., a Winston-Salem Alliance e Wake Forest University. [53] Em outubro de 2019, a Hanesbrands ocupou o espaço do edifício 601-11 como um centro de distribuição, e a Cook Medical tinha planos de se mudar para 850.000 pés quadrados da fábrica até 2022. [52]

Edifícios da Sede Editar

Em setembro de 1977, R.J. As Indústrias Reynolds transferiram o primeiro dos 1200 funcionários da sede para o ainda não concluído, [54] $ 40 milhões, [55] [56] 519.000 pés quadrados [57] de vidro e aço do Edifício da Sede Mundial [55] [56] sendo construído em Reynolds Boulevard da fábrica de Whitaker Park. [58] Ao mesmo tempo, a empresa tinha planos para um novo arranha-céu no centro da cidade. [54]

A sede atual, o Edifício RJR Plaza, tem 16 andares e foi concluído em 1982 ao lado do Edifício Reynolds original de 1929. [59] A empresa de tabaco mudou sua sede para RJR Plaza em 1982, e o prédio de 1929 continuou a ser usado para alguns escritórios da empresa até 2009 [60] o prédio mais antigo ficou vago [61] até que novos proprietários em 2014 começaram o processo de conversão para um hotel. [62]

Com a empresa controladora (renomeada RJR Nabisco em 1985 após a fusão com a Nabisco) planejando mudar sua sede para Atlanta em setembro de 1987, a empresa doou o Edifício da Sede Mundial para a Wake Forest University em janeiro de 1987 e, em julho daquele ano, a empresa votou para mover sua divisão Planters-Life Savers para um terço desse edifício. [55] [56] Em maio de 1999, o BB & ampT comprou o que era então chamado de First Union Building por $ 2,5 milhões da Aon Consulting Inc., que transferiu cerca de 400 funcionários para o antigo prédio da sede, que era chamado University Corporate Center. [63] Em 2010, os inquilinos do edifício eram Aon, BB & ampT e PepsiCo. [58] Em 1º de novembro daquele ano, a Pepsi anunciou 195 novos empregos e uma expansão de $ 7,5 milhões do University Corporate Center, com o BB & ampT transferindo duas de suas operações para o Reynolds Business Center. [64] Aon and Pepsi remained the primary occupants in 2015. [65]

Other facilities Edit

R.J. Reynolds' largest plant, Tobaccoville, a 2-million-square-foot (190,000 m 2 ) facility constructed in 1986, is located in the town of Tobaccoville, North Carolina near Winston-Salem.

Macon manufacturing, located in Macon, Ga., resides in a 1.4-million-square-foot (130,000 m 2 ) facility built in 1974. This manufacturing plant was formerly known as Brown & Williamson, which was purchased by Reynolds and eventually closed in 2006.


When Cigarette Companies Used Doctors to Push Smoking

What cigarette do doctors says causes less throat irritation? In the 1930s and 40s, tobacco companies would happily tell you it was theirs. Doctors hadn’t yet discovered a clear link between smoking and lung cancer, and a majority of them actually smoked cigarettes. So in cigarette ads, tobacco companies used doctors’ authority to make their claims about their cigarettes seem more legitimate.

To the modern-day reader, the pitching of cigarettes as healthy (even to youth and pregnant moms) and the use of doctors’ endorsements may appear horrifying. Yet before 1950, there wasn’t good evidence showing that cigarette smoking was bad for you.

A 1930 Lucky Strike advertisement. 

“People started to get worried in the �s because lung cancer was spiking the lung cancer death rate was going through the roof,” says Martha Gardner, a history and social sciences professor at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. “People noticed that and were worried about it, but that didn’t mean they knew it was cigarettes.”

Yes, cigarettes did cause coughing and throat irritation. But companies used this to their advantage to promote their product as better than the competition. It wasn’t tudo cigarettes that gave you problems—it was just those other ones.

The first cigarette company to use physicians in their ads was American Tobacco, maker of Lucky Strikes. In 1930, it published an ad claiming �,679 Physicians say ‘LUCKIES are less irritating’” to the throat. To get this number, the company’s ad agency had sent physicians cartons of Lucky Strike cigarettes and a letter asking if they thought Lucky Strikes were “less irritating to sensitive and tender throats than other cigarettes,” while noting 𠇊 good many people” had already said they were.

1937 Philip Morris advertisement claiming their brand cleared up irritation of the nose and throat.

Unsurprisingly, many doctors responded positively to this biased, leading question, and Lucky Strike ads used their answers to imply their cigarettes must be medically better for your throat. In 1937, the Philip Morris company took that one step forward with a Postagem de sábado à noite ad claiming doctors had conducted a study showing “when smokers changed to Philip Morris, every case of irritation cleared completely and definitely improved.” What it didn’t mention was that Philip Morris had sponsored those doctors.

Philip Morris continued to advertise “studies” it sponsored through the 1940s, the decade that saw the introduction of penicillin. “The American public is thinking about medicine in such a positive way and science in a positive way,” says Gardner, who co-authored an American Journal of Public Health article about doctors in cigarette ads. “So framing it that way seems like it’ll help appeal to people.”


Reynolds History

Responding to the recommendation of a legislative study committee that “every citizen of the Commonwealth be given an opportunity to attend an institution of higher learning offering academic, occupational/ technical, and community service programs at a nominal cost,” in 1966 the General Assembly of Virginia established a state-wide system of community colleges. A newly established State Board for Community Colleges prepared a master plan for a system of 23 institutions. The Lieutenant Governor, J. Sargeant Reynolds, heralded the creation of the community college system by the General Assembly as “one of its finest acts and finest hours in this century.”

Reynolds Community College, the last of these colleges, is named in honor of the late Lieutenant Governor of the State, who championed legislation creating the state-supported community colleges. Opened in 1972 in temporary headquarters, Reynolds is now a four-location (Parham Road, Downtown, Goochland, The Kitchens at Reynolds) institution. It is one of the largest in the Virginia Community College System, serving the City of Richmond and the counties of Goochland, Hanover, Henrico, Powhatan, and Louisa.

From its inception, the college has recognized its strategic role in the metropolitan Richmond area’s economic development. In 1977 the college established its nationally recognized Center for Office Development, a statewide pilot project with the Virginia Community College System and State of Virginia, to provide training in office and supervisory skills for employees of the Commonwealth. Within several years the Center opened this training opportunity to all individuals and businesses. By spring 1989, the college offered short-term training and seminars at three strategic locations in the metropolitan Richmond area.

Demand for these services from the business community continued to escalate. As a result, the college reorganized its outreach efforts in 1994 by creating the Institute for Economic Development & Extended Studies. In response to the evolving needs of the business community, the unit reorganized in the fall of 2000, changing its name to the Institute for Workforce Development. The Institute was comprised of six Centers including the Center for Corporate Training, the Center for Organizational Effectiveness, the Center for Lifelong Learning, the Center for Apprenticeship Programs, the Center for Entrepreneurial Development, and the Center for Professional Development and Renewal.

Reynolds Community College and John Tyler Community College collaborated in 2003 to create a new workforce development entity that provides business, industry and government in the region with a single source for workforce development. The new organization is named the Community College Workforce Alliance (CCWA). The alliance is a cooperative partnership dedicated to supporting economic development and providing world-class workforce training and services to both the public and private sectors. The vision behind the new organization is to maximize the talents and resources of both institutions’ current workforce development centers in an effort to provide Richmond, Tri-cities and surrounding counties with a world-class regional workforce development organization.

The college currently offers two-year occupational/technical programs, transfer programs and career studies certificate programs requiring less than one-year of full-time study. Having enrolled more than 346,000 persons in credit courses since its opening, Reynolds Community College continues to strive to meet the aspirations of its namesake to provide “a practical and economic answer to the future educational needs of thousands of . Virginians.”



Loray Mills [Gastonia]
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Frank W. Reynolds (1868-1951), a mill designer and engineer born and raised in Rhode Island, worked throughout his long life for the large engineering and architectural firm of Lockwood, Greene, and Company. The firm employed many men, and Reynolds was involved in many roles and in many projects. Most notable for North Carolina is that his initials “F.W.R” indicate his key role in planning the immense Loray Mills in Gastonia, one of the state’s and the nation’s largest textile mills.

When Lockwood, Greene, and Company undertook the massive Loray Mill project—the first major project in North Carolina by the nationally important company already active in South Carolina—various employees were involved in planning and management. One document—a mill village plan with the initials “J.E.S.” indicates that Joseph Emory Sirrine planned the Loray Mill Village. However, the drawings for the immense initial mill building have the initials, “F.W.R.”

According to the history of Lockwood, Greene, and Company, Frank W. Reynolds was born on April 17, 1868, in Providence, Rhode Island, in the center of the nation’s textile mill universe. He went to work for Lockwood and Greene in 1885 at age seventeen, perhaps as an office boy. He advanced rapidly and became “an exceptionally able draftsman with a strong bent toward architectural work: long before 1901 he was in charge of the drafting room, and was also taking full charge of a number of jobs in the office.” Reynolds worked directly with the company’s founder Stephen Greene and learned every aspect of the business.

Although the company history does not indicate which men designed which mills, the initials on the 1900-1901 Loray Mill drawings tie the design of that magnificent mill to Frank W. Reynolds. Additions to the mill were built later, and designed by other men. Reynolds doubtless designed other mills for Lockwood, Greene, and Company that remain to be identified. Nevertheless, Reynolds’s planning for the initial mill at Loray stands as a landmark in state and national industrial architecture.


Frank Reynolds - History

Before the railroad came to Reynolds, Frog Point (later called Belmont ) was the nearest point to travel for supplies and mail, or to ship out grain, etc. Freight was brought there by steamboat and then transported to its destination by wagon and vice-versa. The address on a letter in those days was simply the name of the person and the county in which they lived. With a post office and a railroad though, life indeed became a little easier for the Reynolds pioneers.

There was, of course, a language barrier, since many of the earlier pioneers spoke only German or Norwegian. With their determination, they learned to communicate with each other almost immediately, usually by motions and drawings.

The initial city ordinances of the 1880's included a chapter on the old "boardwalks", sidewalks. "All sidewalks built along the north line of blocks five and six, original town site, and three and four, third addition, and along the south line of blocks one and two, first addition, and forty-three, three addition, shall extend eight feet into the street from the block line, and shall be built of two-inch pine plank six inches wide, laid upon four two-by-six pine stringers placed upon edge, all other sidewalks shall extend four feet into the street from the block line and shall be built of one-inch pine boards, six inches wide, laid upon three stringers of two-by-four inch pine scantling placed upon-edge. All stringers shall be securely blocked or imbedded into the ground, or when built upon trestles shall be made secure and safe." In 1909 this ordinance was repealed, and thereafter all sidewalks were to be bui1t of cement.

The gravel road between Reynolds and Thompson was the Meridian Highway or old Highway 81. From Reynolds going south, it crossed the railroad tracks and went south on what we call the "dump ground road." It was the job of the Dray Man to maintain part of the highway and at that time it was done with a horse-drawn grader. If the Dray Man left for Thompson in the morning with his grader, he would make it there by noon for his meal, then back to Reynolds just in time for supper.

The City had occasional paupers passing through looking for a meal, or a night's lodging. The local businessmen took them in and later the City reimbursed the businessman.

The City also quite regularly provided food, coal, etc., to the very poor who resided in the City. The very destitute were sometimes sent to the County "Poor Farm."

Reynolds had a Motorcycle Club in the early 1900'sl From a picture which belonged to the now deceased Joe Renners, six of the members were identified as Joe Renners, Hans Salsburg, Ernest Neubauer, Ed Schreiner, Fred Fair, and Thomas Mealy.

Reynolds had their fraternal organizations, too. The Masons were the first. They had leased a portion of the third floor of the Rockaway Hotel as their lodge room. They In turn welcomed the Modern Woodmen Foresters and Modern Brotherhood of America to hold meetings there. With the Increase of Government and State aid, many of the fraternal orders went out of existence.

The Campfire Girls date back to the mid 1900's and also held their meetings in the Rockaway Hotel. A Mrs. Warra was one of the group leaders.

As early as 1910, Reynolds had a baseball team. Regarding the name of the team, the Eagles and the Red Sox were both recorded. Some of the early team members were: Clarence Schulstad, Henry Severinson, Elmer Olson, Henry Schulstad, Mike Olson, Clarence Peterson, Cliff Lebacken, and three Burgess brothers. Orlando J. (Ole) Lebacken was the batboy. In the late 1920's and through the 1930's, another team was very active. Some of the boys who played on the team during that time were: Ray and Joe Colee, Harry Mealy, Tillman Otson, Jim and John McMenamy, Norman Iverson, Ken Merrigan, Milford Henry, Clarence and Met Olson, Oliver Olson, Danny McMenamy, and Vernon Blake. Their manager was Joe McMenamy.

In 1908, the businessmen of Reynolds organized a commercial club with principally one object in mind, and that was to interest strangers in the rich farm lands lying within a radius of ten miles, of Reynolds. They printed booklets and advertised their assets.

In 1917, another pocket directory was printed compliments of the business firms existing at that time. The city officials were listed as Mayor, D.J. Hennessy, Alderman: C.O. Lebacken, L.L. Berg, Ole Haga, and Martin Erickson City Auditor, M.N. Brathovde Treasurer, H.R. Schulstad and Chief of Police, A.B. Steen. The following is quoted from the directory "The room is here for thousands of people those who are just starting out in life or desire to change their locations, some with limited means and a laudable ambition to possess a home others with capital who desire to get in on the ground floor and secure property that must of necessity, in the next few years, increase greatly in value. All branches of trades are well represented and the history of the growth in farm products in the township shows it to have been very healthy. In educational advantages, the town is on a par with any town of several times its size, and the children here are given the advantage of a high school education." Railroad fares were listed from Reynolds to the neighboring towns as Buxton, 15 cents, Hillsboro, 45 cents, Fargo,$1.45, Thompson, 20 cents, Grand Forks, 50 cents, Devils Lake, $2.70, Minot, $5.65.

A 1917 dance bill recalls this occasion on New Years Eve in 1917. It was the Old Settlers Dance and read: "The big event of the season. Everyone welcome - dancing room for all - hall, especially enlarged for this affair only - everyone come and dance the Fireman's Dance, Money Musk, Virginia Reel, Highland Fling, and swing the girl behind you in the Old Quadrille, and all the latest toe and elbow dances for the younger crowd . dance to commence at 9 o'clock sharp with the Grand March of the Buffaloes."

With the advent of modern conveniences, especially vehicular, businesses declined as people did business in larger towns. Consequently, there was a decline of population, and by 1915, Reynolds population was down to 412. The City was still very active then, and at that time in one of the issues of the Reynolds Enterprise Newspaper, the city was described as "Reynolds The Live Town" and there's no room for dead ones! In this same issue, a brief history was given of the businesses existing then. They are listed below and followed by brief histories of later businesses and organizations, and including the present businesses.

The largest building ever constructed on Main Street was the Rockaway Hotel. It was built in 1891 at a cost of $20,000,00 and was situated on about one quarter of a city block. The hotel was built by the Rockaway Co. of Long Island, New York . John Henderson was sent here by the company to supervise the construction of the hotel, and he was the first manager. O.L. Sande was the second manager, then James T. Mealy, who owned and operated the hotel for many years. Mr. Mealy helped haul the rocks that were used for the foundation of the hotel. This building was three stories high, with a full basement and had four fine light front rooms on the ground floor, with all large plate glass windows. It had a large dining room, washroom, cloakroom, and kitchen. On the two upper floors were thirty-seven bedrooms, each one with outside windows, it was noted that Mr. Mealy served his guests excellent meals and his hostelry was we11 patronized by both travelers and the local people. In later years, the two top stories were removed and also the kitchen and dining room at the rear. The rest of the building was used for many different businesses in its remaining years. The building was demolished in the late 1950's.

REYNOLDS ENTERPRISE NEWSPAPER

George Ryerson established the Reynolds Enterprise Newspaper in 1891. The following is from the first Reynolds Enterprise ever published – dated October 2, 1891 :

"FRIENDS AND CITIZENS: We have today the pleasure of presenting to you our first issue of the Reynolds Enterprise, which we hope you wilt all welcome to your homes.

"CITIZENS OF REYNOLDS: We ask you to Join with us in our effort to make this a live and progressive paper . one that will be a credit to our beautiful little village and one that we can send to our relatives and friends abroad with pride .

"FARMERS: it also becomes necessary to ask for your support. We must work together. Your prosperity means our prosperity, your welfare ours . we shall endeavor to give you a clean paper . One that you can carry home to your families .

"NORWEGIAN SPEAKING CITIZENS: If you cannot read an American paper yourselves, don't keep your children in ignorance of what is going on around them, but let them have the Enterprise and read the news in their own American language . taught them in the public schools .

The newspaper covered the national and local news, advertising, and even an occasional crossword puzzle. In 1910 Kenneth Williams purchased the newspaper. The next owners were A.J. Berger and Max Berthold. On October 7, 1926 , the newspaper changed its name to the Red River Valley Citizen. Records indicate that the office moved to a room in the rear of the Dickieson building, and then later still, it was published in Grand Forks , North Dakota as a county weekly. It went out of business In 1932.

The newspaper building itself, has a long history of occupants. The telephone office was on the second floor for many years. After the newspaper moved, the ground floor was used for two separate residential quarters. Adolph Ostlie's were one of the occupants the other was Mr. and Mrs. Harry Wold. Their daughter, Mervyn (Mrs. Glenn Lebacken) was born there. Later it became the Armour Cream Station operated by Harry Mealy. Then started a long line of cafe owners and operators: Phillip Beltz was believed to be the first, and also operated the adjoining beer parlor. A few more familiar names are: Anna Vien, Harold Miller, Frank Rolzynski, Ed Riddle, Olga Christianson and Hazel Broderson, Cliff Haarsager, and finally the Prying Pan Cafe. This cafe was started by local businessmen and interested parties who did not want the city without a cafe. They were called the Frying Pan Club and saw to the operation of the cafe until the new Bee Hive Lounge and Cafe was built in 1975. Reynolds Supply Company acquired the property, and the building was later torn down.

Ludvtg Schulstad built his hardware store in 1889 He carried a complete stock of shelf and heavy hardware. His business had a 20 feet by 40 feet warehouse at the rear of the store and also a loading platform. It is recorded that Ludvig Schulstad named his first son Henry Reynolds Schulstad. Dr. Reynolds was so honored that he deeded Mr. Schulstad several city lots as a gift. Henry Reynolds Schulstad was a cashier at the State Bank for many years, and then took over his Father's business. Mr. Schulstad stayed in this business until the 1940s. He sold the store to the Braaten Brothers in 1950. One year later, they sold the building to E.H. Enger. The warehouse was moved, and is now the Farmers Oil Company warehouse. The hardware building was torn down in the early 1960's.

LEBACKEN BROTHERS IMPLEMENT

Before purchasing the Smith Implement business, the Lebacken Brothers operated a general merchandise store in the former "Bee Hive". M.O. and C.O. Lebacken and Murphy established the Lebacken Implement. Murphy's share was purchased in 1905. The Brothers handled a complete tine of farming implements, machine and hand made harnesses, threshing machinery and seed, and the international and Deere Weber Lines. Orlando J. Lebaken, better known as "Ole", was the last owner of the store. It was sold to the Reynolds Supply Company in 1969.

In 1908, the City had gas streetlights, and in 1912 installed a municipal electric generating plant. The superintendent of the plant was Gunder Christianson. The main street was lighted with a beautiful "white way" of twenty posts, each post with five lighted globes. Because of this lighting, the main street was referred to as the "white way". The residential section had suspended lights. Several years later the Electric Construction Company built into Reynolds, and in 1926, the Northern States Power Company, then called the Red River Company, bought out the Electric Construction Company. Their first representative was E.H. Enger. The plant building was usually called the Power House. It served as the city hall for many years, and in the early 1940's became the fire station. The building is now vacant.

REYNOLDS INDEPENDENT ELEVATOR COMPANY

D.J. Hennessy purchased this elevator from the Minneapolis and Northern Elevator Company in 1911. He had been the local buyer for the elevator eleven years previous. This elevator was referred to as "The High Light Elevator" because it had a 500-watt lamp at the top. Mr.Hennessy held the Mayor's office for four full consecutive terms. This building is now the Reynolds Co-Op Elevator. Mr. Hennessy was a very congenial man and a clever one too. He composed a poem about some of the Reynolds people. (You will find that poem printed on another page.)

Fred Fair purchased the Home Bakery and Restaurant from G.H. Rose on

October 1, 1914 . His business had a soda fountain and lunch counter, and also confectionery, fruit, cigars, tobacco, and Ice cream. Herman Ostiie owned the business after Mr. Fair. In March 1929, a fire started in this building and it was completely destroyed. Bernie's Service Station is now on this site.

The Farmers Store was actually the Reynolds Co-Operative Company, managed by M.T. Iverson. This company was organized in 1910 and was capitalized for $8500.00. The farmers owned most of the stock in the company. This store handled general merchandise and groceries, and the wooden salt barrels with wooden staves for lutefisk and herring. At the rear of the building they had a large warehouse with a loading platform and a hitching shed extending to the alley. A few days before Christmas in 1920, fire destroyed the building.

Charles H. Taber purchased the drug store from J.B. Kerfoot in December of 1912. He was one of the youngest businessmen in the community. He carried a complete line of drugs, toilet articles, school supplies, cigars, and confectionery. This building was destroyed by fire along with the Farmer's Store. The fire station is presently on this site.

The flour mill was constructed in 1891, and owned and operated by William and Frank Janney. The machinery was driven by a 45 horsepower steam engine, and had a capacity of 100 barrels per day. They had a wheat exchange system that proved to be a great saving to the local farmers and others who came miles to take advantage of the offer. In September of 1927, it burned to the ground. The mill was located on the corner west of the present John Weber residence.

C.O. Gorder operated this business for many years. He also had a shoe repair shop and a board and rooming business and later a saloon. Mrs. Gorder (Ella) operated the business after her husband passed away. In the late l800's, before the Gorder's started their business, we can just assume that the following businesses were in the building Porter Brothers, general store Frank Drengson, harnessmaker John E. Larson, butcher. This building was torn down and the property belongs to John Weber.

The Davis Bowling Alley was owned and operated by C.H. Davis. It Is believed to have been in operation for a few years during the mid-1900's. Originally, the property belonged to the following: Gunder Christianson, garage Michael Forde, blacksmith Jacob Anderson, shoe store. The Davis building was believed to have been torn down, then in the 1920's, the Knutson Brothers constructed the building that is now Weber Grocery.

KeitePs Barber Shop was one of the well-remembered businesses the town. Nicholas Keitel opened his shop around 1905. It was a two-chair shop, and also a billiard parlor. Soft drinks, cigars, and tobacco were sold. Later, a bowling alley was added at the rear of the building. Mr. Keitel advertised in the local newspaper as "The Tonsonal Parlor," and offered free tourist road information. Mr. Keitel passed away in the late 1920's. The building was unoccupied for some time. The following are a few who operated a business in this building Joe McMenawy, beer parlor and a meat shop Duke McMenamy, Herb Nienas, Pete Avery, Nels Samuelson, and Vance Hanson, were all café operators. Vance and Lola Hanson operated the cafe from 1955 - 1963, and they were the last business in this building. It then stood empty until the 1970's when the building was razed.

Sven Ellingson, a pioneer businessman, carried a complete line of the latest in furniture, rugs, glassware, and a crockery line. His son, Oscar later carried on the business. This building too, had a long history of owners, Emmett Ellingson operated a restaurant here, and later Duke McMenamy took over that business. Archie and June Benson started a grocery store in 1948, and in 1950, Duke McMenamy returned to operate the grocery business. He sold the store and business to Henry Hallan, and Mr. Hallan is believed to be the last person to occupy the building. It remained empty until the 1970's when the building was demolished.

On December 2, 1899 , the Valley Lumber Company, who owned yards at Hillsboro , Buxton, Cummings, Kelso, and Grandin, purchased the local yard from McKinney and McWilliams. H.T. Taber was named the manager. They carried a complete stock of lumber, cement, plaster, coal, and wood. M.T. Iverson was a later manager, and in 1926 it was called the Thompson Yards, Inc. This business was located north of the present Farmers Oil Company office and belongs to the Farmers Co-Op Elevator.

This bank was organized as the Farmers State Bank in 1909 with a capital of $15,000.00. Its President was S.N. Thompson Vice President, John K. Rosholt cashier, Martin Erickson. On March 20, 1914 , it became the First Nationa'1 Bank with a capita] of $25,000.00.' S.N, Thompson remained President, and Rosholt and Erickson were both Vice Presidents. The new Cashier was William F. Huck. Shortly after President Roosevelt declared his "Bank Holiday" in 1933, the bank closed. The next business to come into this building was the "Bee Hive". It is interesting to note that in the 1930's, Dr. Ralph Mahowald used an office on the second floor for his weekly medical visits.

N.H. Borgelin started his business in 1900, He specialized in wall paper hanging, interior and exterior painting, sign painting, and general decorating A Mr. Hoyte was believed to be the next painter on this site. It then became the present United States Post Office building.

The Reynolds Opera House was constructed in the late l890's. Dances, band concerts, movies, plays, etc. were held in this building. It was the “Town Hall” of the early years. It was located west of the Catholic Church. When George Berthold acquired his property next to the Opera House in 1934, the hall was still in use, but not frequently. Mr. Berthold purchased the Opera House and property about two years later. He removed the maple floor from the hall and installed it in his home. He tore down the building, with the exception of the entrance section, which was moved to the Bill Leddige farm, (present Verdeen Leddige farm), and used for a granary. The rest of the lumber was used to build his residential garage, which is still standing. Robert Severinson presently owns that property.

HERMAN SCHOTTHOEFER GARAGE

Herman Schotthoefer was a machinist and opened his garage and engine repair shop in 1911. George McCumber joined him later as an expert boiler and steam engine repairman. Together they added a gasoline station and an air pressure tank. Later owners of this building and business were Fred Berthold, and the last was believed to be Ted Breidenbach. The building was demolished in the 1940's.

In 1900, Ole Haga purchased his blacksmith shop from Martin Mela. His shop was fully equipped with all the latest machinery, such as a trip hammer, polisher, disc sharpener, etc.. He was an expert horse - shoer and blacksmith and had one of the busiest shops in the area. Mr. Haga was an avid skier, and won many trophies for his skill on the slopes! He was also an alderman on the City Council. Mr. Haga retired in 1953, and the last blacksmith shop was demolished in the late 1950's. His two daughters, Verna Haga, and Mrs. Donald (Bernice) Severinson still reside in the City.

REYNOLDS CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

The Reynolds Construction Company was organized in 1914 with capital stock of

$10,000.00. George E. Duis, K.O. Berge, Ferdinand Berthold, M.N. Brathovde, and J.V. Koelman were the incorporators and Board of Directors. The company manufactured cement blocks for building purposes. The factory was located about two miles south of town near the Berthold gravel pit. This site is now the Verdeen Leddige farm.

William H. Hemmy established Hemmy’s Quality Store in 1900. This business was a general store, carrying the No-Vary line of groceries, a full line of dry goods, shoes, clothing, and tobacco. He also had a stock of candy and cigars, and a five and ten cent counter. With the coming of electricity, Mr. Hemmy installed an electric motor for turning the coffee mill. In 1963 William and Laura Sorenson purchased the building and operated a cafe and pool hall and for a short time, a beer parlor. OK. "Slim" Foss, and George Berthold operated a saloon after the Sorensons quit their business. Oscar Severinson purchased the property in 1943. Krogstad Garage is now on the site.

This building, erected in 1905 from native rock, at a cost of $10,000.00, is unanimously agreed, the most beautiful structure ever built in the City.

The bank was established in 1891 with a capital of $25,000.00. M.F. Murphy was the first President Vice President, Steven Collins Cashiers, M.N. Brathovde, John Murhpy, and H.R. Schulstad. John Murphy later became president of the bank until It closed In the later 1930's. It then became a bank station for the First State Bank of Buxton with Sid Lommen of Thompson , North Dakota as president and Joseph Olson of Buxton , North Dakota as the Buxton President. The building was then used as a private residence for a short while. It was later demolished and the Northwestern Bell Telephone Company purchased the property and constructed their new building on the site.

The Reynolds Tow Mill, whose manager was C.H. Davis, was built in 1903. It was located approximately three blocks south of the main street on the west side of the railroad tracks. It was advertised as the largest tow mill in the world. It had a capacity of fifteen tons every ten hours, and turned out from 350 to 400 bales of tow every day. The mill had its own electric light plant and during the rush season in the fall, it operated night and day. Between twenty and twenty-five men were employed in the mill the whole year round. It was destroyed by fire in the mid 1920's.

JOSEF SCHOTTHOEFER - BLACKSMITH

Josef Schotthoefer was a cousin to Herman Schotthoefer who operated a machine shop in Reynolds. He lived in the country on the former J.V. Schumacher home. He did his work in a building on the home site and had to transport the finished product to its destination by horse and wagon. A few of his masterpieces were the wrought iron Lebacken Implement sign which was erected atop their building another was the fence for the Catholic Cemetery in Grand Forks, which by the way, was transported in pieces in two teams of horses and wagons, and then assembled. That fence is still surrounding the cemetery. Another work of Josef's art was the communion railing in the Catholic Church in Reynolds. The railing was removed from the church in the 1960's when the Sanctuary was redecorated. Josef wished to see the railing preserved, and since he lived in the state of Michigan at the time, he asked John M. Adams and Fred Ackerman to store it until he could transport it to his home. After he safely got the railing home, in appreciation to John and Fred for storing it, he made them each an occasional table with a section of the railing as a base.

H.C.Richsteig purchased the meat market in 1910. He featured fresh meats, homemade sausages, and smoked meats. An icehouse was located at the rear of the building. Joseph McMenamy was the next owner of this business until it was destroyed by fire in March of 1927. Mr. McMenamy then moved his business to the Rockaway Hotel building, and later on to the Keitel building.

H.R Dickieson's general merchandise store was established in 1882, the same year he came to Reynolds. He purchased the business from Abe Abrahamson. Mr. Dickieson stayed in the business many years. The building then had different businesses occupying various sections. The building burned in March of 1930. At the time of the fire, the James Merrigan family was residing on the second floor. George Berthold was operating a pool hall. The post office and Merrigan's Barber Shop were also En the building. The First National Bank owned the building at that time. Mr. Merrfgan then opened a barbershop in the Rockaway Hotel, and the post office moved to Borgelin's Paint Shop and has remained there ever since.

An interesting story about the Dickieson's is that when they arrived here from Boston , Massachusetts , they brought with them their Negro slave. He did not wish to be free, and stayed with the Dickieson's until his death. He is buried in the Lutheran Cemetery north of Reynolds. His tombstone reads, "Oliver Bowland, Negro, faithful servant of H.R. Dickieson."

Anker Steen's business consisted of groceries, confectionery, and general merchandise. It was once part of Delmer Krogstad's Garage.

E.C. Olson, A.B. Almquist, and Halvor Severinson were the city contractors and builders.

Peter Anderson operated the livery Stable on east Main Street .

J.A. LaBounty operated a barbershop in the west room of the Dickieson Building .

Halvor Olson had his tailor shop in the Rockaway Hotel building.

J.F. McMenamy was the postmaster in 1915 the office was then in the Dickieson Building .

Mr. M Bye operatee a board and rooming house on main street.

Ed Sorenson's Pool hall also carried a line of confectionery, tobacco, cigars, and soft drinks. That building is now a granary on the Douglas Ackerman farm.

Howard S. Downs purchased the K.N. Knudsvig Jewelry Store on November 1, 1915 , and moved the business to a room in the Rockaway Hotel.

CITY PARK AND REYNOLDS CORNET BAND

As early as 1898, the city had their own band, known as the Reynolds Cornet Band with Conrad Berg as the leader. In 1918-1919, and again in 1936-1938, the city had a band. Two of the later bandleaders names were Gunder Christianson, and Roy Christianson. The band gave many concerts and marched in numerous parades. Mrs. Thea Krogstad, E.H. Enger's mother, was a dressmaker and made all the uniforms for the band in 1936-1938. The free concerts were given at the town hall and in the city park. This park also had an ice skating rink in the winter. The park is now the site of the school bus garage and county shed.

The city also had a bandstand that was located in the park and was used for many of the band concerts. It was later moved across the street to the west of Delmer Krogstads Garage. Years later, Harry Wold moved it to his property and enclosed it and used it for his garage, it sat on that property for many years, and the present owner of the property, Howard Drees of Thompson , North Dakota , gave the Centennial Committee permission to remove and restore it for their own Use. Many of the local residents took part in its restoration, and plans were made to use it during the Centennial Celebration. Further plans were made to locate it in the new city park.

Since the cities incorporation the first recorded ordinance with the telephone service was dated August 5, 1895 with the Northwestern Telephone Exchange Company. The ordinance gave the company the right to erect their poles and wires through the city. In May 1902, the Buxton, Reynolds, Belmont, and Climax, Minnesota Telephone Company held the franchise. In 1904 they were referred to as the Red River Valley Telephone Company. In October 1904 the Tri State Telephone and Telegraph Company was granted permission to construct their long distance lines and poles in the city. The switchboard office was relocated in the Reynolds Enterprise Newspaper Building on the second floor and remained there until about 1935 when the office was moved to the residential building that was in the site of the present Mary Sitter residence. The Telephone Company was still called the Red River Valley Telephone Company. Those were the days of the long and short rings, and when five long rings was for everyone to answer their telephone as this meant there was an emergency, good or bad news, and even advertising to be relayed. The Pioneer Telephone Company held the next franchise in 1953 and that was the beginning of the dial system. The switchboard was removed from the building and no longer needed. The last three operators were Wilma Tweeten, Ruby Davis, and Pearl Berthold. The telephone company then had a small building constructed for its equipment south of the former building. From January 1972, until January 1973, until the present, Northwestern Bell Telephone has held the franchise. They constructed a new building on the corner of main street, which was formerly the State Bank and Schulstad Hardware locations. In November of 1976, we were able to call Grand Forks toll free. During the last two years, the telephone posts were removed, and the lines were buried.

In the early days of Reynolds City the Dray Line was an important part of the community. The main job of the City Dray Line was to haul freight from the train depot - such as coal, lumber, groceries, etc. Also in the early days of the Dray Line (and when they were still using their teams), they would haul water from several different springs into town and fill the cisterns of the town's residents. Two of the springs were Tony Rakoczy's and Einar Bronken's. The hauling of water eventually graduated to a "water truck" until the City became connected With the Grand Forks – Traill Water Users, Inc. The City hired the Dray Line for snow removal on the street but as the times changed the duties of the dray line changed. The City Ordinances, adopted in 1893, state that in order to operate a Dray Line in the City of Reynolds a license must be obtained for the sum of $10.00 per year.

The first known operator of the Dray Line was Charles G. Swift, who was listed in the Gazetteer for 1896-97. In 1903 when Lars L. Berg moved to Reynolds, he operated the City Dray Line. Since then other operators have been Martin Austreng, Iver Severinson, Alfred Johnson and Ole Tweten. Before World War II, Virgil Bohm bought the Dray Line and his brother Bill ran it until Virgil returned from service in 1945. Virgil was the last one to operate the Dray Line until the "City Dray Line Era" ended, about 1958.

To give you some idea as to where these early businesses were located on main street: On the south side of main street, beginning at the present sewer lift station, was the site of the city Jail, and also the artesian well, with a water trough which was used by the farmers who came into town with their horse and buggy, and also by the local people who had cattle and no well. Across the street on the corner and going west was:

Davis Bowling Alley - now Weber Grocery Gorder's

Mrs. Bye's " former Braaten building

Rockaway Hotel - now Bee Hive

Then continuing west across the Street was:

The First National Bank" former Bee Hive, now Reynold's Supply Co

Lebacken Implement - now Reynolds Supply Co.

Ellingson Furniture - now Reynolds Supply Co.

Keitel's Barber Shop - now Reynolds Supply Co-

Hemmy's Quality Store - now Krogstad Garage

Steen's Confectionery - now Krogstad Garage

Across the street to the north and then going back east:

Fred Fair's Confectionery - now Bernie's Service

Farmer's Store - now City Hall

Taber's Drug Store - now Fire Hall

Across the street to the east:

First State Bank - now Telephone Company

Reynolds Enterprise Newspaper - formerly Frying Pan Cafe

Power House - former Fire Hall

Borgelin's Paint Shop - now Post Office

Across the street to the east was the Livery Stable, now the property of Marvin Grass. At one time there was another livery barn, (and harness shop) at the rear of the Lebacken Implement and both were in operation at the same time.

A slaughterhouse was once located at the former dump ground site and later, another one was located east of town near the coulee, on the Larry Griggs property.


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