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Universidade de Toledo

Universidade de Toledo

A Universidade de Toledo é uma universidade pública centrada no aluno, localizada em 450 acres, seis milhas a noroeste do centro de Toledo, Ohio. A instituição de pesquisa metropolitana integra aprendizagem, descoberta e envolvimento, permitindo que os alunos alcancem seu potencial máximo em um ambiente que abraça e celebra a diversidade humana, o respeito pelos indivíduos e a liberdade de expressão. Estabelecida em 1872, a instituição coeducativa começou como a Universidade de Artes e Ofícios de Toledo - uma escola particular de artes e ofícios que ofereceu pintura e desenho arquitetônico como suas únicas disciplinas. foi fundada em 160 acres, doados por Wakeman Scott como uma doação para a universidade treinar os jovens da cidade. A escola recebeu seu primeiro apoio municipal em 1884, tornando-se Escola de Treinamento Manual. Na década de 1920, a instituição em crescimento expandiu sua oferta, tornando-se mais uma escola de ensino superior, e a população estudantil aumentou. Durante os anos anteriores, as aulas eram ministradas em dois edifícios no centro da cidade, esses locais eram menos do que ideais. Em 1922, a escola mudou-se para um centro de treinamento de mecânica de automóveis, que foi construído durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial na propriedade original de Scott, mas também não é suficiente. Em 1928, o presidente Henry J. Cerca de 400 homens trabalharam menos de um ano para terminar o Salão e a Casa de Campo Memorial no projeto Gótico Colegiado. A universidade recebeu seu nome atual em 1940 e tornou-se uma instituição estadual em julho de 1967 . O processo de aquisição do estado aumentou os subsídios estudantis e fundos de melhoria de capital, ajudando a universidade a adicionar mais de 15 prédios acadêmicos e residências universitárias ao campus, antes do ano 2000. Operando em um calendário semestral, Toledo oferece mais de 250 programas de estudo em oito faculdades, incluindo a Faculdade de Artes e Ciências, a Faculdade de Negócios, a Faculdade de Educação, a Faculdade de Engenharia, a Faculdade de Saúde e Serviços Humanos , a Faculdade de Direito, a Faculdade de Farmácia e a Faculdade Universitária. A universidade matricula um total de 12.000 alunos de graduação em tempo integral, a grande maioria dos quais vem de dentro do estado. Os cursos mais populares incluem educação elementar, marketing e comunicação. Um instituto de polímeros, um centro de sistemas industriais e um centro de artes visuais são suas principais instalações de pesquisa. A biblioteca possui uma coleção especial de materiais de Ezra Pound. O Centennial Mall é uma pitoresca área de gramado situada no coração do campus. De acordo com a American Society of Landscape Architects, é um dos "100 lugares com paisagismo mais bonito do país". O Wolfe Hall da Universidade, inaugurado em 1998, está entre as instalações científicas mais avançadas de seu tipo no país para farmácias. química e ciências da vida. A Universidade de Toledo também possui um centro de pesquisa e ensino ambiental de alta tecnologia - o Centro de Pesquisa e Educação do Lago Erie, localizado nas margens do Lago Erie, em Oregon, Ohio. , organização sem fins lucrativos formada em 1990 - é a organização oficial de recebimento de presentes da Universidade de Toledo. Governada por um Conselho de Curadores voluntário, a organização é composta por ex-alunos, membros da comunidade e outros amigos da universidade. Além dos estudos, os alunos são incentivados a participar de atividades extracurriculares e extracurriculares. As equipes esportivas intercolegiais competem na Conferência Mid-American da NCAA.


Universidade de Toledo

Em 1868, o editor do jornal Jesup Wakeman Scott publicou um panfleto intitulado & quotToledo: Futura Grande Cidade do Mundo & quot, no qual ele argumentava que Toledo se tornaria um importante centro do comércio mundial em 1900. & # 160Como resultado, Scott doou 160 acres de terras para a cidade construir uma universidade. & # 160Conhecida como a Universidade de Artes e Ofícios de Toledo, a escola foi incorporada em 1872 e ofereceu suas primeiras aulas em 1875. & # 160A instituição original nunca atendeu plenamente a visão de Scott e, no final das contas, teve que fechou em 1878 devido a problemas financeiros.

Em 1884, o sonho renasceu quando a cidade de Toledo assumiu o controle do patrimônio da escola. & # 160A cidade reabriu a instituição como Escola de Treinamento Manual no mesmo ano. & # 160Os alunos que frequentavam a escola receberam um diploma de três anos, no qual eles aprenderam tanto matérias acadêmicas quanto habilidades vocacionais. & # 160Os alunos deveriam ter pelo menos treze anos para se matricular.

No início dos anos 1900, os administradores da escola mudaram a instituição para os padrões das universidades modernas. Ainda assim, a escola enfrentou dificuldades financeiras durante essa era. & # 160A universidade reorganizou e expandiu suas ofertas nas primeiras duas décadas do século XX, formando a Faculdade de Artes e Ciências, a Faculdade de Comércio e Indústria (também conhecida como Faculdade de Administração de Empresas) e da Faculdade de Educação. & # 160Como resultado de seus programas de graduação expandidos, mais alunos se matricularam. & # 160 No final da década de 1910, a matrícula de alunos era de aproximadamente 1.400. As atividades extracurriculares também se expandiram e, em 1917, a universidade formou seu primeiro time de futebol.

O número de matrículas continuou a aumentar nos anos após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, exigindo um grande programa de construção. & # 160Infelizmente, os Estados Unidos logo entraram na Grande Depressão. & # 160Embora os alunos continuassem a frequentar a escola durante os anos 1930, a instituição mais uma vez estava experimentando dificuldades financeiras. & # 160A administração da universidade foi finalmente capaz de utilizar os programas federais do New Deal para ajudar a financiar melhorias no campus.

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a Universidade de Toledo fez um contrato com os militares dos Estados Unidos para oferecer uma série de programas de treinamento e fornecer alojamento para as tropas. & # 160Os alunos da instituição formaram a primeira divisão da Cruz Vermelha universitária no país durante a guerra e participaram em outras atividades para apoiar os soldados americanos. & # 160A universidade cresceu tremendamente após o fim da guerra, quando os veteranos se matricularam na faculdade no GI. Conta. Além de outro aumento nas matrículas, a escola conseguiu construir prédios adicionais e estabelecer a Fundação Televisão da Grande Toledo, que se concentrava na programação educacional da televisão.

Até 1967, a Universidade de Toledo era uma universidade municipal e recebia uma parte significativa de seu orçamento da cidade. & # 160Esta situação representava um fardo significativo tanto para Toledo quanto para a universidade. Como resultado, o Legislativo estadual votou, em 1º de julho de 1967, para tornar a Universidade de Toledo uma universidade estadual. Os alunos se envolveram em uma série de protestos no final dos anos 1960 e início dos anos 1970, relacionados à guerra no Vietnã e às reações à violência no campus em outras instituições, mas seus esforços permaneceram pacíficos.

A Universidade de Toledo continuou a crescer em número de alunos e no tamanho do campus no final do século XX e início do século XXI. & # 160 Hoje, a instituição matricula mais de 20 mil alunos por ano e se orgulha de seus programas excelentes em farmácia e engenharia.


Conteúdo

História da fundação e início Editar

A Universidade de Toledo começou em 1872 como uma escola particular de artes e ofícios, oferecendo disciplinas como pintura e desenho arquitetônico. [8] A ideia por trás da escola foi fomentada por Jesup Wakeman Scott, editor de um jornal local, que publicou um panfleto em 1868 intitulado "Toledo: Futura Grande Cidade do Mundo". [8] A publicação de Scott expressou sua crença de que o centro do comércio mundial estava se movendo para o oeste, e em 1900 estaria localizado em Toledo. Em preparação para a esperada expansão do comércio mundial para o oeste para Toledo, Scott doou 160 acres de terra como uma doação para uma universidade e o Universidade de Artes e Ofícios de Toledo foi incorporada em 12 de outubro de 1872. [9] A missão original da universidade era "fornecer aos artistas e artesãos as melhores instalações para uma alta cultura em suas profissões." [8] Scott morreu em 1874, um ano antes de a universidade abrir em uma velha igreja no centro de Toledo. [8] No final da década de 1870, a escola estava com problemas financeiros e depois de trinta anos em operação, a escola fechou em 1878. [8] Em 8 de janeiro de 1884, os ativos da escola tornaram-se propriedade da cidade de Toledo. A escola reabriu sob a direção da cidade como o Escola de Treinamento Manual de Toledo. Ele ofereceu um programa de três anos para alunos com pelo menos 13 anos de idade que receberam instrução acadêmica e manual. [8]

Jerome Raymond, o primeiro presidente da universidade, expandiu suas ofertas no início de 1900, filiando-se ao Conservatório de Música de Toledo, ao YMCA College of Law e ao Toledo Medical College. Raymond também criou a Faculdade de Artes e Ciências. Apesar da expansão, a escola teve dificuldades financeiras e enfrentou várias batalhas legais pelo controle. [8] A. Monroe Stowe tornou-se presidente em 1914 e ajudou a organizar e estabilizar a universidade e em 30 de janeiro de 1914 a faculdade tornou-se conhecida como Toledo University. [9] Stowe fundou a Faculdade de Comércio e Indústria (mais tarde Faculdade de Administração de Empresas) em 1914, e a Faculdade de Educação em 1916. [8] Durante o período, o número de matrículas cresceu de 200 alunos para cerca de 1.500. [8] Junto com a expansão das ofertas acadêmicas, as atividades extracurriculares aumentaram com os primeiros programas esportivos intercolegiais da universidade formados em 1915, incluindo o futebol em 1917. Outras organizações foram formadas, como a adição de um conselho estudantil e o primeiro jornal estudantil da universidade, The Universi-Teaser, em 1919. [8] Os programas atléticos receberam o apelido de Rockets, em 1923, de um redator de jornal, que pensava que o nome refletia o estilo de jogo das equipes. [8]

Na década de 1920, a Universidade de Toledo era uma instituição em crescimento, limitada apenas pelos edifícios que a abrigavam. As aulas eram ministradas em dois prédios do centro, mas ambos eram muito pequenos. [8] Em 1922, a universidade mudou-se para um centro de treinamento de mecânica de automóveis que havia sido construído para a Primeira Guerra Mundial nas terras originais de Scott, depois de ultrapassar os dois prédios do centro onde a universidade operava pela primeira vez. [8] Apesar de ter o dobro do tamanho dos prédios antigos, a localização nas terras da Scott rapidamente se tornou desatualizada depois que um aumento de 32% nas matrículas criou uma escassez de espaço nas salas de aula. [8] Em 1928, Henry J. Doermann se tornou presidente e logo iniciou os planos para um novo campus. Doermann recebeu seu financiamento depois que uma arrecadação de títulos iniciada pela cidade foi aprovada por 10.000 votos. [8] Doermann trabalhou com uma empresa de arquitetura local para projetar o novo campus usando elementos de design das universidades da Europa, a esperança era que a arquitetura inspirasse os alunos. [8] Menos de um ano depois, o University Hall e a Field House foram concluídos no estilo Collegiate Gothic. [8] Embora as matrículas tenham permanecido estáveis ​​durante a Grande Depressão, Philip C. Nash, que se tornou presidente após a morte repentina de Doermann, instituiu medidas drásticas para cortar custos combinadas com fundos do New Deal do governo federal para ajudar a pagar por novas construções e bolsas de estudo. [8]

O impacto da Segunda Guerra Mundial afetou drasticamente a universidade. [8] Os militares contrataram a universidade para oferecer programas de treinamento de guerra para militares e civis. [8] As áreas de estudo para civis incluíam: aulas do programa de treinamento de guerra de engenharia, ciência e gerenciamento e aulas de treinamento de pilotos civis. [8] Os militares usaram a universidade para abrigar e treinar um destacamento da 27ª Tripulação Aérea do Exército, enquanto o Corpo de Enfermeiras Cadete dos EUA treinava enfermeiras para hospitais de campanha do exército. [8] A matrícula de mulheres cresceu durante a guerra e muitas organizações estudantis refletiram as mudanças. O basquete e o futebol intercolegiais foram suspensos enquanto o capítulo da Cruz Vermelha da universidade, o primeiro de seu tipo em uma universidade, patrocinava abelhas de tricô para fazer suéteres para os soldados. [8]

Era do pós-guerra e os anos 1960 (1946-1972) Editar

Após a guerra, o GI Bill of Rights ajudou os veteranos a pagarem as mensalidades da faculdade após a guerra e mais de 3.000 veteranos aproveitaram o programa na UT. [8] Em 1945, a universidade comprou habitações militares excedentes para os veteranos e mudou-as para o campus. O complexo, conhecido como "Nashville", passou a ser um alojamento para estudantes casados ​​até 1974, depois que o pico de veteranos diminuiu. [8]

Em 1947, Wilbur W. White substituiu Nash. White propôs um plano de desenvolvimento progressivo de dez anos, mas morreu em 1950, antes que o novo desenvolvimento fosse concluído. [8] A universidade, sob o novo presidente, Dr. Asa Knowles, deu continuidade ao plano de White e completou um novo dormitório masculino em 1952 e a nova biblioteca em 1953. A programação educacional para alunos adultos foi expandida e criou a Greater Toledo Television Foundation para utilizar a televisão para Finalidade educacional. [8]

Em 1958, Knowles se reuniu com a Câmara Municipal de Toledo para garantir um novo plano para o futuro financiamento da universidade; durante a década de 1940, 12% do orçamento da cidade foi alocado para a universidade e esse percentual se mostrou insustentável. [8] O Conselho sugeriu que a universidade adquirisse assistência financeira do estado de Ohio para aliviar os encargos financeiros da cidade. [8]

Asa Knowles renunciou à presidência no mesmo ano, mas William S. Carlson deu continuidade ao assunto e três projetos de lei foram apresentados ao legislativo estadual em 1959 para propor um subsídio estudantil para as três maiores universidades municipais dos estados, a Universidade de Toledo, junto com a Universidade de Akron e Universidade de Cincinnati. [8] As contas pararam, mas um imposto de $ 2 milhões foi aprovado naquele mesmo ano para ajudar a manter a universidade. [8] As três maiores universidades municipais de Ohio continuaram a pressionar por assistência financeira do estado e finalmente obtiveram sucesso em 1º de julho de 1967. A decisão tornou a universidade uma universidade estadual, após operar como uma universidade municipal por mais de 80 anos. [8] Além do subsídio para estudantes, o apoio do estado forneceu dinheiro para melhoria de capital para a construção de prédios do campus, [8] a universidade mudou seu nome para Universidade de Toledo. [9]

A década de 1960 viu um aumento do ativismo político e social no campus da UT. Como muitas universidades, o campus da UT experimentou protestos estudantis frequentes. [8] Os alunos protestaram contra uma variedade de questões, desde um motim pacífico por comida em 1968 sobre a qualidade da comida, até protestos de estudantes que se opunham à Guerra do Vietnã que levaram a várias prisões. [8] Em 1970, os estudantes da UT permaneceram pacíficos após os tiroteios contra os manifestantes no estado de Kent. A UT experimentou tensão racial quando um protesto de estudantes afro-americanos em maio de 1970 em resposta aos assassinatos no estado de Jackson fechou temporariamente o University Hall. [8] Mais uma vez, o protesto da UT terminou pacificamente quando o presidente da universidade se reuniu com os alunos. [8]

Edição de 1973–1995

A UT comemorou seu centenário em 1972 com um ano de comemorações. Também naquele ano, o presidente Carlson se aposentou e Glen R. Driscoll foi escolhido como novo presidente da universidade e começou a expansão da universidade com a adição do Centro de Artes Cênicas e Savage Hall em 1976, o Centro de Educação Continuada em 1978, e Stranahan Hall em 1984. [8] A universidade substituindo os estacionamentos e os antigos quartéis do exército pelo Centennial Mall, um shopping paisagístico de nove acres no centro do campus. [8] A construção começou em 1985 no SeaGate Center no centro de Toledo como parte dos esforços de revitalização do centro. [8] McMaster Hall foi concluído em 1987 e os planos para o Student Recreation Center foram feitos em 1990. Nesse mesmo ano, a Greek Village e o Larimer Athletic Complex foram concluídos e o Glass Bowl passou por reformas. [8]

Frank E. Horton, ex-presidente da Universidade de Oklahoma, foi eleito o décimo terceiro presidente em outubro de 1988 e deu continuidade ao crescimento da universidade, fomentado pelos presidentes anteriores. [8] Horton iniciou um grande esforço de planejamento estratégico e organizou o crescimento da universidade. [8] Para ajudar a alcançar os planos, em 1993 a universidade lançou uma campanha de angariação de fundos de $ 40 milhões chamada UT40. [8] Em meados da década de 1990, a UT renovou edifícios comerciais em Dorr Street e Secor Road para salas de aula. [8] Um novo Centro Acadêmico e Residência Hall foi construído em 1992 para abrigar o Programa de Honras. [8] O Centro de Artes Visuais do Museu de Arte de Toledo também foi concluído no mesmo ano, seguido pelo International House Residence Hall e Nitschke Hall em 1995. [8] E a construção começou em 1995 em uma Farmácia, Química e Ciências da Vida complexo no campus principal e um Centro de Pesquisa Lake Erie em Maumee Bay State Park. [8] A década de 1990 também incluiu um crescimento significativo em tecnologia. A universidade se juntou a OhioLINK, uma rede de bibliotecas estaduais, em 1994. Laboratórios de informática e conexões em dormitórios e escritórios forneciam acesso à Internet e a universidade estabeleceu uma página inicial na World Wide Web. [8]

Edição do século 21

Após um protesto prolongado de estudantes, funcionários, professores e membros da comunidade, o conselho de curadores da universidade concordou em incluir benefícios de parceiros domésticos na parte do contrato de assistência médica para professores e funcionários com data de início efetiva de 1º de abril de 2006. Esse desenvolvimento fez da Universidade de Toledo a primeira universidade estadual a começar a cobrir parceiros domésticos após a aprovação do Ohio Issue 1, várias outras tinham benefícios de parceria antes e os continuaram após a proibição. O protesto ganhou ímpeto depois de novembro de 2004, quando a edição 1 foi votada como lei como uma emenda constitucional de Ohio, mas começou mais de uma década antes com o trabalho de vários membros do corpo docente.

Em 31 de março de 2006, o governador Bob Taft assinou o House Bill 478, que fundiu a University of Toledo com a Medical University of Ohio. [10] A fusão entrou em vigor em 1 ° de julho de 2006. A instituição manteve o nome University of Toledo, e as instalações da antiga Medical University of Ohio são chamadas de Health Science Campus. [11] Toledo se tornou a terceira maior universidade pública em Ohio em termos de seu orçamento operacional, bem como uma das apenas 17 universidades públicas no país que tem faculdades de negócios, educação, engenharia, direito, medicina e farmácia. Como resultado dessa fusão, o College of Pharmacy será um dos apenas 45 American Colleges of Pharmacy localizados em um centro acadêmico de ciências da saúde. A campanha "Futuro da Farmácia" da faculdade (2008-2010) foi iniciada para arrecadar fundos para bolsas de estudo e equipamentos para a expansão da faculdade em um novo prédio no campus de ciências da saúde, uma expansão que aumentará as oportunidades educacionais e de pesquisa para alunos e professores. [12] O que costumava ser chamado de Faculdade de Artes e Ciências foi dividida em três faculdades, incluindo a Faculdade de Línguas, Literatura e Ciências Sociais, a Faculdade de Comunicações e Artes e a Faculdade de Ciências Naturais e Matemática.

Toledo é uma universidade pública e é governada por um conselho de curadores e o Conselho de Regentes de Ohio, ambos nomeados pelo governador de Ohio. O conselho é composto por 14 membros e atualmente é presidido por Joseph H. Zerbey, IV. [13] Os membros do conselho, que são membros não remunerados da comunidade, delegam seu poder executivo ao presidente. O atual presidente interino é Gregory Postel. [14]

A Universidade de Toledo é composta pelas seguintes faculdades e escolas:

  • Faculdade de Aprendizagem para Adultos e ao Longo da Vida
  • Faculdade de Artes e Letras
  • Faculdade de Negócios e Inovação [15]
  • School of Healthcare Business Enterprise and Innovation
  • Faculdade de Saúde e Serviços Humanos
  • Judith Herb College of Education
  • Faculdade de Engenharia
  • Faculdade de Estudos de Pós-Graduação
  • Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde
  • Faculdade de direito
  • Escola de Biomarcadores e Simulação Avançada
  • Faculdade de Ciências Naturais e Matemática
  • Escola de Química Verde e Energia Renovável Avançada
  • Faculdade de enfermagem
  • Faculdade de Farmácia e Ciências Farmacêuticas
  • Faculdade de Artes Visuais e Cênicas
  • Jesup W. Scott Honors College
  • UT Online

A Universidade de Toledo oferece mais de 250 programas acadêmicos em uma gama diversificada e abrangente de estudos. É a sexta maior universidade de Ohio em número de matrículas e oferece uma proporção de alunos para professores de 20: 1 e um tamanho médio das turmas de 25.

Sociedades de honra nacionais, como Phi Kappa Phi e Tau Beta Pi, têm capítulos na UT. A universidade também oferece várias maneiras pelas quais os alunos podem enriquecer sua experiência acadêmica. Isso inclui o Honors College, estudos no exterior, aprendizagem de serviço e pesquisa de graduação.

Rankings acadêmicos
Nacional
ARWU [16] 155-175
Forbes [17] 619
A/WSJ [18] 492
U.S. News & amp World Report [19] 298-389
Washington Mensal [20] 291
Global
ARWU [21] 601-700
A [22] 501-600
U.S. News & amp World Report [23] 834

Edição de Pesquisa

A universidade tem a University of Toledo Research Enterprise e vários centros e institutos de pesquisa.

Localizado no Maumee Bay State Park, o Lake Erie Center apóia pesquisas interdisciplinares envolvendo problemas ambientais que afetam os Grandes Lagos.

O UT Polymer Institute, parte da Faculdade de Engenharia, apóia a pesquisa em polímeros e tecnologia de plásticos.

O Centro Wright para Inovação e Comercialização Fotovoltaica (PVIC) foi criado em janeiro de 2007 com uma doação de US $ 18,6 milhões do Departamento de Desenvolvimento de Ohio e US $ 30 milhões de agências federais, universidades e parceiros industriais para realizar pesquisas envolvendo o estabelecimento de plataformas de ciência e tecnologia, empregando segundo e materiais fotovoltaicos de terceira geração (PV) e dispositivos adaptados para aplicações em geração limpa de eletricidade. [24] Os três principais locais do Centro Wright para Inovação e Comercialização Fotovoltaica (PVIC) incluem a Universidade de Toledo, a Universidade Estadual de Ohio e a Universidade Estadual Bowling Green. [24]

A pesquisa do centro está focada na melhoria de materiais e dispositivos de grandes áreas, aumentando a eficiência das tecnologias solares e reduzindo os custos de produção - com o objetivo final de aumentar o número de sistemas de geração elétrica movidos a energia solar em residências, empresas e serviços públicos, também como suporte às necessidades aeroespaciais e de defesa da nação para sistemas avançados de energia solar.

Em 2012, a Universidade de Toledo juntou-se como membros parceiros do Lowell Discovery Telescope (anteriormente Discovery Channel Telescope). [25]

As equipes atléticas da Universidade de Toledo jogam como os Rockets, e os uniformes exibem as cores azul meia-noite e ouro. As equipes esportivas da universidade jogam na Conferência Mid-American. O time de futebol Rockets detém nove campeonatos da Mid-American Conference, em 1967 (co-campeão com Ohio) 1969, 1970, 1971, 1981, 1984, 1990 (co-campeão com Western Michigan), 1995, 2001, 2004 e 2017.

O futebol do Toledo Rockets jogou no Little Caesars Pizza Bowl de 2010 em 26 de dezembro de 2010 contra o Florida International. Toledo perdeu o jogo por 34–32. O Toledo jogou no Go Daddy Bowl de 2015 contra o Arkansas State em 5 de janeiro de 2015. O Rockets venceu por 63–44.

Na temporada de 2009, a equipe masculina de tênis terminou em segundo lugar na temporada regular com um recorde de 17–10 e chegou às finais do torneio MAC pela primeira vez em 35 anos.

O time de basquete masculino do Toledo Rockets foi campeão da Conferência Mid-American de 2006–07 sob o comando do técnico Stan Joplin, um ex-jogador estrela do Rockets no final dos anos 1970, e foi treinador adjunto de 1984 a 1990. Ele foi demitido após cair para um recorde de 11-19 em 2007-08. A equipe recebeu um Prêmio NCAA de Alto Desempenho Acadêmico, Toledo empatado pela terceira melhor marca APR do país e MAC pelo segundo ano consecutivo. [ quando? ] O programa de basquete masculino da Universidade de Toledo está no topo da Conferência Mid-American pelo segundo ano consecutivo na Avaliação de Desempenho Acadêmico (APR) da National Collegiate Athletic Association. [ quando? A classificação 994 de Toledo ficou em terceiro lugar entre todos os programas de basquete masculino da Divisão I da NCAA, atrás apenas de Columbia e Davidson. [ quando? ]

Na primavera de 2011, a equipe de basquete feminino da Universidade de Toledo venceu o WNIT, tornando-se a primeira equipe do MAC em qualquer esporte a vencer um campeonato nacional nos tempos modernos.

O cross country feminino ganhou quatro campeonatos MAC (2001, 2002, 2010, 2011) e três finais de vice-campeão MAC (2003, 2005, 2009). A equipe feminina de cross country terminou em 21º no NCAA Championships em 2011 e em 28º no NCAA Championships em 2010. A equipe feminina de atletismo também terminou como vice-campeã em 2012 MAC Indoor e Outdoor.

A Universidade de Toledo tem dois mascotes oficiais, Rocky the Rocket e Rocksy the Rockette. Rocky foi lançado em 1966 e o ​​Rocksy em 2011. UT também tem uma equipe oficial de espírito conhecida como Blue Crew. A Rocket Marching Band da Universidade de Toledo realiza um show pré-jogo e show do intervalo em todos os jogos de futebol em casa no Glass Bowl.

Rivalidade de Bowling Green Editar

Os principais rivais de futebol de Toledo são os Falcons da Bowling Green State University. Os dois times disputavam um troféu a cada ano conhecido como Peace Pipe, um prêmio que se originou no basquete, mas progrediu para o futebol em 1980. Devido aos regulamentos da NCAA e um acordo entre as duas escolas, a novidade na rivalidade será a "Batalha do troféu I-75 ", um troféu de bronze concedido ao vencedor do jogo. Toledo agora lidera a série, e Toledo atualmente tem dominado a série indo por 10-1 nos últimos onze encontros, incluindo recentemente uma vitória por 66-37 no estádio do Bowling Green, o Doyt Perry Stadium. [26] [27]

Club sports Edit

A Universidade de Toledo também tem diversos clubes esportivos sob a direção da Divisão de Assuntos Estudantis da universidade. Os clubes esportivos recebem financiamento da universidade como organizações estudantis; as despesas associadas aos esportes são frequentemente complementadas por taxas pagas pelos alunos e atividades de arrecadação de fundos. Os esportes de clube oferecidos pela UT incluem: boliche, basquete feminino, equipe, cross country, hóquei no gelo masculino, lacrosse masculino e feminino, quadribol, vela, futebol masculino, tênis de mesa, tênis, atletismo, disco final masculino e feminino, esgrima, vôlei feminino, pólo aquático e luta livre. [28]

Algumas realizações recentes dos Clubes Esportivos da Universidade de Toledo incluem: três campeonatos nacionais de luta livre individual em linha reta de 2006 a 2008, três campeonatos da Midwest-Collegiate Sailing Association em 1950, 2008 e 2009 2 aparições em campeonatos nacionais da Inter-Collegiate Sailing Association em 2008 e 2009 um Campeonato Nacional de Futebol da Divisão Aberta da NIRSA em 1996 e um Campeonato Nacional da Divisão I da American Collegiate Hockey Association (ACHA) em 1992.

Editar hóquei no gelo

A equipe masculina de hóquei no gelo da Toledo Rockets é membro da Divisão II da American Collegiate Hockey Association (ACHA). Além de pertencer à ACHA, a equipe também é membro original de uma conferência conhecida como Tri-State Collegiate Hockey League (TSCHL), que foi criada em 2010. [29] na região.


História da Universidade de Toledo

Esta é uma cópia arquivada do catálogo 2018-2019. Para acessar a versão mais recente do catálogo, visite http://utoledo-public.courseleaf.com.

A Universidade de Toledo começou em 1872 como uma escola particular de artes e ofícios, oferecendo pintura e desenho arquitetônico como suas únicas disciplinas. Nos 145 anos desde então, a Universidade cresceu e se tornou uma instituição abrangente, oferecendo mais de 300 programas de graduação e pós-graduação para mais de 21.000 alunos de todo o mundo. A história de seu desenvolvimento é uma história notável.

In a pamphlet published in 1868 titled “Toledo: Future Great City of the World,” Jesup Wakeman Scott articulated a dream that led him to endow what would become The University of Toledo. Scott, a newspaper editor, expressed his belief that the center of world commerce was moving westward, and by 1900 would be located in Toledo. To help realize this dream, in 1872 Scott donated 160 acres of land as an endowment for a university to train the city’s young people.

The Toledo University of Arts and Trades was incorporated on October 12, 1872, to “furnish artists and artizans [sic] with the best facilities for a high culture in their professions.” Scott died in 1874, a year after the university opened in an old church building downtown. The school was short-lived, however, closing in 1878 due to a lack of funds. On January 8, 1884, the assets of the university were given by Scott’s sons to the city of Toledo and the school reopened as the Toledo Manual Training School. It offered a three-year program for students who were at least 13 years old in academic and manual instruction.

Dr. Jerome Raymond was appointed the first president in 1908. He expanded the school’s offerings by affiliating with the Toledo Conservatory of Music, the YMCA College of Law and the Toledo Medical College, and he helped to create the College of Arts and Sciences. These changes moved the university toward becoming a baccalaureate-degree granting institution, but the school struggled through years of inadequate finances and legal battles over control.

In 1914, Dr. A. Monroe Stowe became president and led the University on its first organized path of development. He founded the College of Commerce and Industry (currently the College of Business and Innovation) in 1914, and the College of Education (today the Judith Herb College of Education) in 1916. Enrollment grew from 200 students to 1,400.

As evidence that the University was maturing, student participation in extracurricular activities increased. In 1919, Student Council was created, and two students started a newspaper called The Universi-Teaser. In 1915, the students petitioned for an intercollegiate athletic program. Football began in 1917, although the first game was a 145-0 loss to the University of Detroit. The sports teams received their nickname, the “Rockets,” in 1923 from a newspaper writer who thought the name reflected the football team’s playing style.

By the 1920s, Toledo University was a growing institution, limited only by the size of buildings that housed it. Classes were held in several small buildings downtown. In 1922, the university moved into an automobile mechanics training facility that had been constructed for World War I on the original Scott plot of land. While twice the size of the old buildings, this location was less than ideal. Its limitations became evident when an enrollment increase of 32 percent in one year produced a critical shortage of space.

The prospects for a new, permanent home for the university improved in 1928 when Dr. Henry J. Doermann became president. His first activity was to initiate plans for a new campus. To pay for the proposed buildings, that year the city placed a bond levy before Toledo’s voters. A campaign by faculty and students led to the levy’s passage by 10,000 votes and less than one year before the start of the Great Depression. Doermann wanted the new campus to reflect the best design elements of European universities because he felt such architecture would inspire students. It took 400 men less than one year to build University Hall and the Field House in the Collegiate Gothic style.

While enrollments remained stable at the university during most years of the Depression, its finances were strapped. Dr. Philip C. Nash, who became president following Doermann’s sudden death, instituted drastic measures to cut costs. Funds from the federal government’s New Deal programs helped by paying for new buildings and student scholarships.

While the Depression decade determined in many ways if the University would survive, it was World War II and its aftermath that transformed UT into the modern university it is today. The impact of the war was felt almost immediately. The military contracted with UT to offer war-training programs for military and civilian personnel. Student life also changed with the war. With a dwindling number of male students, women assumed leadership roles on campus, and intercollegiate basketball and football were suspended. And, tragically, more than 100 UT students were killed in the war. After the war, the GI Bill of Rights provided a way to reward veterans for their service by paying their college tuition, and more than 3,000 veterans took advantage of the program at UT.

In 1947, Wilbur W. White replaced Nash, who had died the previous year. White proposed a progressive 10-year development plan, but he died in 1950 before any new buildings were completed. His successor, Dr. Asa S. Knowles, oversaw the completion of several buildings, including a new library in 1953. Knowles resigned the presidency in 1958. His last official act was to meet with Toledo City Council to discuss the future financing of the university. As a municipal university, more than 12 percent of the city’s budget was allocated to it, and Knowles felt this was unsustainable. Council members suggested the university consider acquiring financial assistance from the state.

It was left to President William S. Carlson to pursue the issue. In 1959, bills introduced in the legislature for a state subsidy for Ohio’s three largest municipal universities stalled, and the university’s financial situation worsened. Fortunately, a 2-mill levy in 1959 passed by 144 votes, raising $1.7 million a year for the university. But the universities of Akron, Cincinnati and Toledo all continued to press for state financial assistance and finally, on July 1, 1967, The University of Toledo became part of the state’s system of higher education. In addition to tuition subsidies for students, state support provided capital improvement money for a campus building boom.

College students became more politically active in the 1960s, and student protests became frequent. Most at UT were peaceful, although protests in opposition to the war in Vietnam led to several arrests. In 1970, the campus remained calm following the deaths of four student protesters at Ohio's Kent State University. A protest led by African American students after the killing of students at Jackson State University in Mississippi temporarily closed University Hall in May 1970, but this ended when Carlson met with the students and reached a peaceful accord.

UT marked its centennial in 1972 with a year of celebration. That year Carlson retired, and Dr. Glen R. Driscoll was selected as his successor. Driscoll oversaw further expansion of the University’s physical plant. Centennial Mall, a nine-acre landscaped area in the center of Main Campus, replaced parking lots and Army barracks in 1980. In 1985, Driscoll retired and was replaced by Dr. James D. McComas, who continued the expansion of the University’s facilities. His tenure at UT was brief, however, as he resigned in 1988.

Dr. Frank E. Horton was selected to be The University of Toledo’s 13th president in October 1988. To meet the challenges of the 1990s, Horton began a lengthy strategic planning effort to chart a course of targeted, purposeful growth. To help achieve the plan’s many goals, in 1993 the University launched a successful $40-million fundraising campaign. The University continued to expand its physical environs with the renovation of commercial buildings into classrooms. The University also formalized its relationship with the Toledo Museum of Art with the completion of UT's Center for the Visual Arts on the museum’s grounds. The University also built its Lake Erie Research Center at Maumee Bay State Park.

Significant growth in the 1990s was not only in buildings, but also in technology. The University joined OhioLINK, a statewide library network, in 1994. The internet became accessible in residence halls and offices. Technological improvements enabled students to register for classes and check their grades online. The University also began to experiment with offering classes via distance (online) learning.

In 1999, Dr. Vik Kapoor became the University’s 14th president following Horton’s retirement. Kapoor embarked on a restructuring program that included major resource reallocation and administrative reorganization. The Community and Technical College, established in 1968 on the University’s Scott Park campus, was abolished. In June 2000, Kapoor resigned, and was replaced the following year by Dr. Daniel Johnson.

Johnson’s agenda focused on reconnecting the University to the community through outreach and engagement activities, and the University’s mission was rewritten to describe UT as a metropolitan research university. Planning began on a science and technology corridor to encourage research partnerships with businesses. Construction projects on Main Campus included renovations to several older buildings, including the Memorial Field House, which was transformed from a basketball arena into a classroom building it reopened in 2008 after several years of standing empty.

In 2006, the University saw another fundamental change with the merger of UT and the Medical University of Ohio, which had been founded as a separate state-supported institution in 1964. As part of the merger, Dr. Lloyd Jacobs, who had been president of MUO, was named president of the merged university. UT became one of few universities nationwide to offer degrees in medicine, law, engineering, business, nursing, pharmacy and education.

In 2015, UT welcomed its first female president, Dr. Sharon L. Gaber. As the University's 17th president, Gaber has worked to increase enrollment, retention, research and philanthropy, and has overseen the implementation of an agreement to partner UT’s medical education with ProMedica, a regional health-care system. Through increased collaboration with faculty, staff, students and the community, Gaber also has led the University in efforts to create and implement a new strategic plan, a diversity and inclusion plan, and a new multiple-campus master plan.

Despite the challenges facing higher education in the 21st century, The University of Toledo today is a success story. Many of its faculty and academic programs have worldwide reputations, and its Main Campus and Health Science Campus are recognized as architectural gems. If the past is any indication, future challenges will be met and the institution will continue educating its students as accountable citizens and global leaders.


University of Toledo - History

University Hall has been an iconic part of the University of Toledo and the City of Toledo since its conception in 1929. The building utilizes collegiate gothic architecture and stands as an inspiration to students to learn and reach for their goals. However, University Hall was not always apart of the University of Toledo.

Prior to the completion of University Hall in 1931, and the leadership of President Henry Doermann, the University was financially unstable, having changed its location multiple times. However, this all changed in 1928 when the University appointed Dr. Doermann President of the University. A bond levy which was placed on the ballot for the City of Toledo in the fall of 1928, which would give funds to the University for the purchase of a new land and the construction of a new campus. President Doermann, university alumni, and other volunteers were able to gather enough support for the bond levy to be passed. The bond issue that was agreed upon totaled $2,800,000, which in today’s (2018) currency would be close to $40 million.[1] After many locations throughout the Toledo area were proposed, it was finally agreed upon by City Council and the relocation board that the new location of the University would be on West Bancroft Street, where it is presently located. On January 31, 1929 the board approved the site and purchased, for a price of $275,00, land from the Rufus Wright Farm (80-acres on West Bancroft).[2] Additionally, another purchase was made to buy 34 acres of land in between the Wright Farm and Terminal Railroad tracks, for a price of $25,000.[3] In 1929, the architectural firm of Mills, Rhines, Bellman, and Nordhoff was chosen to design the University buildings. The contract for constructing University Hall, as well as the Field House went to the Henry J. Spieker Company. Construction finally started and took 11 months to be completed in 1931. With the completion of University Hall UT now has a stable educational environment.

He had chosen University Hall’s Gothic architectural design to reflect a few aspects from the Universities in Europe believing it would be an encouragement to the students attending. Due to this choice in design, it became a standard for all other buildings created on the main campus. Doermann brought more life to the school starting in 1928. At the age of 37, he was elected President of the University in the city of Toledo. After becoming President of the University his first task was to begin an expansion program to organize a new location for the University. Doermann collected the funding needed for this project given to him by a city-initiated bond levy having ten thousand votes. At the time of the new University President had to deal with a little flooding from the Ottawa River, but soon ground was broken for the University Hall in March of 1929 and the cornerstone ceremony began on June 12, 1930. Construction was completed with 400 construction workers in the span of 10 months and a five day open house was initiated in February of 1931.

Architectural Style: Collegiate Gothic

  • Standing 63 feet tall, includes a bell tower in the center which stands 205 feet tall.
  • The tower has four gargoyles which face outward on the four corners.
  • The front entrance is modeled after Daneway Hall, a 16 th century mansion.
  • Contains to courtyards in the east and west wings.
  • Features classical gothic architecture motifs, such as a turret in the front, pointed arch doorways, battlements, and vaulted ceilings.

Architects: Mills, Rhines, Bellman, and Nordhoff Inc.

Contractor: Henry J. Spieker Company (crew of 400 workers)

Ground Breaking: March 3 rd , 1929

Interior of University Hall:

  • Has 337 room, including a theatre which hold over 500 people (named after President Doermann), a cafeteria (removed now office space), 2,000 windows, 12 chimneys, and a library located on the 5 th floor (has been removed and is now class rooms and offices).
  • Home to various administrative and academic offices which consist of the Presidential office, college of arts and letters, office of the provost, college of graduate studies, and college of mathematics. Students who take their subjects in this building are given plenty of ranging activities such as foreign languages, religion, economics, and psychology.

Materials Used: 50,00 tons of Wisconsin Lannon stone and Indiana Limestone. Including 993 tons of Fave bricks, 1,048,600 Duplex bricks, 1,957,300 common bricks, and 6,000 tons of mortar.

Ivy in the front of the building comes from Heidelberg College of Germany. In the past it used to be tradition, in the United States, once a new campus was built a branch of ivy was brought over from a European Institution and planted in the new campus. Symbolizing continuing education.

Corner stone was laid on June 12 th , 1930, however Dr. Doermann left a sort of time capsule within the stone before it was laid. The stone contains a short history of the University, descriptions of the bond campaign, copies of the University’s annual Blockhouse, Campus Collegian, Toledo City Journal, and pictures from the ground breaking.

On the third floor there is a collection of 55 painted University seals, which represent the first faculty to occupy University Hall.

Bibliografia

Value of $2,800,000 in 1928. Inflation Calculator for Today's Dollars, www.saving.org/inflation/inflation.php?amount=2,800,000&year=1928.

Hickerson, Frank R. The Tower Builders the Centennial Story of the University of Toledo. University of Toledo Press, 1972.


University of Toledo

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

University of Toledo, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Toledo, Ohio, U.S. It offers more than 300 undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs through 13 schools and colleges. The main campus is in west Toledo in addition there are the Scott Park campus of Energy and Innovation, the Health Science campus, and academic facilities at the Lake Erie Center, the Toledo Museum of Art, and the Stranahan Arboretum. The university also provides a joint-study program with Bowling Green State University. Research centres and institutes include the Polymer Institute, the Legal Institute of the Great Lakes, and the Ritter Astrophysical Research Center. The University of Toledo enrolls approximately 23,000 students.

The Toledo University of Arts and Trades was founded in 1872 on the current Scott Park campus on lands donated by Jesup W. Scott, a citizen of Toledo. It was a municipal university from 1883 until 1967, when it began receiving state support. Pharmacy and law were added to the curriculum in the first decade of the 20th century, when the university became affiliated with Toledo Medical College and the Toledo YMCA College of Law. The university experienced marked growth beginning in 1928 with the creation of the campus in west Toledo. In 2006 the University of Toledo merged with the Medical University of Ohio the latter was renamed the University of Toledo Health Science Campus.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Rachel Cole, Research Editor.


27 comentários

here’s another interesting link to some aku-aku stories:

my dad tuned the piano at the aku-aku and i sometimes went with him. i remember meeting count basie and other entertainers. i also remember watching all the beautiful girls hanging around the swimming pool on a weekday afternoon. ahem.
dad had a lot of slick shapiro stories, none of which i remember other than the fact that dad liked him because he paid and he paid on time.
that said, i really enjoy this site. keep it up!

Thanks! That is a GREAT link.

My grandparents basically lived right around the corner at “Phil Manor,” a brick apartment building at Robinwood and Bancroft, and we used to pass the Town House/Quality Inn there all the time. By then (late 60s, early 70s) the area was still sliding and the digging for Interstate 75 made it a pretty memorable mess anyway.

I worked as a sommelier at Tiffinanny’s in 1979. It was a wine only bar (about 120 different bottles) with one beer, Grolsch. The food was limited to a cheese plate ( bonbel, port salut, port wine cheddar, brie and apple slices. There was live music on the weekends, but it was more if a date place than a singles bar.
Great article. Good memories. I moved out of state that year.

Hi Mark, thanks for sharing your memories of Tiffinanny’s. I came to Tiffinanny’s frequently back in the mid to late 1970’s, and you are correct, Tiffinanny’s was a date place. It was unique and very special. The owner created spaces within his establishment just for couples partitioning tables with tall walls that split each table in fours to seat up to 4 couples per table. While I cannot recall the owner’s name, I recall his telling my then girlfriend and I that he named the place after his 2 ex-wives. Excellent wine and cheeses, and live music. All good memories.

I went searching on the Internet in search of any photos of Tiffinanny’s. So far, I have not found any. The only references of Tiffinanny’s found are from those that either worked or performed there. I hope to find a photo or of it someday. Thanks again for sharing.


Chapter 1: The Early Years, 1872-1910s

In a small pamphlet published in 1868 entitled “Toledo: Future Great City of the World,” Jesup Wakeman Scott articulated a dream that led him to endow what would become the University of Toledo. Scott, who served as editor of The Toledo Blade from 1844-1847, often used his writings to promote the city. In this publication, he expressed his belief that the center of world commerce was moving ever westward, and by 1900 would be located in Toledo. The city would become bigger than Paris, London, or New York. To help realize this dream, in 1872 Scott donated 160 acres of land on Nebraska Avenue near a proposed railroad terminal as an endowment for a university to train the city’s young people to assume roles in the Future Great City.

Articles of incorporation were drawn up on October 12, 1872 for the Toledo University of Arts and Trades. The institution was to “furnish artists and artisans with the best facilities for a high culture in their professions. ” Income from the lease of the Scott land, then valued at $80,000 but certain to increase rapidly when the railroad terminal opened, was to support the institution. The university was to offer its classes “free of cost to all pupils who have not the means to pay for the same, and all others are to pay such tuition and other fees as the trustees may require.”

Unfortunately for the struggling university, the railroad terminal never materialized. Jesup Scott died in 1874, a year before the university opened in the old Independent Church Building at 10th and Adams downtown. The building was named for trustee William Raymond, who gave the money needed to purchase it. The university’s curriculum centered on design courses, with painting and architectural drawing as the only subjects. The school was forced to close in 1878, however, because it was never able to gain appropriate finances.

Jesup Scott’s three sons—Frank, William, and Maurice—were disappointed by the failure of the school. They felt that the university might succeed if reorganized as a manual training school. But because they had no money, the sons turned over the university’s assets—including the 160 acres of land—to the city of Toledo on January 8, 1884. Three months later the city accepted the gift and agreed to use the assets to create a university, as was required by the Scott trust.

The city ordinance accepting the assets stated that the school was to be called Toledo University, and its first department was to be the Manual Training School. A Board of Directors was appointed, and the Toledo Board of Education provided the top floor of the Central High School to house the Manual Training School. The school offered a three-year program for students at least 13 years old, who divided their time evenly between academic and manual instruction.

The Manual Training School was a huge success. Soon the school was out of room, and the Board of Directors asked the Board of Education to provide land for a new building. The ensuing disagreements between these two governing bodies were the first in a long line of fights which would not be resolved until 1911. But the new building was constructed as an annex to Central High.

Toledo University passed up a great opportunity in 1900. An anonymous donor offered to provide a substantial gift of money to turn the Manual Training School into a technical university. However, the Board of Directors turned down the offer because they felt it had too many strings attached. They learned after rejecting the gift that their would-be benefactor was steel magnate Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie gave his money a few years later for the establishment of the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh.

The Manual Training School changed its name to the Toledo University Polytechnic School in 1900. However, most people continued to call it the Manual Training School, and it continued a curriculum of traditional and vocational instruction to students in the 8th grade and higher. Another quarrel broke out between the Board of Directors and the Board of Education over space for the school. When it could not be resolved, the Board of Directors decided to exclude students in grades 8 and 9 from attending. With this move, the battles between the two bodies intensified.

Albert E. Macomber, one of the original trustees of the institution in 1872 and an ardent supporter, suddenly turned on the school and began a lengthy battle against it. He sought to have the Polytechnic School abolished and reestablished as the manual training department of Central High. Maurice Scott supported Macomber because he felt the Polytechnic School was not the intention of his father’s original endowment.

The university’s Board of Directors needed a new facility to relieve overcrowding, and proposed selling the Scott farm property to pay for it. Macomber and the Scott sons sued, stating that the city and the Board of Education had no right to sell the land. The university’s Board of Directors turned to the state legislature, which in 1904 enacted legislation stating the right to regulate municipal universities was a power of city council, not the Board of Education. A circuit court ruling upheld the legality of the Board of Directors.

The battle between the two governing boards continued, and escalated. In 1905, the Board of Education refused to levy taxes to support the school, and the Manual Training School could not open for one month due to lack of funds. The next year the Board of Education sought to strengthen its hand by seizing the building that housed the school. Several members barricaded themselves inside, refusing to leave. The Board of Directors asked the city to file a lawsuit to finally settle the question of who controlled the university.

Funding for the school continued to be tenuous. In 1908, when the city tried again to levy taxes to support the institution, Macomber vigorously attacked the effort. He published a scathing circular criticizing the university. City government was unwilling to turn over any money to operate the institution until Board member Dr. John S. Pyle pointed out the city had just spent $2400 to purchase an elephant for the zoo. Surely, Dr. Pyle argued, the university was as important as an elephant. The tactic worked, and on June 15, 1909, the city granted $2400 to fund the institution. This did not end the financial problems of the university, however, and operating expenses often had to be made up out of the pockets of the directors.

Dr. Jerome Raymond was appointed the first president of the university in 1908. Despite the financial headaches and the on-going questions concerning the legality of the university’s existence, Dr. Raymond was able to make some progress for the university. He expanded the university’s offerings by affiliating with the Toledo Conservatory of Music and the YMCA College of Law and creating the College of Arts and Sciences. Along with its affiliation with the Toledo Medical College, which had occurred in 1904, these changes were important in moving the institution from being a manual training school to becoming an institution of higher education.

However, Dr. Raymond found the stress of the situation too much, and resigned in 1910. No candidates came forward to replace him because of the political difficulties and an annual city appropriation of only $3600. The university appointed Dr. Charles Cockayne, then on the faculty, as acting president.

At this time, classes for the university were being held in both the Manual Training School facility and at the Toledo Medical College building at Cherry and Page. The Toledo Medical College building was nearly destroyed in a fire on January 9, 1911. This was a devastating blow for the directors. The university lost its laboratories, its library, and many classrooms. The directors were ready to give up and close the university. Fortunately, an arrangement was made to use the third floor of the Meredith Building at Michigan and Jefferson. The university continued to hang on.

On January 24, 1911, in the case of Toledo v. Seiders et al., the university finally got the legal decision it had eagerly sought settling the questions of ownership and control. A circuit court decision (upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court) clearly established the legal existence of the university and the Board of Directors as its governing body. The city raised its budget to $5000, and for the first time it appeared the institution might survive.

The Board of Directors realized after the court’s decision that it no longer needed the Manual Training School. The curriculum did not fit with an institution that provided baccalaureate education. In 1914, the directors worked out an agreement to give the building to the Board of Education in exchange for an empty elementary school at the corner of 11th and Illinois. However, this building was not without its problems. It needed extensive renovation it was in a bad neighborhood and it was a mile from the Cherry and Page street building which, after having been repaired following the fire, continued as the location for many classes.

With the new building came a new president. Dr. Cockayne was removed, although at first he refused to leave and his replacement, Dr. Allen Cullimore, had to change the locks on the president’s office door to keep him out. Dr. Cullimore served as acting president for five months until a permanent president, Dr. A. Monroe Stowe, took office on July 6, 1914.

Dr. Stowe faced many of the same challenges of his predecessors, and some new ones. In 1914, the Toledo Medical College closed, the victim of new regulations governing medical education issued by the American Medical Association. But despite this setback, Dr. Stowe seemed to have the vision to take the university on its first organized path of development. He established educational standards, admission requirements, and a formal curriculum. He founded the College of Commerce and Industry in 1914, and the College of Education in 1916. Enrollment grew from 200 students to 1400, and the budget increased to $200,000. Dr. Stowe took the first steps toward becoming accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, and in 1920 accreditation was granted.

Dr. Stowe’s tenure was not without controversy, however. In 1915, at the urging of Dr. Pyle, Dr. Stowe hired Scott Nearing as professor of economics and dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Nearing was an economics professor who had been dismissed from the University of Pennsylvania for his radical views. With his national reputation, Nearing was sought after as a speaker, and came to be seen as the spokesperson for the working classes of Toledo. With the United States on the verge of entering World War I and the fear of Socialism on the rise, however, Nearing was attacked by many conservative groups in the city. They feared he was using his position in the classroom to teach Socialism to students. The groups and their influential leaders succeeded in getting Nearing dismissed from his position in 1917. His house was raided, many of his papers were confiscated, and the American Association of University Professors refused Nearing’s appeal for assistance.

When the United States entered the war in 1917, enrollment dropped as students left to serve their country. The Committee on Education and Special Training of the U.S. War Department proposed a program to the university to train automobile mechanics for the war effort. A machine shop and dormitory were built on the Scott property on Nebraska Avenue for this purpose, as was housing for the Toledo University Section of the Students Army Training Corps. This program, the forerunner of ROTC, provided army training for many soldiers. Many of these students returned to the university after the war and enrolled as full-time students.

At the end of nearly 50 years of existence, Toledo University had emerged as a growing municipal university.

While its critics, including Albert Macomber, continued to attack it, the institution had established the legality of its existence, had divorced itself from a manual training curriculum, and was accredited by a national agency. It continued, however, to be housed in several inadequate buildings, and in the next decade would be forced to find a permanent home.


Sexism Charges Challenged at the University of Toledo

Three sources within the department told HNN that Ruth Wallis Herndon is the professor who resigned. Professor Herndon could not be reached for comment, but these sources said that neither a sexist atmosphere nor the University&rsquos report led to her resignation. Rather, she left simply because she was offered a better position at Bowling Green State University, which is closer to her home.

Every female professor that I contacted declined to comment on the OID report for fear of worsening the situation. However, two female graduate students in the department, who wish to remain anonymous, both said that, to their knowledge, the accusations in the report are untrue. &ldquoIf the charges were true,&rdquo offered one student, &ldquoyou would think [sexism] would have trickled down to the graduate students, which it hasn&rsquot.&rdquo Another student believes that the problem is caused by one professor, &ldquoand it has been turned into sexism because she happens to be female.&rdquo If the department is &ldquotoxic&rdquo in the eyes of this professor, she continues, &ldquoIt is because she has made it so.&rdquo

My sources indicated that the divide within the department might be more related to politics than sexism. One source says &ldquothe problems in the department exist due to differences of opinion in how the department should be run.&rdquo Much of the animosity seems to stem from a vote of no confidence (8-4) in the former department chair, Timothy Messer-Kruse. A source within the department said that since the vote, &ldquothose that supported the former chair&helliphave an axe to grind.&rdquo Another female graduate student confirmed that &ldquothere is a lot of bitterness and hard feelings&rdquo over last year&rsquos vote. Professor Larry Wilcox says that Messer-Kruse was ousted because his critics believed he was not leading the department well.

Wilcox, who has been teaching at the University for almost forty years, admits that the History program is in dire condition. He claims that &ldquoadministrators who give little support to the humanities&rdquo are a big part of the problem. When Wilcox began teaching at Toledo in 1968, University enrollment was at 9,000 and there were twenty tenure track professors in the history department. Today, enrollment is just under 20,000 and there will be eight tenure track professors, one of whom is a woman, by the end of the academic year.

In the last three years, eight members of the teaching faculty have retired, but according to Wilcox, the administration has not permitted the department to replace them with new tenure track faculty. Both Wilcox and the graduate students I spoke to felt that if new faculty were hired, problems in the history department would be ameliorated.

In Wilcox&rsquos view, the University&rsquos treatment of the OID report has exacerbated the situation. He says that the allegations in the report have resulted in &ldquoarbitrary and capricious punishment of the Department of History by the current administration of the University of Toledo.&rdquo The University has repeatedly denied his requests to see the specific allegations made in the report, along with support and attribution. Instead, the administration has given the department a two page summary and conclusions of the OID investigation. In local newspaper articles, the administration has contended that faculty members were given anonymity so they would not be hindered in fully expressing their feelings about the department. Nevertheless, a graduate student remarked, &ldquoBy refusing to discuss the situation, the University is merely suppressing the problem.&rdquo

Wilcox also charged that his department has not been given the &ldquoright to respond to [the report] in a fair and public forum.&rdquo Consequently, he and five other male faculty members (or 2/3 or the remaining tenure track faculty) have filed a class action grievance against the administration of the University of Toledo. One male and one female professor refused to sign the suit. When contacted, a representative of the University administration said that it would be &ldquoinappropriate for the University comment under the circumstances.&rdquo

Given the recent developments, the atmosphere of the University of Toledo&rsquos history department is replete with tension and low morale. At least three Master&rsquos students are leaving after this year. Professor Wilcox complains that &ldquouniversity politics&rdquo have unduly intruded on his professional obligations and his devotion to his students. However, there is still some optimism that the department can weather the storm. One graduate student says, &ldquoI know we can get through this and that the quality of our program will carry us through.&rdquo


Post Modern Style

Post-Modern is the name given to recent developments in architecture. Its defining elements are not always clear, but it does represent a drastic change from the buildings of the International Style. For some architects, Post-Modern is a return to the styles of the 1920s and 1930s. To others it means an interest in the arbitrary geometry of the Beaux-Arts school of the 19th century. To still others it is completely radical and new. One could sum up the Post-Modern style by one word: eclectic.

9. Stranahan Hall

Architects: Munger, Munger, and Associates

Stranahan Hall, home of the College of Business Administration, fits the Post-Modern label well. It is modern, yet old. It is square, yet round. It is symmetrical, yet asymmetrical. It is eclectic.

Stranahan Hall has been one of the most acclaimed buildings constructed on campus. In 1986, the architectural firm won an American Institute of Architects/Society of Honor Award for the design. It has been described as "a sophisticated use of form and materials relating well to the campus's Collegiate Gothic roots."

Heaviness of walls, unlike sleek glass and steel of the International buildings.

Pointed dormer windows of the Gothic tradition.

Rounded northeast corner, balancing against other square and pyramidal sides.

Classical columns on south facade.

Five-story atrium, balanced against buried first floor.

Deeply recessed windows are a much simplified version of the leaded glass casement windows of University Hall.

10. McMaster Hall

Architects: Munger, Munger, and Associates

McMaster Hall is the second building on campus to be built in the Post-Modern style. Like Stranahan Hall, it encompasses elements of the old and the new, yet its roots are clearly in the Collegiate Gothic. It is less eclectic and more traditional than Stranahan Hall.

Features to note:

Heaviness of walls gives the feeling of permanence and tradition.

Pointed roofs and battlement decoration are Gothic elements.

Pointed arched doorways, chimney brick, casement windows, and slate on roofs are similar to University Hall.

Seven-story height of central portion reminiscent of University Hall tower.

Its traditional design contrasts with the building's intended purpose to provide a place for instruction in advanced physics and astronomy.

11. The Academic Center Residence Hall

Architects: Seyfang, Blanchard, Duket, Porter Inc.

Typical of the eclecticism of the Post-Modern movement, the Academic Center Residence Hall combines elements of both the Gothic and International styles of architecture. The outer walls combine modern aluminum with traditional brick. The Hall unites vertical, horizontal and diagonal surface areas, along with tall, narrow windows to provide a unique blend of the old and the new.

Slanted roofs reminiscent of University Hall design.

Aluminum roof design combines elements of the old and the new.

12. Student Union Addition

Much like the Academic Center Residence Hall, the latest Student Union Addition is a combination of the Gothic and International Styles. This is exemplified in the use of both buff-colored brick in the middle of the building and Indiana limestone at each end. This combination is also evident in the design and materials used on the roof, which is peaked and made of slate on each end and flat in the middle.

Middle of building is rounded showing interest in geometric shapes. This interest is reminiscent of the International as well as the Transitional styles of architecture.

Ends of building emphasize clean vertical, horizontal, and diagonal lines, and include evidence of the Collegiate Gothic.

13. Center for Visual Arts

Architects: Frank O. Gehry and Associates

The Center for Visual Arts is located adjacent to The Toledo Museum of Art in Toledo's Old West End and is the first University building designed by world- renowned architect Frank Gehry. The design of the building provides an interesting and pleasing contrast to the classical appearance of the Museum.

The Center for Visual Arts is a building of metal and glass that exemplifies the contemporary style. In designing the complex, Gehry paid special attention to balancing different geometric shapes, particularly noting the flat roof and the rounded corners of the building. The Center for Visual Arts is often noted for its award-winning design and was also featured in Time magazine.


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