Podcasts de história

Heróis e marcos da aviação britânica, Richard Edwards e Peter J Edwards

Heróis e marcos da aviação britânica, Richard Edwards e Peter J Edwards

Heróis e marcos da aviação britânica, Richard Edwards e Peter J Edwards

Heróis e marcos da aviação britânica, Richard Edwards e Peter J Edwards

Sub: De Aeronaves à Era do Jato

A maioria dos capítulos começa com uma breve biografia de uma figura específica da aviação britânica e, em seguida, rastreia as realizações da empresa que fundou ou da aeronave ou tecnologia a que foi associada. Alguns focam mais de perto uma pessoa em particular, portanto, os capítulos sobre R.J. Mitchell ou Herbert Smith param com sua morte ou aposentadoria da indústria aeronáutica. A maioria dos outros termina com o período de fusões que eventualmente viu a maior parte da indústria aeronáutica do Reino Unido consolidada em uma única empresa, agora BAE Systems. O processo de fusões é abordado no capítulo final, que nos leva até os dias atuais.

Os capítulos individuais podem ser um pouco dispersos, saltando de um tópico para outro e, às vezes, repetindo informações em dois lugares relacionados (na curta biografia original e posteriormente na história da empresa, por exemplo). Apesar disso, eles são todos interessantes, olhando para as façanhas de algumas pessoas muito notáveis ​​e a contribuição que deram para a sobrevivência britânica e eventual vitória em duas guerras mundiais. Você se torna muito consciente da importância das guerras para a maioria dessas empresas - a Primeira Guerra Mundial transformou uma indústria incipiente em um grande empregador, e a Segunda Guerra Mundial viu as empresas sobreviventes se expandirem em uma escala antes inimaginável.

Esta é uma abordagem interessante para a história da indústria aeronáutica britânica, com foco nas figuras-chave que ajudaram a criar a indústria ou projetaram algumas de suas aeronaves mais importantes.

Capítulos
1 - Ernest Willows e o dirigível sobre o Canal
2 - Short Brothers e o primeiro fabricante de aeronaves do mundo
3 - Geoffrey de Havilland e a corrida para a Austrália
4 - Vincent Richmond, o R101 e o fim das ambições do dirigível britânico
5 - Sir George White e a British and Colonial Airplane Company
6 - Thomas Sopwith e os Camelos de Kingston
7 - Harry Hawker e o furacão Hawker
8 - RJ Mitchell e o nascimento do Spitfire
9 - Herbert Smith e o desenvolvimento do lutador
10 - Charles Rolls, Henry Royce e a Magia de Merlin
11 - Reginald Pierson e a saga Wellington
12 - Alliott Verdon-Roe e a estrada para Lancaster
13 - Página de Frederick Handley e a Abertura da Imperial Airways
14 - Charles Fairey e a jornada do peixe-espada ao peixe-lança
15 - Robert Blackburn e os Brough Buccaneers
16 - Robert Watson-Watt e os Prowlers of the Night Sky
17 - Frank Whittle e a Power Jets Company
18 - Harold Wilson e a Lei das Indústrias de Construção Naval e Aeronáutica de 1977
Apêndice 1 - Resumo da principal aviação britânica, fusões, aquisições e nacionalizações
Apêndice 2 - Museus de aviação selecionados do Reino Unido

Autor: Richard Edwards e Peter J Edwards
Edição: capa dura
Páginas: 257
Editora: Pen & Sword Aviation
Ano: 2012



No. 1 Escola de Treinamento Técnico RAF

No. 1 Escola de Treinamento Técnico (No. 1 S de TT) é a escola de engenharia de aeronaves da Força Aérea Real, sediada na RAF Halton de 1919 a 1993, como o esquema Home of the Aircraft Apprentice. O esquema de Aprendiz de Aeronaves treinava jovens nas profissões mecânicas de manutenção de aeronaves, cujos graduados eram os técnicos mais bem treinados da RAF e geralmente progrediam para postos de sargento sênior. No entanto, noventa e um ex-aprendizes conseguiram alcançar o Air Rank. Muitos mais se tornaram oficiais comissionados, incluindo Sir Frank Whittle "pai do motor a jato", que completou seu aprendizado na RAF Cranwell, antes de se mudar para a RAF Halton. [1] Graduados do esquema de Aprendiz de Aeronaves da RAF Halton são conhecidos como Velhos Haltonianos.


O esquadrão foi formado em Swingate Down, perto de Dover, Kent, Inglaterra, em abril de 1916. [5] Em novembro de 1917, o esquadrão foi implantado na França e sua primeira operação foi na Batalha de Cambrai. [6] Quando a Primeira Guerra Mundial terminou, o 49 Squadron tornou-se parte das forças de ocupação e se desfez na Alemanha em julho de 1919. [7]

O esquadrão foi reformado em fevereiro de 1936 do vôo 'C' no esquadrão No. 18 na RAF Bircham Newton. [7] O esquadrão foi inicialmente reformado com aeronaves Hind e realocado para RAF Scampton em março de 1938. Em setembro do mesmo ano, o esquadrão começou a aceitar aeronaves Hampden, [5] o primeiro esquadrão operacional a fazê-lo. [8]

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, eles realizaram o ataque ao Canal Dortmund-Ems em 12 de agosto de 1940. Em 1942, o Esquadrão nº 49 converteu-se em Manchesters, depois Lancasters, e em outubro liderou o ataque épico ao anoitecer do Grupo nº 5 ao armamento Schneider e locomotiva trabalha em Le Creusot. Em 1943, o esquadrão participou do primeiro ataque de "bombardeio" (quando os alvos eram Friedrichshafen e Spezia) e o famoso ataque a Peenemünde. Entre os alvos que atacou durante 1944 estavam a bateria de canhões costeiros em La Pernelle, na costa da Normandia, e os locais de armazenamento de bombas voadoras V-1 nas cavernas de St. Leu d'Esserent no rio Oise, cerca de 30 milhas ao norte oeste de Paris. Em dezembro de 1944, ele participou de um ataque à Frota Báltica Alemã em Gdynia e em março de 1945, foi representado na força de bombardeiros que pulverizou as defesas de Wesel pouco antes da travessia do Reno que comandos foram capazes de tomar a cidade com apenas 36 vítimas.

O Esquadrão permaneceu com Lancasters até ser reequipado com Lincolns em novembro de 1949. Eles realizaram 2 missões durante a Revolta Mau Mau no Quênia, de novembro de 1953 a janeiro de 1954 e de novembro de 1954 a julho de 1955. Durante ambas as viagens, foi comandado pelo líder do esquadrão Alan E. Newitt DFC. Depois de retornar ao Reino Unido, o esquadrão foi dissolvido na RAF Upwood em 1 de agosto de 1955. [9]

Durante sua segunda turnê de operação Avro Lincoln SX984 foi perdido em um acidente. [10]

Eles operaram o Vickers Valiant da RAF Wittering e RAF Marham de 1 ° de maio de 1956 a 1 ° de maio de 1965.

O único Vickers Valiant (XD818) restante - aquele que lançou a primeira bomba de hidrogênio britânica na Ilha Christmas com 49 Sqn como parte da Operação Grapple - está preservado no RAF Museum Cosford, perto de Wolverhampton. [11]

O SX984 foi perdido em um acidente em 19 de fevereiro de 1955 enquanto servia no Quênia durante a Revolta Mau Mau.

Ao retornar de uma surtida de bombardeio operacional às 1540 horas, cerca de 1 hora e 25 minutos de vôo (o tempo total de vôo até o momento do acidente foi de 1 hora e 33 minutos), o piloto do SX984 realizou várias passagens baixas não autorizadas sobre a cabana da polícia em Githunguri, onde outro A tripulação do esquadrão 49 estava fazendo uma visita. Na terceira dessas passagens, o SX984 atingiu o telhado da cabana e um poste telegráfico, quebrando parte da asa e parte de seu nariz. Ele entrou em uma subida íngreme, parou e caiu no chão 8 milhas ao noroeste de Kiambu matando cinco membros da tripulação e quatro civis no solo. Um membro da tripulação visitante, chamado Pierson, conseguiu tirar o artilheiro traseiro dos destroços, mas ele morreu poucas horas depois de seus ferimentos. [12]

A constatação do Conselho de Inquérito foi que o acidente foi causado por desobediência intencional de ordens e vôo baixo não autorizado.

Há uma janela memorial para a tripulação e civis mortos no acidente na Igreja de St Leonard, Sandridge em Hertfordshire, Reino Unido.


Pesquisar obituários 1690-hoje

Pesquisar obituários de jornais

  • Alabama
  • Alasca
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • Califórnia
  • Colorado
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  • Iowa
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  • Nova Jersey
  • Novo México
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  • Ohio
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  • Porto Rico
  • Rhode Island
  • Carolina do Sul
  • Dakota do Sul
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Vermont
  • Virgínia
  • Washington
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin
  • Wyoming

Por que pesquisar obituários para pesquisa de história da família?

Uma pesquisa de obituário é mais do que apenas saber quando seu ancestral morreu. Obituários são mini-narrativas da vida de uma pessoa destacando os principais acontecimentos entre "nascido em" e "falecido em". Descubra como seus ancestrais viveram, amaram e como foram lembrados. Acima de tudo, uma busca por obituário costuma ser o elo que faltava ou o principal ponto de partida para aprender mais sobre a história de sua família. Embora obituários publicados em jornais não possam substituir os registros oficiais de óbitos, você pode aprender detalhes importantes sobre seus antepassados. Alguns dos fatos que você pode encontrar em obituários e avisos de falecimento:

  • Nome, local e ano de nascimento
  • Nomes dos filhos, onde moravam e sua posição na ordem de nascimento da família
  • Nomes das vilas e cidades de residência e quanto tempo viveram em cada uma
  • Idade do cônjuge (marido, esposa) no momento da morte e há quanto tempo isso foi
  • Detalhes sobre a longevidade de pais e avós
  • Nome do cemitério, data e local do funeral e sepultamento

Arquivos de obituários do GenealogyBank

Nossos arquivos de obituários incluem mais de 250 milhões de obituários de jornais e registros de óbitos cobrindo mais de 327 anos em mais de 9.000 jornais. E novos registros de obituários são adicionados diariamente. Você pode pesquisar obituários por nome, estado, cidade ou publicação de jornal para restringir sua pesquisa.

Dicas úteis para a pesquisa de obituários:

  • Expanda sua pesquisa de obituário para incluir várias localidades e jornais.
  • Os obituários são frequentemente publicados nos jornais locais onde seu antepassado falecido residia ou outros membros da família viviam.
  • Pesquise apenas pelo sobrenome da pessoa.
  • Se você não conseguir encontrar o obituário de um parente falecido recentemente pelo nome e sobrenome, tente uma pesquisa mais ampla apenas pelo sobrenome para obter mais resultados

O que uma pesquisa de obituário dos EUA pode lhe dizer sobre seus antepassados?

  • Os obituários são exatamente como publicados nos jornais locais, estaduais e nacionais dos EUA.
  • Recebemos dos jornais o mesmo "feed" que eles enviam para as gráficas.
  • Nosso arquivo de obituários online é atualizado ao longo do dia e inclui até mesmo os obituários que aparecerão nos jornais de amanhã de todo o país. consulte Mais informação

Uma breve história de obituários

Vários tipos de cabeçalhos foram usados ​​para obituários ao longo dos anos, incluindo Mortes, Obituários, Morreu, In Memoriam, Em Memória, Memoriais, etc.

Os obituários estão presentes nos jornais há séculos. Conforme os jornais mudaram ao longo dos anos, também mudaram os obituários, mas sua essência permanece a mesma até hoje.

Antes da máquina de linótipo ser inventada em 1886, os editores costumavam definir à mão o tipo de impressão de jornais diários. O processo era demorado, por isso os jornais costumavam ter várias páginas (apenas quatro páginas na maioria dos casos). Com menos páginas, havia espaço limitado para anúncios e artigos de notícias, então os obituários geralmente eram muito curtos.

Na maioria dos casos, um obituário era apenas uma linha anunciando que certa pessoa havia morrido. Os editores do jornal costumavam decidir quem deveria ter um obituário mais abrangente, com base no status do falecido e na popularidade na comunidade. Pessoas famosas e aqueles que os editores pensavam que seriam de significativo interesse geral obteriam obituários mais detalhados.

    A duração do obituário do funeral de uma pessoa dependia de várias coisas:
  • Quão importantes eram para a comunidade
  • Quanto tempo os editores precisaram gastar pesquisando sobre o falecido para escrever o obituário
  • Se o obituário precisa contar uma história importante

Com o passar dos séculos e as cidades se transformaram em cidades, as famílias começaram a escrever obituários por conta própria para incluir detalhes mais importantes sobre seus parentes. A indústria jornalística definiu um novo termo para esses obituários escritos por usuários, "Death Notes". Os jornais começaram a incluí-los como anúncios pagos e a cobrar pela publicação de obituários. O preço de um obituário geralmente dependia da contagem de palavras, do número de inserções e da inclusão de fotos.

O que podemos aprender com uma pesquisa de obituário?

Uma pesquisa de obituário pode fornecer muitos detalhes sobre uma pessoa em particular. Como um anúncio de falecimento publicado, pode ser uma homenagem com uma biografia elaborada ou um simples e curto aviso de falecimento. Por meio de uma busca no obituário, você pode descobrir várias informações sobre o falecido ou seus familiares.

Normalmente, os obituários contêm o nome do falecido e a data do enterro. Embora, eles não possam revelar a data da morte. Portanto, você pode precisar descobrir usando outros detalhes, como a data em que o obituário foi publicado. No entanto, como você perceberá usando o localizador de obituários, os obituários geralmente contêm informações mais detalhadas, como data de nascimento, nomes do cônjuge, pais e filhos, data de casamento, status social, ocupação, educação e muito mais. Em muitos obituários, você pode encontrar a localização dos membros da família do falecido no momento em que foram publicados.

Uma pesquisa de obituários pode ser um processo abrangente, mas as informações que você encontrar podem valer a pena.

Por que os arquivos de obituários são importantes?

Cada obituário conta uma pequena história sobre a vida de uma pessoa. Freqüentemente, eles dizem se a pessoa era casada ou não, quem eram seus filhos, quem eram seus pais, os nomes de seus cônjuges e muitos outros detalhes. Quando você pesquisa obituários, geralmente o que você encontra é a única vez que uma determinada pessoa apareceu em um jornal. Os obituários são considerados um registro escrito duradouro da existência de alguém. Arquivos de obituários podem reunir familiares, ancestrais, amigos, companheiros de vida e, às vezes, até estranhos distantes.

Eles desempenham um papel crucial na preservação da história. Um obituário representa um traço escrito da vida de uma pessoa. Visto que muitos obituários da mesma comunidade ou do mesmo período abrirão uma janela para a vida de nossos ancestrais e de suas comunidades. Encontrar o obituário de uma pessoa significa encontrar uma porta oculta que leva a descobertas surpreendentes. Os obituários nos conectam através do espaço e do tempo e nos ajudam a descobrir detalhes importantes sobre familiares e amigos, preservando partes vitais da história e mantendo-as seguras para as gerações futuras.

Para que podem ser usadas as pesquisas de obituário?

Os detalhes que você descobrir podem abrir uma interessante aventura de pesquisa. Por exemplo, o obituário de seu ancestral imigrante pode fornecer pistas sobre seu local de nascimento, para que você possa rastrear as raízes de sua família.

Se você pesquisar obituários por nome, poderá descobrir os nomes de solteira de suas ancestrais. O obituário de um homem pode conter o nome de casada de sua irmã ou filha e talvez você não consiga encontrar essa informação em nenhum outro lugar. Ao encontrar obituários de seus parentes, ancestrais ou amigos, você encontrará biografias detalhadas. Você será capaz de aprender a origem deles em sua comunidade, o que eles faziam para viver, se eram membros da igreja ou se pertenciam a uma determinada sociedade ou grupo distinto.

Uma busca por avisos de morte o levará de volta no tempo e lhe dará uma visão da vida de seu ancestral e de seus familiares mais próximos.


Investigadores no local do acidente em 1967, logo depois que um foguete norte-americano Aviation X-15 se partiu a 62.000 pés enquanto viajava a 4.000 mph. (NASA) Mais fotos

Peter Merlin e Tony Moore, geeks confesso da aviação, encontram e classificam os locais de acidentes militares no Mojave como um hobby. Eles chamam essas expedições de fim de semana de 'arqueologia aeroespacial'.

Por W.J. Hennigan

Fotografia por Brian van der Brug

Vídeo de Don Kelsen

Reportagem de Mojave

Pêter Merlin caminha pelo deserto, pisando em arbustos de sálvia e creosoto até chegar a um ponto sem vegetação. Ele aponta uma cicatriz em forma de meia-lua na terra com 30 metros de comprimento.

Merlin se ajoelha e pega um punhado de areia e a deixa passar por entre os dedos, deixando para trás três seixos cinzentos, cada um não maior que um quarto.

"Vê essas pedras?" ele pergunta. "Na verdade, são fragmentos de alumínio derretido. Este é o ponto de impacto onde a asa voadora caiu e a tripulação perdeu a vida. Bem aqui. Este é o incidente que deu o nome à Base Aérea de Edwards."

Os seixos eram restos do YB-49, um bombardeiro experimental que caiu em 1948 carregando o capitão Glen Edwards e uma tripulação de quatro pessoas. Sua morte prematura levou os militares a renomear a Base Aérea de Muroc em sua homenagem.

Encontrar e classificar locais de acidentes militares no Mojave é o hobby e o passatempo de Merlin. Ele e Tony Moore, seu parceiro nessas expedições de fim de semana, chamam isso de "arqueologia aeroespacial".

"Viver tão perto de Edwards é como um egiptólogo vivendo no Egito", disse Merlin. "Tem sido chamado de 'vale dos reis'."

Os céus acima do deserto de Mojave são lendários. O primeiro avião a jato americano voou aqui. A barreira do som foi quebrada aqui. Os ônibus espaciais voltaram à Terra aqui. Mas menos anunciados são os fracassos e colisões, notas de rodapé trágicas para essas realizações notáveis.

Merlin e Moore referem-se a si próprios como "Os X-Hunters", um aceno ao uso do "X" pela Força Aérea ao nomear aviões experimentais. Suas descobertas ampliaram a compreensão dos militares sobre a história aeroespacial do sul da Califórnia.

"Seu valor para o cargo é grande", disse Richard Hallion, oficial aposentado que trabalhou 20 anos como historiador da Força Aérea. "Em muitos casos, houve apenas uma estimativa aproximada de onde os acidentes ocorreram."

Peter Merlin, no centro, e Tony Moore, à esquerda, em um memorial à tripulação de um voo de teste malfadado YB-49 perto de Mojave. (Brian van der Brug / Los Angeles Times) Mais fotos

Apesar da vastidão do Mojave, existem poucos locais de queda que Merlin e Moore ainda não encontraram. Eles compilaram uma lista de mais de 600 locais em meio à areia e rochas queimadas pelo sol e, até agora, examinaram mais de 100.

Merlin e Moore são confederados improváveis. Merlin, 49, o introvertido, costuma fazer longas pausas ao falar. Ele tem um bigode fino no estilo Errol Flynn e é conhecido por usar um chapéu safári e uma jaqueta de couro com "The X-Hunters" estampado nas costas.

Moore, 55, é um homem grande e afável que anda com uma vara de metal por causa do problema do quadril. Ele cresceu em Northridge e há muito é fascinado por Edwards, e parece ter uma história sobre qualquer aeronave que já foi construída.

Ambos trabalham na Edwards, mas em 1991 os geeks da aviação confessaram trabalhar no aeroporto de Burbank quando conversaram sobre a história aeroespacial da região. Moore disse a Merlin que havia encontrado os destroços do XB-70, um bombardeiro experimental que colidiu com um F-104 em 1966.

Merlin ficou intrigado. Mas os entusiastas da aviação são sigilosos sobre as informações que possuem - como pescadores que não dizem onde estão os grandes - então Moore deu a Merlin vagas direções para o local: cerca de 19 quilômetros ao norte de Barstow.

Na segunda-feira seguinte, Merlin veio trabalhar, sorrindo. Ele havia encontrado o site.

"Fiquei chocado", disse Moore. "Devo ter dado a ele uma área de três quilômetros para pesquisar. Mas ele a encontrou, para seu crédito."

Assista o vídeo

Os entusiastas da aviação vasculham a história no deserto

Merlin e Moore passam seu tempo livre procurando e vasculhando os locais de queda de aeronaves militares no Mojave.

Depois de reconhecer sua paixão compartilhada, eles decidiram se unir. Quando os dois homens começaram a pesquisar destroços de aviões, eles confiaram principalmente em arquivos do Museu de História de Edwards e em um estudo de impacto ambiental de 1993 da base que listou apenas 15 locais.

Em sua primeira expedição, Moore e Merlin recorreram a um livro escrito por um ex-piloto de testes que documentou a queda do Maj. Michael Adams, que morreu em 1967 quando o foguete North American Aviation X-15 que ele pilotava quebrou aos 62.000 pés enquanto viaja a 4.000 mph.

De acordo com o livro, os destroços estavam localizados vários quilômetros a nordeste de Joanesburgo. Mas assim que chegaram ao local, o terreno não se parecia com o que estava representado nas fotos granuladas em preto e branco do livro.

Depois de várias horas de buscas infrutíferas, eles decidiram voltar para casa. Enquanto dirigiam em direção aos EUA 395, Moore notou uma montanha à distância que parecia uma das retratadas no livro.

Eles entraram em uma estrada de terra e rumaram em direção à montanha. Mais marcos começaram a se alinhar. Havia uma crista com um afloramento de rochas brancas perto de sua crista.

Eles saíram do jipe ​​e começaram a caminhar em direção à montanha, parando de vez em quando para consultar o livro. Merlin então olhou para o chão e viu um pedaço de tubo de metal castigado pelo tempo.

"Chegamos", gritou ele, percebendo que o chão estava coberto com mais fragmentos de metal.

Por dois anos, eles vasculharam o campo de destroços e recuperaram 125 libras de peças, incluindo uma luz de aviso que provavelmente brilhava na cabine enquanto Adams lutava para salvar a si mesmo e à aeronave. Esses itens estão no museu de teste de vôo em Edwards.

Um memorial agora marca o local. Foi erguido em 2004. Mais de 60 pessoas, incluindo Merlin, Moore e membros da família de Adams, participaram da dedicação.

"Freqüentemente abordamos esses locais de uma perspectiva histórica", disse Merlin. "Mas há um elemento humano que vive. Ver a reação emocional da família realmente me mostrou o quanto os sites podem significar para as pessoas."

Entre suas outras descobertas estava o local da queda de outra asa voadora, um bombardeiro experimental construído com madeira, apelidado de N-9M. O avião caiu 12 milhas a oeste de Edwards em 1943.

Os homens também localizaram peças do Bell X-2, que em 1956 caiu fora de controle, matando o piloto de teste Capitão Milburn Apt no impacto nas Colinas Kramer, na extremidade leste da base.

Sete milhas a oeste da cidade da Califórnia, eles encontraram a localização do acidente do NF-104A que teria matado Chuck Yeager em 1963 se ele não tivesse ejetado a tempo. Um naufrágio não fatal mais recente foi o X-31, que caiu a menos de meia milha da Califórnia 58 em 1995.

Quando um avião cai no deserto, os militares tentam recuperar o máximo possível dos destroços. Recuperar peças pesadas e pesadas é uma prioridade.

Já vi balões do Mickey Mouse vazios o suficiente para durar a vida toda. "

- Peter Merlin

Na maioria das vezes, Merlin e Moore estão procurando por peças menores, como pele de aço inoxidável retorcida, fixadores e acessórios enferrujados ou abas de capô amassadas.

Eles examinam o horizonte em busca de metal cintilante quando pensam que estão no lugar certo. Uma vez que eles descobriram uma parte de uma barbatana caudal. Mas encontrar esses itens é raro, e muitas vezes o que eles pensam ser uma parte de uma aeronave brilhando à distância acaba sendo um balão Mylar.

"Já vi balões do Mickey Mouse o suficiente para durar uma vida inteira", disse Merlin.

Quando encontram algo que pensam poder identificar, levam para casa, pesam e medem. Eles verificam a autenticidade da peça procurando números de série, selos de inspeção ou examinando o livro do fabricante da aeronave. Depois de documentar, eles vão doar para o museu de teste de vôo ou outras instituições. Eles escreveram um livro sobre suas façanhas intitulado "X-Plane Crashes".

Os críticos acreditam que o significado das descobertas dos homens é um pouco exagerado. Raymond Puffer, historiador aposentado de Edwards, disse que seu trabalho é mais um hobby do que qualquer outra coisa.

Outros exploradores, como G. Pat Macha, preferem deixar os locais do acidente intactos.

"Esse é um grande problema neste campo: simplesmente tirar uma foto ou levar as coisas para casa com você", disse Macha, 67, que identificou e documentou locais de acidentes no sul da Califórnia por 50 anos.

Macha, no entanto, aprecia que, em vez de se apegar ao que recuperaram, os dois homens devolveram suas descobertas à base.

Os turistas percorrem a paisagem do deserto de Mojave em busca de destroços de um acidente do X-15 em 1967 perto de Joanesburgo. (Brian van der Brug / Los Angeles Times) Mais fotos

Merlin e Moore se orgulham de ajudar famílias que perderam um filho ou pai em um desses acidentes fatais.

Enquanto estava no local do acidente YB-49 que matou Edwards, Moore viu algo brilhando na terra. Ele a pegou: era uma safira estrela, perfeita, exceto por uma pequena lasca de um lado.

A pequena pedra era um mistério até que Moore conversou com um engenheiro que estava na base no dia em que o YB-49 caiu.

O engenheiro mencionou que um membro da tripulação, o major Daniel H. Forbes, havia se casado poucas semanas antes do acidente. Sua esposa havia lhe dado um anel de safira. Os militares encontraram o cenário, mas não a pedra.

Moore ficou pasmo: "Encontramos a pedra", disse ele. "Encontramos cinco anos atrás bem no meio do site."

Ele enviou uma fotografia da safira para o pessoal da Força Aérea, que foi visitar a viúva de Forbes.

Meio século se passou desde a tragédia. A viúva havia se casado novamente e a princípio não parecia se lembrar do anel. Então eles mostraram a ela as fotos.

Sem dizer uma palavra, ela caminhou para seu quarto e voltou com um anel de safira estrela combinando em sua mão. A pedra acabou sendo devolvida a ela em uma cerimônia na base aérea de Kansas que leva o nome de Daniel Forbes.

“É inacreditável quantas coisas precisaram acontecer para que aquele anel se reencontrasse com ela”, disse Moore. "Validou todo o nosso trabalho."


Estrela de prata

O Silver Star Awards é o terceiro maior prêmio dos Estados Unidos exclusivamente para operações militares envolvendo conflito e ocupa o quinto lugar na precedência de prêmios militares atrás da Medalha de Honra, as Cruzes (Distinguished Service Cross Navy Cross e Air Force Cross), a Defesa Medalha de Distinção em Serviços (concedida pelo Departamento de Defesa) e as Medalhas de Distinção em Serviços dos vários ramos do serviço. É o prêmio mais alto por bravura de combate que não é exclusivo de nenhum ramo específico que foi concedido pelo Exército, Marinha, Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais, Força Aérea, Guarda Costeira e Fuzileiros Navais Mercantes. Pode ser dado por qualquer um dos serviços individuais não apenas a seus próprios membros, mas a membros de outros ramos do serviço, aliados estrangeiros e até mesmo a civis por "bravura em ação" em apoio a missões de combate das forças armadas dos Estados Unidos .

Como a Estrela de Prata é concedida apenas por coragem de combate, os únicos dispositivos usados ​​nela são:

    em lugar de prêmios adicionais do Exército / AF em lugar de um sexto prêmio do Exército / AF em lugar de prêmios adicionais da Marinha / USMC em vez de um sexto prêmio da Marinha / USMC.

(Sete prêmios da Estrela de Prata, então, seriam exibidos na faixa de opções como um OLC de Prata e 1 OLC de Bronze para Exército ou Força Aérea. Para prêmios da Marinha / Fuzileiros Navais, seria uma Estrela de Prata mais 1 Estrela de Ouro.)

Estabelecido pelo presidente Woodrow Wilson

A Medalha Estrela de Prata foi estabelecida pelo presidente Woodrow Wilson como a "Estrela da Citação" durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial e foi concedida exclusivamente pelo Exército dos EUA, embora tenha sido apresentada pelo Departamento de Guerra a membros da Marinha e dos Fuzileiros Navais dos EUA. Originalmente, previa uma estrela de prata de 3/16 "para ser usada na fita da medalha de serviço para a campanha em que a citação era dada. Baseado vagamente no Certificado de Mérito anterior, a Estrela de Citação estava retroativamente disponível para aqueles que distinguiram-se enquanto estavam envolvidos em operações militares desde a Guerra Hispano-Americana. (Posteriormente, foi concedido por bravura a heróis da Guerra Civil que foram citados de forma semelhante por bravura em ação.) Antes de 1932, as Ordens Gerais anunciavam prêmios de a "Estrela da Citação" normalmente começava:

"Por direção do presidente, de acordo com as disposições da lei aprovada pelo Congresso em 19 de julho de 1918 (Bul. No. 43, WD, 1918), os seguintes oficiais e soldados são citados por bravura em ação e uma estrela de prata podem ser colocadas na fita das Medalhas da Vitória concedidas a tais oficiais e soldados. " (Uma narrativa do ato ou atos seguidos para cada homem assim citado.)

Em 22 de fevereiro de 1932, a data que teria sido o 200º aniversário de George Washington, o Chefe do Estado-Maior General do Exército, General Douglas MacArthur, reviveu o "Distintivo de Mérito Militar do General Washington (1782)" como o Coração Púrpura. Nesse mesmo ano, ele também defendeu com sucesso a conversão da "Estrela da Citação". Quando sua recomendação foi aprovada pelo Secretário da Guerra, a estrela de prata 3/16 'foi convertida de um dispositivo de fita "em uma medalha completa.

Certificado de Medalha de Mérito - Predecessor Estrela de Prata

A Medalha da Estrela de Prata foi projetada por Rudolf Freund de Bailey, Banks e Biddle, e consistia em uma estrela de bronze dourado de cinco pontas (ponta para cima em contraste com o desenho da ponta para baixo da Medalha de Honra) com uma coroa de louros em seu centro. O desenho da fita incorporou as cores da bandeira e se assemelhava muito ao predecessor mais antigo da medalha, o Certificado de Medalha de Mérito. O reverso da medalha está em branco, exceto para o texto em relevo "Pela Galantaria em Ação", abaixo do qual geralmente está gravado o nome do destinatário.

A estrela de prata é feita de prata?

Tecnicamente, a Silver Star não é feita de prata real. O tom dourado do bronze dourado - Ormolu - a estrela parece não combinar com o nome do prêmio, Silver Star. O nome Silver Star vem da história da medalha na Primeira Guerra Mundial e a estrela de prata de 3/6 "que é exibida com destaque no centro da medalha.

A medalha Estrela de Prata permaneceu exclusivamente como condecoração do Exército até 7 de agosto de 1942, quase um ano após o início da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Naquela data, a Medalha Estrela de Prata foi ampliada por ato do Congresso para atribuição do Departamento da Marinha por ações a partir de 7 de dezembro de 1941 (Lei Pública 702, 77º Congresso).

Estimamos que o número de medalhas de estrela de prata concedidas durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial e nos dias de hoje esteja entre 100.000 e 150.000. Embora esse número pareça muito grande, quando comparado aos mais de 30 milhões de homens e mulheres americanos que serviram uniformizados durante esse período, é óbvio que a Estrela de Prata é um prêmio raro, concedido a menos de 1 em cada 250 veteranos do serviço militar.


ARTIGOS RELACIONADOS

O Sr. Edwards diz que as mulheres devem tingir o cabelo de uma cor de baixa manutenção, como morena cintilante (à esquerda) e fazer cortes regulares (à direita) para evitar pontas duplas

O Sr. Edwards diz que você deve tingir o cabelo de uma cor que "funda perfeitamente com seus tons naturais"

A escolha de um tom próximo à sua cor natural também reduzirá os tratamentos de clareamento e realce que podem ressecar o cabelo, acrescentou Edwards.

Como o inverno aumenta a chance de pontas duplas, ele diz que é uma boa ideia reservar cortes regulares - uma vez a cada seis semanas mais ou menos - para manter as mechas em boas condições.

Ele diz que ferramentas de modelagem aquecidas, como alisadores e modeladores de cabelo, devem ser evitadas sempre que possível e substituídas por looks criativos, como tranças, que manterão o cabelo saudável.

O Sr. Edwards diz que as mulheres devem tratar seus cabelos da mesma forma que cuidam de sua pele, porque ambos são danificados pelo ar frio da mesma maneira

E quando se trata de proteger seu cabelo de dentro para fora, o Sr. Edwards diz que tudo se resume a beber bastante água.

“Se você está desidratado por dentro, vai ficar claro por fora”, disse ele.

Durante os meses mais frios do inverno, ele também recomenda trocar o condicionador por uma máscara uma ou duas vezes por semana e aplicar um soro leve como o Virtue Labs Healing Oil (US $ 60) todos os dias.

Previsões de tendências de cabelo de Jaye Edwards para 2021

Em uma ressurreição que poucos previram, Edwards diz que o corte shag está de volta em uma interpretação agitada e moderna do icônico penteado da era disco.

Criado pelo barbeiro Paul McGregor, o corte shag é um estilo que foi dividido em vários comprimentos e com penas na parte superior e nas laterais.

Tons ruivos de aparência natural e loiras acobreadas estão fazendo um grande retorno, diz Edwards, enquanto tons mais obviamente tingidos estão em desuso.

'Timeless, classic and bold', Mr Edwards predicts a revival of the '90s-inspired pixie cut in 2021.

Short, layered bobs which grow out evenly over time are also making a comeback, as women opt for hassle-free styles that require little maintenance.

Curly hair is back in a big way as women embrace their natural waves and turn away from heated styling tools, according to Mr Edwards.

He previously told Daily Mail Australia the closure of beauty salons at the peak of the pandemic is responsible for the nationwide shift towards a more natural look.

Mr Edwards says if there's any hair colour that transcends season, it's bronde, a combination of brown and blonde-toned ombré shades and balayage that is flattering on almost anyone.

After years of platinum shades dominating the salon chair, this autumn Mr Edwards says he is getting more requests for warm blonde which helps to enhance the skin's natural glow, making you look younger.

'Shag' cuts (left) last popular in the 1970s and auburn colouring (right) are back in fashion, according to top Australian hairstylist Jaye Edwards


The prince found such restraints irksome, while his parents were upset by his refusal to marry and settle down. When the Prince’s choice fell on a twice-divorced American, Mrs Wallis Simpson, constitutional problems arose. Never steady or strong of will, the prince had to decide between Mrs Simpson and the Crown, which passed to him in 1936 on the death of his father George V. In the event, Edward VIII became the only British sovereign to resign the throne of his own will.

He abdicated on 10 December 1936, broadcasting a memorable farewell message by radio, and left the country to marry Mrs Simpson in France. He was made Duke of Windsor and lived abroad, maintaining friendly, if distant, links with his relatives until his death in 1972.

In this exclusive extract, we present a brief guide to Edward and Mrs Simpson’s relationship:

Mrs Simpson’s first introduction to Edward, Prince of Wales

In January 1931, Lady Furness held a weekend house party at Burrough Court, near Melton Mowbray, to which she invited the Prince of Wales. A married couple who were also on the guest list suddenly fell ill, and in their place she invited Mr and Mrs Ernest Simpson.

Like Lady Furness, Mrs Simpson was born in America, and was already once divorced. In 1928 she made a second marriage to Ernest Simpson, a native of New York who had served in the Coldstream Guards and become a naturalised British citizen. Though Mrs Simpson had lived in England for several years she still clung fiercely to her ‘American ways and opinions’, and her Baltimore accent was very pronounced. Hard-faced and by no means attractive, she was always elegant and well-dressed, and the Prince of Wales found her sympathetic, understanding and witty. Though she made little impression on him at their first meeting, she and her husband invited him to dine at their London flat a year later, and soon an invitation to spend a weekend at Fort Belvedere followed. The association, as she remarked in her memoirs, ‘imperceptibly but swiftly passed from an acquaintanceship to a friendship.’ Mutual friends and members of the household soon noticed that the Prince appeared to be infatuated by her as never before.

The King talks to the Prince of Wales about his future

Six days after the thanksgiving service for the 25th anniversary of the King and Queen’s accession to the throne, the King had a long and serious talk with the Prince of Wales about the future when he ascended to the throne, and regretting that he had never married. To this the Prince replied that he could never marry, as such a life had no appeal for him. When the King accused him of keeping Mrs Simpson as his mistress, the Prince reacted with anger and gave his word of honour that he had never had any immoral relations with her. He then begged the King to invite her to the Jubilee Ball at Buckingham Palace and to Ascot, which the King did with reluctance. It was a decision which caused the rest of the royal family as much mortification as it did the King to approve.

The Duke of York was especially shocked. He had already noticed with bitterness that Mrs Simpson was accepting large sums of money from the Prince of Wales, as well as jewellery – particularly family heirlooms bequeathed to the Prince by Queen Alexandra, who had taken it for granted that he would make a suitable marriage and would need them to give to his Queen Consort. On hearing about the interview that had passed between father and son he was aggrieved that the Prince of Wales should have lied to blatantly about his relationship with Mrs Simpson. He was sure that the two were lovers, suspicions soon to be confirmed by the Prince’s staff.*

*As Duke of Windsor, to the end of his days he denied that his wife had been his mistress during her second marriage. He successfully sued one author, Geoffrey Dennis, whose Coronation Commentary, published in 1937, referred to her having been his mistress, and some twenty years later threatened to take the official biographer of the late King George VI, John Wheeler-Bennett, to court if he did not drop the word ‘mistress’ from his book.

The Prince of Wales becomes King

On the afternoon of 16 January 1936, as he was shooting in Windsor Great Park, the Prince of Wales was handed a note written by Queen Mary. She had advised him that the royal physician, Lord Dawson of Penn, was ‘not too pleased with Papa’s state at the present moment’, and he should come to Sandringham, but in a casual manner so as not to alarm him.

Next morning, he flew to Sandringham in his private aeroplane. Later that day he telephoned Mrs Simpson to tell her that the King was unlikely to live for than two or three days. The Dukes of York and Kent joined them, leaving the Duke of Gloucester who was at Buckingham Palace, recovering from his laryngitis. On 20 January, shortly after midday, the King received his Privvy Counsellors for the last time. Propped up in an armchair, wearing his dressing-gown, he was too weak to do more than answer ‘Approved’ when the Lord President read out the order paper, and make two shaky marks signifying his initials G.R. on the document. Shortly before midnight, in the words of Lord Dawson, his life moved ‘peacefully to its close’.

Queen Mary’s first act as a widow was to kiss the hand of the eldest son, the new sovereign. Immediately afterwards, the new King telephoned Mrs Simpson with the news.

Edward’s relationship with his brother, the Duke of York, deteriorates

The new King’s penny-pinching (he had made cuts, dismissing members of staff and only telling the family once it was a fato consumado) at a time when he was showering his mistress with lavish gifts lost him much sympathy from his servants and household. Shortly after his accession, a sanction was obtained that no man in royal employment should be dismissed without being offered alternative employment, but this rule was soon quietly dropped by the King. Servants resented having their wages cut when they spent much of their time loading furniture, plates and cases of champagne for despatch to Mrs Simpson’s flat. The King’s personal instruction that soap supplied for the guests in the royal residences, which was collected up after the guests had left and finished in the servants’ quarters, should in future be brought to his own rooms, was also ill-received below stairs.

At the time of her brother-in-law’s accession, the Duchess of York was in low spirits. Early in the new year she has been struck down with influenza, and was till very weak when the King died. She grieved for him, noting that unlike his own children she was never afraid of him, and in all the years she had known him ‘he never spoke one unkind or abrupt word to me.’ As yet she attached little importance to the King’s infatuation for Mrs Simpson, though a tasteless remark by the latter did nothing to raise her standing with the Duchess. She was told that in early February, during a conversation about court mourning, Mrs Simpson remarked that she had not worn black stockings since she gave up the Can-can.

It was noticed that the Yorks no longer visited Fort Belvedere, so much did they dislike what they heard of the King’s subservient behaviour towards Mrs Simpson. The Gloucesters did, but with deep misgivings. They were unhappy about the liaison, but the Duke felt personally obliged to go. The Kents did likewise, but the Duke was saddened that his eldest brother, who had always been so close, now appeared so remote and distant. Against her better judgement, the Duchess of Kent regularly invited her brother-in-law and Mrs Simpson to tea at Coppins and at their London home in Belgrave Square.

Mrs Simpson files for divorce

September 1936 had been a bad month for the royal family October was to bring more portents of the impending crisis. Edward VIII’s private secretary, Hardinge, was informed by the Press Association that Mrs Simpson’s divorce petition was to be heard at Ipswich Assizes on the 27th of the month. Aghast, he discussed the news with Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, who went to see the King on 20 October to warn him what a scandal his ‘friendship’ with the lady was causing, and to ask him to try and prevent the divorce from going through. The King firmly declined. As yet, Baldwin took a less serious view of matters than Hardinge, who called upon the Duke and Duchess of York to warn them that the King’s abdication was a definite possibility.

Though the British press still adhered to a gentleman’s agreement that the name of Mrs Simpson should not appear in their columns, it was becoming an increasingly open secret that the King intended to marry her. Mrs Simpson’s decree nisi was granted on the grounds of Ernest’s adultery, but suspicion was rife that everything had been arranged for the convenience of her and the King. On 10 November, her name was publicly mentioned for the first time in the House of Commons. During question time, the Coronation was referred to, and Mr McGovern, Labour member for Shettleston, Glasgow, declared angrily that they need not bother to talk about it in view of the odds at Lloyd’s that there would be no Coronation. To cries of ‘Shame!’, he retorted, ‘Yes – Mrs Simpson!’

Abdication rapidly progressed from a grim but remote possibility, to inevitability. London was alive with rumours at all levels of society. Even friends of the King acknowledged, albeit with reluctance, that if the King married Wallis, he would have to abdicate immediately, otherwise there would be a renewed Socialist (and perhaps Republican) agitation, the formation of a King’s party, a Yorkist party, and a general election in which the King’s marriage and its acceptability or otherwise would be a major distraction at a time of recession and severe unemployment at home, and sabre-rattling from dictators abroad.

Abdication

On 16 November the King invited Baldwin to Buckingham Palace, and told him that he intended to marry Wallis Simpson at the earliest possible opportunity, whether his ministers approved or not. If they did not, he was prepared to abdicate. Later that evening he went to see Queen Mary at Marlborough House, and told her and the Princess Royal.

Since King George V’s death, mother and daughter had drawn very close to each other. Whenever she and her husband were at their London residence, the Princess Royal spent as much time as possible with the Queen, and during the crisis she was her mother’s greatest support. They were ‘astounded and shocked’ at his threat – or intention – to relinquish the throne. The Queen told him firmly that he must give up Wallis or the throne and it was his duty to give up the former. To this, he countered that he felt unable to function as King without marrying her, and therefore his ultimate duty was to leave the throne.

On the morning of 10 December, all four brothers were present at the signing of the Instrument of Abdication. With a degree of calmness which astonished the others, King Edward signed several copies of the Instrument and then five copies of his message to Parliament, one for each Dominion Parliament.

There were still difficulties to be resolved in what was an unprecedented situation. Never before had a British monarch voluntarily abdicated the British throne. The last King to be deposed, James II (in 1688, coincidentally also on 11 December), had never formally renounced the throne and still called himself King during his remaining twelve years of exile abroad. Edward was suddenly worried about how badly off he would be, and requested that the terms of his father’s will should be strictly observed as regards his life interest in Balmoral and Sandringham they should be treated as absolutely his, for him to dispose of as he saw fit. There was uncertainty as to whether he would be provided for by government, and whether the life or freehold interest in Balmoral passed to the crown under Scottish law. A few minor alterations were agreed and signed. Neither his brother nor Lord Wigram realised that he had made huge savings in his personal fortune for such an eventuality. When they did, it added to the anger and resentment they already felt at his rejecting his responsibilities as King and head of the family, while being unwilling to accept the financial consequences of doing so.

Another issue to be settled was the outgoing sovereign’s future title. As he was born the son of a Duke, he would be Lord (instead of a plain Mr) Edward Windsor, and under such a name he could stand for election to the House of Commons. The chance that Mrs Simpson might persuade him to do so did not escape their notice. Only be confirming him as HRH Duke of Windsor could he be barred from doing so, and the Duke of York maintained that he could not speak or vote in the House of Lords† but he would not be deprived of his position in the army, navy or Royal Air Force.

At 1:52 p.m. on Friday 11 December, ‘that dreadful day’, in the phrase of the new King, Britain witnessed her third sovereign in eleven months. Prince Albert, Duke of York, was now King George VI. He had chosen his regnal name a few days earlier preferring to take the same one as his father in order to demonstrate a sense of continuity with the latter’s reign, and in preference to the name of Albert, which he recognised had too Germanic a ring.

† This was technically incorrect. Royal dukes can speak in the House of Lords. The sons of King George III, and King Edward VII as Prince of Wale, had previously done so as would Prince Charles and Richard, Duke of Gloucester many years later. The former King Edward VIII’s title was created by Letters Patent on 8 March 1937.

The Duke of Windsor and Mrs Simpson marry

A week before King George’s 1937 Coronation, the Duke of Windsor and Mrs Simpson were reunited. On 3 May, she was informed that the decree had been made absolute, and she called the Duke in Austria. He caught the ‘Orient Express’ from Salzburg that afternoon and met her at the Château de Candé, central France, at lunchtime the following day.

Candé, which belonged to a very rich French-born naturalised American named Charles Bedaux, had been chosen for the Windsors’ marriage. The Duke had sadly resigned himself to the fact that none of his family would be attending, and Sir Edward Metcalfe accepted an invitation to be his best man. What rankled far more deeply, however, was King George VI’s refusal to raise Wallis to royal rank upon their marriage.

The wedding took place as arranged on 3 June. A civil marriage by the Mayor of Monts was followed by a religious ceremony at which the Reverend R. Anderson Jardine officiated. Jardine, vicar of St Paul’s Church, Darlington, was warned by the Bishop of Durham that he had ‘no episcopal licence or consent’ to conduct the ceremony, but went ahead anyway.

Extracted from George V's Children by John Van Der Kiste


Early life and ministry

Edwards’s father, Timothy, was pastor of the church at East Windsor, Connecticut his mother, Esther, was a daughter of Solomon Stoddard, pastor of the church at Northampton, Massachusetts. Jonathan was the fifth child and only son among 11 children he grew up in an atmosphere of Puritan piety, affection, and learning. After a rigorous schooling at home, he entered Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut, at the age of 13. He was graduated in 1720 but remained at New Haven for two years, studying divinity. After a brief New York pastorate (1722–23), he received the M.A. degree in 1723 during most of 1724–26 he was a tutor at Yale. In 1727 he became his grandfather’s colleague at Northampton. In the same year, he married Sarah Pierrepont, who combined a deep, often ecstatic, piety with personal winsomeness and practical good sense. To them were born 11 children.

The manuscripts that survive from his student days exhibit Edwards’s remarkable powers of observation and analysis (especially displayed in “ Of Insects”), the fascination that the English scientist Isaac Newton’s optical theories held for him (“ Of the Rainbow”), and his ambition to publish scientific and philosophical works in confutation of materialism and atheism (“ Natural Philosophy”). Throughout his life he habitually studied with pen in hand, recording his thoughts in numerous hand-sewn notebooks one of these, his “Catalogue” of books, demonstrates the wide variety of his interests.

Edwards did not accept his theological inheritance passively. In his “ Personal Narrative” he confesses that, from his childhood on, his mind “had been full of objections” against the doctrine of predestination—i.e., that God sovereignly chooses some to salvation but rejects others to everlasting torment “it used to appear like a horrible doctrine to me.” Though he gradually worked through his intellectual objections, it was only with his conversion (early in 1721) that he came to a “delightful conviction” of divine sovereignty, to a “new sense” of God’s glory revealed in Scripture and in nature. This became the centre of Edwards’s piety: a direct, intuitive apprehension of God in all his glory, a sight and taste of Christ’s majesty and beauty far beyond all “notional” understanding, immediately imparted to the soul (as a 1734 sermon title puts it) by “a divine and supernatural light.” This alone confers worth on humanity, and in this consists salvation. What such a God does must be right—hence Edwards’s cosmic optimism. The acceptance and affirmation of God as he is and does and the love of God simply because he is God became central motifs in all of Edwards’s preaching.

Under the influence of Puritan and other Reformed divines, the Cambridge Platonists, and British philosopher-scientists such as Newton and Locke, Edwards began to sketch in his manuscripts the outlines of a “ Rational Account” of the doctrines of Christianity in terms of contemporary philosophy. In the essay “ Of Being,” he argued from the inconceivability of absolute Nothing to the existence of God as the eternal omnipresent Being. It was also inconceivable to him that anything should exist (even universal Being) apart from consciousness hence, material things exist only as ideas in perceiving minds the universe depends for its being every moment on the knowledge and creative will of God and “spirits only are properly substance.” Further, if all knowledge is ultimately from sensation (Locke) and if a sense perception is merely God’s method of communicating ideas to the mind, then all knowledge is directly dependent on the divine will to reveal and a saving knowledge of God and spiritual things is possible only to those who have received the gift of the “new sense.” This grace is independent of human effort and is “irresistible,” for the perception of God’s beauty and goodness that it confers is in its very nature a glad “consent.” Nevertheless, God decrees conversion and a holy life as well as ultimate felicity and he has so constituted things that “means of grace” (e.g., sermons, sacraments, even the fear of hell) are employed by the Spirit in conversion, though not as “proper causes.” Thus, the predestinarian preacher could appeal to the emotions and wills of humankind.


10 All-Time Great Pilots

WHEN WE ASSEMBLED THE FOLLOWING LISTS OF GREAT PILOTS (and the list of milestone flights that follows), we faced the same dilemma that Von Hardesty, a National Air and Space Museum aeronautics curator, faced as author of Great Aviators and Epic Flights (Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., 2003). "If you mention Jean Mermoz," Hardesty writes in the introduction, "Why not Henry Guillaumet, who crashed and survived a six-day ordeal in the Andes? If you cover the crossing of the English Channel by Louis Blériot, why not the transcontinental aerial trek of Cal Rodgers? When the chapter outline was shown to one curator, he remarked, 'The problem is who to omit!' Such an observation genuinely haunted all of us who designed and worked on this book."

1. James H. Doolittle

At age 15, Doolittle built a glider, jumped off a cliff, and crashed. Undaunted, he hauled the pieces home, stuck them back together, and returned to the cliff. After his second plunge, there was nothing left to salvage. In 1922, Lieutenant Doolittle made a solo crossing of the continental United States in a de Havilland DH-4 in under 24 hours. The Army sent him back to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where in 1925 he earned a doctorate in aeronautical engineering. Two years later, he climbed to 10,000 feet in a Curtiss Hawk, pushed the stick forward until he saw red (negative Gs make blood pool in the head), and performed the first outside loop. In 1929, aided by Paul Kollsman’s altimeter and Elmer Sperry’s artificial horizon and directional gyro, he flew from takeoff to landing while referring only to instruments. “Aviation has perhaps taken its greatest single step in safety,” declared the New York Times.

He next took up air racing and collected the major trophies: the Schneider in 1925 with a Curtiss seaplane, the Bendix in 1931 with the Laird Super Solution, and the Thompson in 1932 in one of the treacherous Gee Bees, when he also set the world’s landplane speed record. With this triumph, he observed: “I have yet to hear of anyone engaged in this work dying of old age,” and retired from racing.

In 1942 Doolittle was sent off to train crews for a mysterious mission. He ended up leading the entire effort. On April 18, 1942, 15 North American B-25s staggered off a carrier and bombed Tokyo. Most ditched off the Chinese coast or crashed other crew members had bailed out, including Doolittle. Though he was crushed by what he called his “failure,” Doolittle was awarded the title Brigadier General and a Congressional Medal of Honor, which, he confided to General Henry “Hap” Arnold, he would spend the rest of his life earning.

2. Noel Wien

Thanks to Noel Wien, Alaska has a higher ratio of aircraft and pilots to residents than any other state. In the 1920s, almost single-handedly, Wien introduced the airplane to Alaska, and over some 50 years, aircraft became virtually the primary mode of transport in the vast and thinly populated state, which is twice the size of Texas and infinitely less hospitable in climate and geography.

Wien, a native of Minnesota, arrived in Anchorage in June 1924 at age 25 with his first aircraft, an open-cockpit Standard J-1 biplane. Being the only flier in Alaska that summer and the next, and with little competition for a number of years thereafter, just about every flight he made was a first, starting with a flight from Anchorage over the Alaskan Range to Fairbanks. Wien was the first in Alaska and Canada to fly north of the Arctic Circle, and made the first commercial flight between Fairbanks and Nome. He was first to fly the Arctic Coast commercially, the first to fly from North America to Siberia via the Bering Strait, and ultimately the first to fly a year-round service, throughout the vicious winters. All this with sketchy maps, no radio, and virtually no paved landing strips.

Wien got so good, writes author Ira Harkey in Pioneer Bush Pilot: The Story of Noel Wien, he could land the Standard in a mere 300 feet. Surveyor Sam O. White said: “I don’t belive there was ever anyone around here who could get everything out of an aiplane like Noel Wien did. It was like the wings were attached to his own shoulders.”

Wien’s flights broke other records as well. In 1927 he noted, “the last boat leaving in October didn’t mean isolation from the States until the first boat next June. For the first time ever, Nome got mail and fresh foods for Thanksgiving. Everybody looked forward to getting Christmas mail and foods, but they were disappointed—I was down on a lake in a blizzard Christmas Day.”

Wien flew everything and everybody to everywhere: bodies to burial sites, tourists to stunning views, gold dust from prospectors to market, sick folks to hospitals, trappers and dogs to hunting grounds. He lost an eye to infection in 1946, but he was able to hold on to his medical certificate and continued flying commercially until 1955. Wien stopped counting flight hours at 11,600.

3. Robert A. Hoover

After his Spitfire was shot down by a Focke-Wulf 190 over the Mediterranean in 1944, Hoover was captured and spent 16 months in the Stalag Luft 1 prison in Barth, Germany. He eventually escaped, appropriated an Fw 190 (which, of course, he had never piloted), and flew to safety in Holland. After the war Hoover signed up to serve as an Army Air Forces test pilot, flying captured German and Japanese aircraft. He became buddies with Chuck Yeager Hoover was Yeager’s backup pilot in the Bell X-1 program, and he flew chase in a Lockheed P-80 when Yeager first exceeded Mach 1.

Hoover moved on to North American Aviation, where he testflew the T-28 Trojan, FJ-2 Fury, AJ-1 Savage, F-86 Sabre, and F-100 Super Sabre, and in the mid-1950s he began flying North American aircraft, both civil and military, at airshows. Jimmy Doolittle called Hoover “the greatest stick-and-rudder man who ever lived.”

Hoover is best known for the “energy management” routine he flew in a Shrike Commander, a twin-engine business aircraft. This fluid demonstration ends with Hoover shutting down both engines and executing a loop and an eight-point hesitation slow roll as he heads back to the runway. He touches down on one tire, then the other, and coasts precisely to the runway center.

Despite the numerous awards accorded him, Hoover remains humble enough to laugh at himself. He notes in his autobiography, Forever Flying, that in the 1950s, after showing off his Bugatti racer to the neighborhood kids, he asked, “Well, what do you think?” One youngster’s reply: “I think you’ve got the biggest nose I’ve ever seen.”

4. Charles A. Lindbergh

The young man who would give aviation its biggest boost since the Wright brothers got his start in aviation as a wingwalker, barnstormer, and parachutist. His proficiency in the latter art paid off when he had to bail out of a trainer during his Army stint and another three times while flying the Chicago-St. Louis mail run for the Robertson Air Corporation.

Any collection of photos of Lindbergh can easily be divided into pre-Atlantic crossing and post. There are many broad smiles before he flew solo nonstop from New York to Paris in May 1927 not many thereafter. Lindbergh was assaulted by the media and besieged by the adulation of the entire United States. By 1929, when Lindbergh was surveying cross-country routes for Transcontinental Air Transport and posing with movie stars to publicize the airline, the smile had vanished.

Lindbergh made his greatest survey flight in 1931 for Pan Am, when he and his wife and radio operator/navigator Anne Morrow set out in a Lockheed Sirius on floats to establish the shortest air route from New York to China via Churchill in Canada, Nome, Petropavlosk, Tokyo, and Nanking. Two years later the pair scoped out north and south Atlantic cities for operational facilities on Pan Am’s transatlantic routes. This round-the-Atlantic flight in the Sirius encompassed landings in Greenland, Iceland, Sweden, Russia, Denmark, Scotland, Portugal, the Canary Islands, Brazil, and Puerto Rico.

In 1944, Lindbergh tested the Vought F4U Corsair in the field—the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific—and flew several missions with the U.S. Marines, downing a Japanese Zero. In New Guinea, he demonstrated to Army Air Forces pilots a fuel-saving technique that extended the range of the Lockheed P-38 from 575 to 750 miles. Charles Lindbergh’s flight to Paris was just the beginning of his career.

His daughter Reeve revealed Lindbergh’s method and his mastery when she recalled flying with him in an Aeronca Champion whose engine had quit: “He was persuading and willing and coaxing that airplane into doing what he wanted it to do, leaning it like a bobsled right down where it could safely land. He could feel its every movement as though it were his own body. My father wasn’t flying the airplane, he was being the airplane. That’s how he always done it.”

5. Charles E. Yeager

As a young Army Air Forces pilot in training, Yeager had to overcome airsickness before he went on to down 12 German fighters, including a Messerschmitt 262, the first jet fighter. After the war, still in the AAF, he trained as a test pilot at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, where he got to fly the United States’ first jet fighter, the Bell P-59, which he took on a joyride, flying low over the main street of his West Virginia hometown.

Yeager then went to Muroc Field in California, where Larry Bell introduced him and fellow test pilot Bob Hoover to the Bell XS-1. In his autobiography, Yeager, he says that Bell, in assuring them that a deadstick landing would be a piece of cake, bragged that “[W]ithout fuel aboard, she handles like a bird.”

“A live bird or a dead one?” Hoover asked.

In Yeager’s hands, the bullet-shaped XS-1 performed as advertised, and on October 14, 1947, ignoring the pain of two cracked ribs, he reached Mach 1.07 and lived to tell about it. The X-1 was not designed to take off under its own power it was air-dropped from a mothership. In January 1949, Yeager fired up the X-1’s four rockets on the runway. “There was no ride ever in the world like that one!” he later wrote. The aircraft accelerated so rapidly that when the landing gear was retracted, an actuating rod snapped and the wing flaps blew off.

He also managed to fly the Douglas X-3, Northrop X-4, and Bell X-5, as well as the prototype for the Boeing B-47 swept-wing jet bomber. The Bell X-1A nearly ate him for breakfast one December day in 1953. Yeager thought he could coax the X-1A to Mach 2.3 and bust Scott Crossfield’s Mach 2 record, achieved in the Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket. At 80,000 feet and Mach 2.4, the nose yawed, a wing rose, and the X-1A went berserk “in what pilots call going divergent in all three axes,” Yeager wrote. “I called it hell.” He was able to recover at 25,000 feet.

Yeager was sent to Okinawa in 1954 to test a Soviet MiG-15 that a North Korean had used to defect. When he stopped test-flying that year, he had logged 10,000 hours in 180 types of military aircraft.

6. Scott Crossfield

When Navy fighter pilot and flight instructor Scott Crossfield heard about the Bell Experimental Sonic XS-1 under construction in 1947, he wrote to its manufacturer proposing that he be named its first test pilot he offered to fly it for free. Bell did not reply, but no matter: In 1950 Crossfield was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and sent to Edwards Air Force Base in California to fly the world’s hottest X-planes, including the X-1, the tail-less Northrop X-4, the Douglas D-558-I Skystreak and D-558-II Skyrocket, the Convair XF-92A (which he pronounced “under-powered, under- geared, underbraked, and overweight”), and the Bell X-5. He made 100 rocket-plane flights in all. On November 20, 1953, he took the D-558-II to Mach 2.04, becoming the first pilot to fly at twice the speed of sound.

He gained a reputation as a pilot whose flights were jinxed: On his first X-4 flight, he lost both engines in the Skyrocket, he flamed out the windshield iced over in the X-1. After a deadstick landing in a North American F-100, he lost hydraulic pressure and the Super Sabre slammed into a hangar wall. Forever after, Chuck Yeager crowed, “The sonic wall was mine the hangar wall was Crossfield’s.”

Despite the many thrills at Edwards in the Golden Age of X-Planes, Crossfield was seduced by an aircraft on the North American drawing board. In 1955, he quit the NACA and signed on with the manufacturer, where he found his calling with the sinister-looking X-15. Crossfield made the first eight flights of the X-15, learning its idiosyncrasies, and logged another six after NASA and Air Force pilots joined the program. On flight number 4, the fuselage buckled right behind the cockpit on landing, but he had his closest call on the ground, while testing the XLR-99 engine in June 1960. “I put the throttle in the stowed position and pressed the reset switch,” Crossfield wrote in his autobiography Always Another Dawn. “It was like pushing the plunger on a dynamite detonator. X-15 number three blew up with incredible force.” Fire engines rushed to extinguish the blaze, and Crossfield was extracted from the cockpit. “The only casualty was the crease in my trousers,” he told reporters. “The firemen got them wet when they sprayed the airplane with water.” You sure it was the firemen? a reporter asked. Yes, he was sure, he aid. “I pictured the headline: ‘Space Ship Explodes Pilot Wets Pants.’ ”

7. Erich Hartmann

Unlike the rest of the pilots in “Ten Great,” Erich Hartmann flew only one aircraft type, and did almost all his flying during World War II. But his downing a mindboggling 352 enemy aircraft and earning the title of the Greatest Ace of All Time, No Kidding, places him on this list fair and square.

Hartmann’s mother taught him to fly gliders in his teens. He enlisted in the Luftwaffe in 1940, and his profiency at gunnery school marked him as a rising star. When he arrived on the Eastern Front at age 20, he was nicknamed Bubi (boy) by fellow pilots, and took to the Messerschmitt Me 109 like a duck to water. Hartmann’s winning technique was to fly so close to the enemy that he couldn’t miss. In November 1942 he scored his first victory, and within a year had downed 148 aircraft. The number of medals and awards seemed to keep pace with the number of fallen aircraft, which reached 301 in August 1944.

His superiors deemed him too valuable an asset to remain in combat (he was forced down 16 times) and called him back to test the Messerschmitt Me 262. But Hartmann was dedicated to fighting the Soviets and finagled a reassignment to the front. He was made a group commander and downed another 51 aircraft before Germany surrendered. In less than three years, he had flown 825 combat sorties.

Hartmann spent 10 years in a Russian prison. Three years after his release in 1955, he was commanding West Germany’s first all-jet fighter wing. He remained with the air force for another 15 years.

8. Anthony W. LeVier

Along with the P-38, the U-2, and the SR-71, Tony LeVier was one of Lockheed’s most prized legends. LeVier cut his teeth on air racing and placed second in the 1939 Thompson Trophy Race. The next year he was hired as a test pilot by General Motors then he moved to Lockheed.

LeVier flight-tested the P-38 Lightning to the ragged edges of its envelope and was sent to England to teach Eighth Air Force pilots how to get the most out of it. On one harrowing flight, in a 60-degree dive at over 500 mph initiated at 35,000 feet, the airplane started to nose over LeVier hauled back on the stick, trying to maintain dive angle. What saved him were dive-recovery flaps that engineers had just installed to prevent this very problem. At 13,000 feet, LeVier slowly regained control. “My strain gauges were set for 100 percent of limit load,” he reported in Test Pilots by Richard Hallion, “and they were all over 100 and all the red warning lights were on when I finally got out of the dive.”

Next up: the XP-80A, the nation’s first operational jet fighter. In 1945, by which time he was Lockheed’s chief test pilot, an XP-80’s turbine disintegrated and took the tail off the airplane. LeVier bailed out and crushed two vertebrae upon landing, an injury that grounded him for six months. He later called it “the most horrifying experience of my whole flying career.”

After World War II ended, LeVier worked with the model 75 Saturn and XR60-1 Constitution transports, and on the side bought a P-38 and got back into air racing. In 1946 he again placed second in the Thompson race. LeVier was the first to fly the XF-90, the YF-94 Starfire, the XF-104 Starfighter, and the U-2. (In Kelly: More Than My Share of It All, Lockheed designer Kelly Johnson recounts that when LeVier first saw the F-104, he asked, “Where are the wings?”—a question a great many others at least wondered about.) In 1950 he piloted the first Lockheed aircraft to surpass Mach 1, an F-90, which he dove at an angle of 60 degrees to reach 900 mph. When LeVier retired in 1974, he had made the first flights of 20 aircraft, had flown some 240 types of aircraft, and had survived eight crashes and a mid-air collision.

9. Jean Mermoz

In January 1921, on his third try, Jean Mermoz got his pilot’s license. Three years later, he signed up as a pilot with Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère, and set out to attain the goal of aircraft designer Pierre Latécoère: to create an airmail line linking Europe with Africa and South America.

In 1926, Mermoz had engine trouble over the Mauritanian desert and made an emergency landing. He was captured by nomadic Moors and held prisoner until a ransom was paid—a common practice and one of the many torments on the Latécoère airmail routes, which linked Toulouse to Barcelona, Casablanca, and Dakar. Mermoz was lucky—five Latécoère pilots were killed by Moors. Other hazards: the hostile Sahara, impenetrable Andes, and 150-mph winds that roiled over the southern Argentine coast.

In 1927, Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère became Compagnie Général Aéropostale, and Mermoz took charge of the South American routes. He made Aéropostale’s first South American night flight in April 1928 from Natal in Brazil to Buenos Aires in Argentina, along a route unmarked by any sort of beacon. After he showed the way, mail delivery was no longer restricted to daylight-only operations.

Mermoz next tackled shortening the Argentina-to-Chile route pilots had to make a thousand-mile detour to get around the Andes. With mechanic Alexandre Collenot, Mermoz set out in a Latécoère 25 monoplane and found an updraft that carried them through a mountain pass, but a downdraft smashed the aircraft onto a plateau at 12,000 feet. After determining that they could not hike out, Mermoz cleared a crude path to the edge of the precipice and removed from the aircraft anything that wasn’t bolted down. He and Collenot strapped themselves in, and Mermoz got the airplane rolling down the path. In effect, they dove off the mountain, and Mermoz pointed the nose straight down, hoping to gain flying speed. Again, luck was with him. And in July 1929, with the acquisition of Potez 25 open-cockpit biplanes that had a much higher ceiling than the Laté 25, Mermoz and Henry Guillaumet opened a scheduled route between Buenos Aires and Santiago.

In early 1930, Aéropostale looked to bridge the Atlantic. Mermoz, in a new Latécoère 28 float-equipped monoplane, took off on May 12 from St. Louis, Senegal, with a navigator, a radio operator, and a load of mail. As night fell, they flew into a series of waterspouts that rose into stormy clouds. In Wind, Sand and Stars, published in 1940, fellow Aéropostale pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry wrote: “Through these uninhabited ruins Mermoz made his way, gliding slantwise from one channel of light to the next, flying for four hours through these corridors of moonlight. And this spectacle was so overwhelming that only after he had got through the Black Hole did Mermoz awaken to the fact that he had not been afraid….”

Mermoz flew 1,900 miles in 19.5 hours, and landed in the Natal harbor the next morning. “Pioneering thus, Mermoz had cleared the desert, the mountains, the night, and the sea,” Saint-Exupéry wrote. “He had been forced down more than once…. And each time that he got safely home, it was but to start out again.”

The U.S. press called Mermoz “France’s Lindbergh.” On December 7, 1936, Mermoz departed Africa in a fourengine seaplane, bound for Brazil, on the weekly mail run. It was his 28th Atlantic crossing. Neither he nor his crew were seen again.

10. Jacqueline Auriol

The daughter-in-law of Vincent Auriol, president of France from 1947 to 1954, Jacqueline Auriol learned to fly so she could escape the stuffy protocol of the Palais Elysée. Her mentor, instructor Raymond Guillaume, imbued her with a passion for aerobatics. After the crash of a Scan 30 amphibian in which she was a passenger, she faced 22 surgeries to put her face back together yet, her first words in the ambulance rushing her to the hospital were “Will it be long before I can fly again?”


21–23 June 1937

Work order for Amelia Earhart’s Lockheed Electra at Bandoeng, 21–23 June 1937. (Purdue University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections) por


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