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Yakama Indian Nation

Yakama Indian Nation


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As Tribos e Bandas Confederadas da Nação Yakama são descendentes de 14 tribos e bandas que foram reconhecidas federalmente sob o Tratado de Yakama de 1855. A reserva de 1.377.034 acres está localizada no centro-sul de Washington, ao longo das encostas orientais da Cordilheira Cascade. A grafia de "Yakama" foi reintroduzida em 1994 pela tribo para retornar à grafia original. Os Yakama eram um dos vários grupos de nativos americanos que viveram de maneira semelhante no planalto de Columbia de hoje Idaho, Oregon e Washington. Sua economia baseava-se na pesca, caça, coleta e comércio intertribal de itens como produtos pesqueiros, cestas, cães e cavalos *. As estações do ano os atraíam para várias partes do planalto. No outono, eles foram para as Montanhas Cascade para colher frutas e caçar, enquanto secavam seus alimentos para o inverno. De acordo com uma profunda conexão que os Yakama sentiam com seu ambiente, eles agradeciam por seus alimentos por meio de cerimônias espirituais. No século 19, o missionário católico Charles Pandosy os apresentou ao Cristianismo. O Yakama encontrou a Expedição Lewis e Clark perto da confluência dos rios Yakima e Columbia em 1805. Homesteaders, mineiros e outros seguiriam em números crescentes. demanda branca por terras e recursos, o governador territorial de Washington e agente indiano Isaac Stevens concluiu o Tratado de Yakama com os Yakama e 13 outras tribos e bandos em 9 de junho de 1855. As tribos e bandos também concordaram em se mudar para uma nova reserva e receber benefícios federais .O tratado estipulou dois anos para permitir que as tribos e bandos se mudassem para a nova reserva, mas o governador Stevens abriu terras indígenas para colonos brancos menos de duas semanas após a assinatura do tratado. Em setembro de 1858, na Batalha de Quatro Lagos perto de Spokane, os índios foram derrotados de forma decisiva. Kamiakan fugiu para o Canadá, mas duas dúzias de outros líderes foram presos e executados. A maioria dos Yakama e outras tribos então se mudaram para a reserva onde vários dialetos sahaptin, chinookan, salish e línguas inglesas convergiram. O confinamento na reserva contribuiu para um colapso social, problemas de saúde, alcoolismo e outros problemas como a alta mortalidade infantil. Os agentes também obrigaram os índios a cultivar na reserva, mas eles cultivavam sem entusiasmo. Projetos de irrigação destruíram corridas de salmão do Rio Yakima e arando habitat de plantas e animais em ruínas. De acordo com uma nova política federal no final de 1800, agentes do governo começaram a dividir a reserva em lotes de 80 acres para índios individuais, para encorajar o cultivo. Em 1914, 4.506 membros tribais detinham 440.000 acres distribuídos, deixando 780.000 acres de propriedade da tribo como um todo. Mais tarde, em 1900, no entanto, quase toda a área cultivável foi comprada das mãos dos índios. Os brancos procuraram, por meio dos canais oficiais, restringir o movimento do povo Yakama no planalto de Columbia. Em 1933, os Yakama se organizaram como as Tribos Confederadas da Nação Yakama. Os Yakama se concentraram na autossuficiência e na independência econômica desde a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Como resultado das batalhas legais que culminaram na histórica decisão Boldt de 1974, o governo federal reafirmou os direitos de pesca de Yakama e tornou a tribo um co-gerente dos recursos pesqueiros com o estado de Washington.


* Após 1750.
Veja a Tabela de Horários das Guerras Indianas.
Veja também o mapa das Regiões Culturais dos Nativos Americanos.


Tribo Yakama

Este artigo contém fatos interessantes, fotos e informações sobre a vida da tribo indígena americana Yakama, também conhecida como Yakima, da região do planalto do rio Columbia.

Fatos sobre a tribo indígena nativa Yakama
Este artigo contém fatos rápidos e divertidos e informações interessantes sobre a tribo indígena indígena Yakama.

Encontre respostas para perguntas como onde morava a tribo Yakama, que roupas eles vestiam, o que comiam e quem eram os nomes de seus líderes mais famosos? Descubra o que aconteceu à tribo Yakama com fatos sobre suas guerras e história.

Que língua a tribo Yakama falava?
A tribo Yakama falava em um dialeto sahaptiano da língua penutiana e se autodenominava Pakintlema, significando "povo da lacuna", ou Waptailmim, significando "povo do estreito", refletindo a localização de suas aldeias perto de Union Gap no rio Yakima. Após a introdução do cavalo, o povo Yakama caçava búfalos nas Grandes Planícies e adotou alguns dos elementos de estilo de vida desse grupo cultural. As Tribos e Bandas Confederadas da Nação Yakama, ou simplesmente a Nação Yakama (anteriormente Yakima), foi uma consolidação de 14 bandas ou tribos.

Onde morava a tribo Yakama?
Os Yakama são pessoas do grupo cultural nativo americano do Plateau. A localização de suas pátrias tribais é mostrada no mapa do estado moderno de Washington. A geografia da região em que viveram ditou o estilo de vida e a cultura da tribo Yakama.

Qual era o estilo de vida e a cultura da tribo Yakama?
A tribo Yakama vivia um estilo de vida semi-nômade pescando, caçando ou colhendo plantas silvestres para se alimentar. A tribo Yakama vivia em casas de cova no inverno e em alojamentos ou tendas de tule no verão. A expedição de Lewis e Clark encontrou a tribo Yakama do Platô durante suas explorações em 1806. Os Yakama adotaram muitas das idéias dos índios das Grandes Planícies, incluindo o uso da tenda que era coberta com peles de búfalo e algumas peças de roupa também feitas de peles de búfalo .

A tribo Yakama e a expedição Lewis e Clark
Lewis e Clark encontraram a tribo Yakama em outubro de 1805 e conheceram o chefe Kamiakin, o líder de guerra da nação Yakama.

Em que vivia a tribo Yakama?
Os Yakama eram semi-nômades e precisavam de abrigos fáceis de montar e derrubar. Eles moravam em um dos três abrigos, dependendo da estação. Os tipos de abrigos eram uma casa de cova semi-subterrânea, uma tenda ou um alojamento de tapete de tule.

  • As casas de cova eram abrigos de inverno construídos com troncos e selados para isolamento com terra (grama) e grama. Eles foram construídos abaixo do solo com uma entrada e uma escada no topo
  • Os abrigos de verão eram a tenda e a tule, ambas acima do solo.
  • As tendas eram cobertas com peles de animais, mas o alojamento do tapete de tule estava coberto com esteiras de juncos de tule (juncos) fortes e duráveis.

Qual transporte o Yakama usou? Canoas
Quando a tribo habitou a região do Planalto, eles construíram canoas feitas com troncos ocos de grandes árvores. Os homens escavaram toras com fogo controlado que amoleceu a madeira para que pudessem esculpir e moldar sua canoa para ter um fundo plano com laterais retas. A canoa era o meio de transporte perfeito para viajar ao longo de córregos rápidos e águas rasas dos rios Columbia, Wenatchee e Yakima.

Que comida a tribo Yakama comia?
A comida da tribo Yakama incluía salmão e truta e uma variedade de carnes de animais e pássaros que eles caçavam. Eles suplementaram sua dieta protéica com sementes, raízes, nozes e frutas.

Que roupas o Yakama vestia?
As roupas usadas pelos homens e mulheres Yakama da tribo eram semelhantes às roupas dos Nez Perce - consulte este artigo para obter detalhes.

Que armas o Yakama usou?
As armas utilizadas foram lanças, lanças, clavas, facas e arcos e flechas. Os Yakama também usavam escudos para fins defensivos.

Quem eram os aliados e inimigos da tribo Yakama?
Os aliados da tribo Yakama eram muitos dos outros índios nativos americanos que habitavam a região do planalto, incluindo Cayuse, Walla Walla, Spokane, Coeur D'Alene, Payuse e Nez Perce. Os principais inimigos da tribo Yakama eram os grupos da Grande Bacia ao sul, incluindo as tribos Shoshone, Paiute do Norte e Bannock.

Quem eram os famosos chefes da tribo Yakama?
Os líderes e chefes mais famosos da tribo Yakama incluíam o Chefe Kamiakin, o Chefe Qualchan e o Chefe Leschi da tribo Nisqually Nativa Americana.

O que aconteceu com a tribo Yakama?
A seguinte linha do tempo da história de Yakama detalha fatos, datas, marcos famosos e batalhas travadas pela nação Yakama. A linha do tempo da história Yakama explica o que aconteceu com as pessoas de sua tribo.


Hoje na história nativa: a terra da floresta retornou à nação Yakama

Em 20 de maio de 1972, o presidente Richard Nixon assinou uma ordem executiva devolvendo 21.000 acres de terras florestais à nação Yakama de Washington e resolvendo uma disputa de um século sobre os limites das reservas.

A ordem retornou ao território tribal no lado leste do Monte Adams, um pico coberto de neve de quase 10.000 pés que é uma das montanhas sagradas da nação Yakama & # x2019s. O Tratado de Yakama de 1855, que criou a reserva, omitiu erroneamente a montanha.

& # x201CQuando estávamos negociando o tratado, nossos anciões fizeram questão de incluir o Monte Adams dentro dos limites da reserva, & # x201D disse Emily Washines, porta-voz da Yakama Nation Fisheries. & # x201CO tratado desencadeou as batalhas Yakama que ocorreram entre 1855 e 1859 e finalmente o tratado foi ratificado, mas naquele ponto eles cometeram um erro de levantamento que cortou o Monte Adams dos limites da reserva. & # x201D

Em 1897, o presidente Grover Cleveland criou a Reserva Florestal Mount Rainier perto da fronteira oeste da Reserva Yakama. Dez anos depois, o presidente Theodore Roosevelt estendeu os limites da floresta para incluir uma área de 21.000 acres, então considerada como terra pública.

Em 1942, uma parte da área foi designada área Selvagem do Monte Adams e, entre 1964 e 1972, foi considerada terra pública de acordo com a Lei do Deserto. Quando Nixon devolveu a terra ao Yakama, ela fazia parte de uma área maior conhecida como Gifford Pinchot National Forest.

& # x201Esta ação corrige um erro que remonta 65 anos, & # x201D Nixon disse ao assinar a ordem executiva. & # x201CO governo dos EUA perdeu o mapa do tratado em seus próprios arquivos e, no momento em que foi encontrado, ações foram tomadas que desalojaram os índios por engano desta terra.

A ordem executiva foi uma vitória da Nação Yakama, uma confederação de 14 tribos e bandos no centro-sul de Washington que reverenciava o Monte Adams como um marco importante e lendário. A montanha, também conhecida como Pahto, é uma das cinco irmãs que compõem as cinco montanhas sagradas da Nação Yakama.

Pahto tinha ciúmes de Washxim, ou Simcoe Mountain, porque ela era a primeira a saudar o sol todas as manhãs. Então Pahto cortou a cabeça de Waxshim & # x2019s, deixando a montanha com o topo achatado. Como punição, o Criador colocou uma águia sobre Pahto. Apesar do ato de agressão de Pahto, a montanha ainda oferece águas cristalinas de nascente e muitas fontes de alimento.

& # x201CMount Adams é importante espiritualmente, mas também é uma fonte de muitos recursos, & # x201D Washines disse. & # x201Crios descem, os animais vivem ali e as bagas são colhidas. Tradicionalmente, também nos reunimos lá como famílias. & # X201D

Imediatamente depois de perder o Monte Adams, a tribo começou a trabalhar para recuperá-lo. Antes de ter sucesso, no entanto, teve que formar uma geração de líderes experientes.

& # x201CAs cada geração cresceu, uma das coisas que os anciãos reiteraram é que isso foi um erro da parte dos EUA, isso era algo que precisávamos corrigir, & # x201D Washines disse. & # x201Nossos filhos foram criados sabendo disso, ouvindo isso. Finalmente tínhamos uma geração que entendia as leis e falava inglês e podia levar o caso ao governo. & # X201D

A primeira vitória veio em 1966, quando a Comissão de Reclamações Indígenas descobriu que a terra era legitimamente parte da Reserva Yakama. Mas a comissão tinha autoridade apenas para reembolsar a tribo pelas terras perdidas, sem corrigir o erro.

A tribo então fez parceria com outros povos indígenas em circunstâncias semelhantes & # x2014 e chamou a atenção da mídia nacional, disse Johnson Meninick, gerente do programa de recursos culturais da Nação Yakama. Meninick era membro do conselho tribal quando Nixon devolveu a terra.

O presidente Richard Nixon aperta a mão do presidente Robert Jim em 1972.

& # x201COs agrimensores originais estavam todos confusos, & # x201D disse ele. & # x201CNós sempre soubemos que o tratado havia sido excluído do tratado, mas tivemos que reclamar por anos antes de recuperá-lo. Nossos antepassados ​​lutaram por ela por 50 anos antes que ela finalmente fosse aprovada. & # X201D


Religião

Espíritos da guarda

Os Yakama foram em busca de visão quando crianças para obter um espírito guardião. As crianças iam sozinhas para um local remoto e pernoitavam ou vários dias até terem uma visão. Aqueles que receberam um espírito nunca falaram sobre isso, mas mais tarde experimentariam a “doença do espírito”, então um twáti (médico, consulte “Práticas de cura”) explicaria como usar o poder.

Yakama que tinha espíritos guardiões participava de danças espirituais de inverno ou wáanpsha (“O remédio canta”). Estes foram patrocinados pela família de uma pessoa que havia sido curada. O wáanpsha durou cinco dias, e aqueles com espírito guardião cantaram e dançaram, acompanhados por bateristas que batiam em pranchas com paus ou bengalas.

Religião Longhouse

A religião Yakama tradicional tinha vários nomes diferentes: Wáashat, maloca ou religião de sete tambores, ou adoração ao nativo americano. Wáashat veio da palavra sahaptin para "dança". Derivado das ideias dos primeiros profetas nativos, ele se concentrava em rituais antigos, como a Festa dos Primeiros Alimentos (veja “Festivais”).

Os serviços foram realizados em uma maloca, onde os participantes foram separados por gênero. Os machos ficavam ao longo das fêmeas da parede norte, ao longo da parede sul. Todos se vestiram e pintaram seus rostos de vermelho e amarelo. Os bateristas, liderados por um tocador de sinos, sentaram-se ou ficaram no lado oeste.

Os participantes cantaram e dançaram em séries de sete (um número sagrado) em um chão de terra firme. No final de cada música, todos se viraram para se livrar de seus problemas. Entre as séries de músicas, os mais velhos falavam com os jovens para lembrá-los dos ensinamentos de seus avós. As crianças às vezes executavam passos rápidos e saltitantes.

A água era importante para a cerimônia. Antes da festa ritual, um sino tocou e todos cantaram uma prece. Na segunda vez que tocou, todos disseram chiish (“Água”), depois bebeu de suas xícaras. Eles repetiram isso no final da refeição.

Influências externas

Em 1847, Pascal Richard e Eugene Casimir Chirouse estabeleceram a primeira missão cristã, mas eles a abandonaram mais tarde naquele ano durante a Guerra de Cayuse (1848-55 um conflito entre a tribo Cayuse e o governo dos EUA). Outras denominações estabeleceram missões nos anos seguintes. No início do século XXI, muitas igrejas católicas e protestantes oferecem serviços religiosos na reserva.

A Igreja Indian Shaker também é uma forte influência na vida religiosa Yakama. Fundada por John Slocum em 1881, esta combinação de crenças cristãs e nativas americanas foi introduzida na tribo em 1890. Os participantes usam o toque de sinos, batidas de pés, tremores e orações nativas para se comunicar com Deus e curar doenças.

Profetas yakama

Durante a década de 1850, o profeta Wanapum Smohalla (c. 1815–1895) pediu um retorno aos costumes americanos nativos. Ele disse a seus seguidores para evitar idéias e produtos brancos, nunca cortar suas tranças, comer alimentos tradicionais e ir em busca da visão. Ele também pediu às pessoas que não se mudassem para reservas ou se tornassem agricultores. Embora ele pregasse a não violência e a coexistência pacífica com os brancos, seus ensinamentos foram influentes na organização da confederação de tribos que lutaram nas Guerras Yakima.

Jake Hunt, um Klikitat, começou Waptashi, ou a religião Feather, por volta de 1904. Enquanto as religiões tradicionais reverenciavam Deus e a Mãe Terra, os Waptashi acreditavam que a Águia era o ser supremo. As mensagens vieram da Águia por meio de Jake Hunt. Embora tenha sido criado nos modos Washani, Hunt cortou o cabelo e vestiu roupas de homem branco.

Crenças religiosas modernas

Nos tempos modernos, os Yakama adoram de várias maneiras. Três malocas na reserva servem como locais tradicionais de culto. Alguns membros da tribo participam das religiões Washani ou Feather. Outros frequentam igrejas cristãs ou a Indian Shaker Church. Muitos Yakama, no entanto, não vêem conflito em combinar as práticas nativas e cristãs.


Yakama Indian Nation - História

A nação Yakama é uma tribo indígena do noroeste do Pacífico que vive no estado de Washington. Aqui está uma breve linha do tempo de sua história com os europeus desde 1750 até o presente.

1750 e # 8217: Os Yakama adquirem o cavalo e seu estilo de vida muda quando eles podem viajar para as Grandes Planícies para caçar búfalos.

1805: O contato foi feito entre a tribo Yakama e a expedição Lewis e Clark em outubro de 1805 perto da confluência dos rios Yakima e Columbia

1812: Um posto comercial conhecido como Spokane House foi construído perto da confluência dos rios Spokane e Little Spokane

1825: A Hudson’s Bay Company estabeleceu Fort Vancouver como um posto comercial

1836: Henry Marcus Whitman fundou uma missão presbiteriana em Waiilatpu e fez contato com a tribo

1840 e # 8217: o tenente Charles Wilkes foi enviado pelo governo dos EUA para explorar a costa do Pacífico.

1843: A primeira grande migração ao longo da trilha do Oregon ocorreu, o que acabou levando a conflitos violentos com os colonos brancos que viajavam em vagões ao longo da trilha do Oregon

1845: Os colonos brancos trouxeram várias doenças aos índios nativos que viviam nas áreas circundantes da Trilha do Oregon

1847: Muitos membros da tribo Yakama são exterminados por uma série devastadora de epidemias de sarampo e varíola

1847: O Massacre de Whitman levou à eclosão da Guerra de Cayuse

1847: A tribo Yakama lutou com seus aliados índios nativos na Guerra Cayuse (1847-1855)

1855: Isaac Stevens (25 de março de 1818 - 1 de setembro de 1862), governador do Território de Washington, negociou um tratado com o Yakama.

1855: O tratado de Yakima foi assinado em 9 de julho de 1855

1855: O governador Stevens abriu terras indígenas para colonos brancos menos de duas semanas após a assinatura do tratado. O chefe Yakama, Chefe Kamiakin, convocou as tribos a se oporem à declaração.

1855: A Guerra Yakima (1855-1858) estourou

1855: A batalha de Toppenish Creek no vale de Yakima foi travada em 5 de outubro de 1855 e foi uma grande vitória para o chefe Kamiakin e a tribo Yakama

1855: A batalha em Union Gap foi travada em 9 e 10 de novembro de 1855.

1857: A corrida do ouro de Fraser Canyon

1858: A Guerra Yakima escalou para as outras tribos indígenas nativas

1858: A Batalha de Quatro Lagos em 1º de setembro de 1858 viu o fim da Guerra Yakima

1858: Os eventos em & # 8220Horse Slaughter Camp & # 8221 concluíram as Guerras Coeur d & # 8217Alene e Yakima.

1859: O tratado foi quebrado, os EUA deram apenas metade do que foi prometido ao povo Yakama

1860: A primeira escola governamental para índios americanos nativos foi estabelecida na Reserva Yakima, Território de Washington

1887: A Lei de Distribuição Geral de Dawes, aprovada pelo Congresso, leva ao desmembramento das grandes reservas indígenas e à venda de terras indígenas a colonos brancos

1933: A tribo Yakama foi organizada como Tribos Confederadas da Nação Yakama.

1994: a nação Yakima adotou a grafia de seu nome como & # 8220Yakama & # 8221, que eles acreditam ser a grafia histórica mais correta de seu nome.


HistoryLink.org

Yakima é o segundo maior condado de Washington em área, cobrindo 4.296 milhas quadradas (2,7 milhões de acres) e ocupa o sétimo lugar em população, com 222.581 residentes contados no censo de 2000 dos Estados Unidos. A cidade de Yakima é a sede do condado. O condado de Yakima abrange a maior parte da Reserva Indígena Yakama, e os governos federal, estadual ou tribal possuem quase 200 milhões de acres de terra no condado. A localização de muitas cidades dentro do condado de Yakima foi determinada em grande parte pela Ferrovia do Pacífico Norte, ao longo de cuja rota os locais foram escolhidos, nomeados, traçados e eventualmente vendidos aos colonos. A principal indústria do condado de Yakima é a agricultura, sustentada por uma média anual de 300 dias de sol e solo vulcânico rico em nutrientes e possibilitada por projetos de irrigação do rio Yakima.

Geografia Política

O condado de Yakima faz fronteira a oeste com áreas selvagens: Norse Peak Wilderness e Pierce County ao noroeste, William O. Douglas Wilderness / Snoqualmie National Forest / Goat Rocks Wilderness e Lewis County ao centro-oeste, e Cascade Mountain Range / Mt. Adams Wilderness e Skamania County ao sudoeste. O condado de Kittitas faz fronteira com Yakima ao norte e os dois condados compartilham a Reserva Militar dos Estados Unidos do Yakima Firing Center de 260.000 acres. O condado de Benton faz fronteira com Yakima ao leste e o condado de Klickitat ao sul. A Reserva Indígena Yakama compreende 1.271.918 acres (1.573 milhas quadradas) na porção sul do Condado de Yakima e se estende até o Condado de Klickitat. A reserva abrange várias cidades, incluindo Parker, Wapato, Toppenish, Vessey Springs e White Swan, bem como parte da cordilheira Simcoe.

A metade oriental do Monte Adams (12.276 pés), um estratovulcão andesítico ativo, se estende até o canto sudoeste do Condado de Yakima. O Monte Adams é o terceiro pico mais alto da Cordilheira de Cascade e o segundo pico mais alto de Washington (depois do Monte Rainier). Uma parte da montanha se estende até a Floresta Nacional Gifford Pinchot, no Condado de Skamania. A Floresta Nacional de Gifford Pinchot foi estabelecida como Floresta Nacional de Columbia em 1908 e renomeada para homenagear Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946), primeiro Chefe do Serviço Florestal Nacional, em 1949.

A topografia montanhosa do oeste do condado de Yakima dá lugar a sopés semi-áridos e arbustos na parte central do condado. O rio Yakima, um afluente do Columbia, atravessa o vale de Yakima e com seus afluentes os rios Naches e Tieton alimenta cerca de 2.100 milhas de canais de irrigação em todo o vale de Yakima.

O nome Yakima foi traduzido para significar urso negro (de yah-kah, que significa urso negro e a desinência plural ma), ou fugitivo, referindo-se às águas impetuosas do rio Yakima ou a uma lenda tribal sobre um fugitivo ou deportado filha de um chefe Yakama.

Os primeiros habitantes da região foram os bandos confederados e tribos da Nação Indígena Yakama, que coletavam camas, raízes amargas e bagas, caçavam veados e colhiam salmão dos rios Yakima e Columbia. Esses bandos eram nômades, especialmente depois que começaram a adquirir cavalos das tribos do norte da Grande Bacia em algum momento entre 1730 e 1760.

Acordo Euro-Americano

Os primeiros colonos europeus eram membros dos Missionários Oblatos Católicos de Maria Imaculada. A convite dos chefes Yakama Ow-hi (falecido em 1858) e Kamiakin (ca. 1800-1877), os Oblatos estabeleceram várias pequenas missões no Vale de Yakima começando em 1848 e uma missão maior, a Missão de São José no Ahtanum, em 1852. A primeira vala de irrigação no futuro condado de Yakima foi cavada no terreno dessa missão naquele mesmo ano.

O Território de Washington foi estabelecido em 2 de março de 1853, e o recém-nomeado Governador Territorial Isaac Stevens rapidamente começou a extinguir a reivindicação indígena pela terra e encorajar o assentamento de brancos. Em 9 de junho de 1855, 14 líderes tribais assinaram o Tratado de Yakima, cedendo 10.828.800 acres de suas terras ancestrais ao governo dos Estados Unidos.

A nação yakama

O líder tribal Yakama, Kamiakin, foi um signatário relutante. O fracasso quase imediato de Stevens em fazer cumprir partes do acordo que protegiam alguns direitos de Yakama levou Kamiakin a retirar sua aquiescência ao tratado. Em 5 de outubro de 1855, houve um tiroteio entre os homens de Kamiakin e as tropas do Major Granville Haller em Toppenish Creek, marcando o início das Guerras Indígenas Yakama.

O governo dos Estados Unidos estabeleceu o Fort Simcoe em 1856 e em 1858 o levante foi reprimido pela matança e fome de muitos membros da tribo. Muitos membros restantes se estabeleceram em terras de reserva, sobrevivendo a anos difíceis de transição e lutando continuamente por seus direitos à terra.

Em 1994, a tribo mudou a grafia de seu nome para Yakama. A nação Yakama controla quase 1,3 milhão de acres, a maior massa de terra controlada por qualquer uma das 29 tribos reconhecidas federalmente no estado. A tribo tem 9.600 membros tribais inscritos, mais do que qualquer outra tribo de Washington. Três famílias de línguas eram indígenas das 14 bandas e tribos que constituem a Nação Yakama: Sahaptian, Salishan e Chinookan. As 14 bandas e tribos são Palouse, Pisquouse, Yakama, Wenatchapam, Klinquit, Oche Chotes, Kow was wayee, Sk'in-pah, Kah-miltpah, Klickitat, Wish ham, See ap Cat, Li ay was e Shyiks.

Gado no Vale Yakima

Os índios haviam invernado rebanhos de gado no Vale Yakima desde que Kamiakin trouxe o primeiro rebanho para a área em 1840. Em 1859, o lendário pecuarista Ben Snipes (1835-1906) conduziu seu primeiro rebanho de gado através do Vale Yakima para os campos de ouro do Rio Fraser no Canadá. John Jeffries, Major John Thorp e muitos outros proprietários de gado o seguiram. Parte do estoque também foi enviada por barco a vapor para Portland ou Kalama e depois por trem para Puget Sound. Longas viagens de gado pela área eram comuns até a chegada da Ferrovia do Pacífico Norte, depois da qual o gado era levado para as estações ferroviárias e enviado ao mercado por ferrovia.

Mortimer Thorp (1822-1893) e Margaret Bounds Thorp (1822-1888) com seus nove filhos foram os primeiros colonos não indianos e não missionários no Vale de Yakima, chegando em 1861 no futuro local de Moxee para se juntar aos 250 chefes de gado que Thorp havia dirigido lá para pastar no ano anterior. A família Alfred Henson e a viúva Nancy McHaney Splawn Bond (1812-1905) com seus cinco filhos, Charles, William, George, Moses e Andrew J., mudaram-se para o vale de Yakima logo depois. Other settlers followed, many of them young men associated with the area's increasing cattle culture. W. D. Lyman's History of the Yakima Valley Washington (Vol. 1), published in 1919, quotes Leonard Thorp's description of what he called a cattleman's paradise:

Present-day Yakima County was briefly (from January 1863 to January 1865) part of a large county called Ferguson County. When Ferguson was dissolved after only two years, the County of Yakima, including more or less present-day Yakima and Kittitas Counties, was established on January 21, 1865. On November 24, 1883, Kittitas County was divided from Yakima, leaving the county boundaries approximately as they remain.

Towns and Trains

The first town in the county was Yakima City, established in 1861 and incorporated in 1883. In 1884 the Northern Pacific Railroad located its station four miles north of Yakima City and the townspeople moved most of the town's buildings north to the station. Incorporated in 1886 and initially called North Yakima, in 1918 the new town became simply Yakima. The old town was then renamed Union Gap.

Moxee was founded in 1867. Over the next four decades other Yakima County towns were established, although some were little more than names for their first few years and were not officially incorporated for many more: Mabton (incorporated 1905), Toppenish (incorporated 1907), and Wapato (incorporated 1908) were founded in 1885. Zillah was established in 1892 and incorporated in 1911, Sunnyside was established in 1893 and incorporated in 1902. Granger, established in 1902, and Grandview, established in 1906, both incorporated in 1909. Selah was founded in 1907 and incorporated in 1919, Naches was established in 1908 and incorporated in 1921. Tieton incorporated in 1942 and Harrah in 1946.

The River and the Railroad

Two overwhelming forces shaped Yakima County's development: the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Yakima River. Snaking through the Yakima Valley, the Northern Pacific tracks linked the valley with Puget Sound through the Stampede Pass Tunnel. The first train rolled through Stampede Pass on May 27, 1888, replacing a slightly earlier series of track switchbacks that had been the only way across the Cascades.

The Northern Pacific owned a vast tract of land along the railroad right-of-way between Lake Superior and Puget Sound, courtesy of the May 23, 1864, Northern Pacific Land Grant. This grant deeded to the railroad alternating square miles of public land adjacent to the track right-of-way in a band 40 miles wide in states and 80 miles wide in territories in exchange for construction of a northern transcontinental line. The Northern Pacific was able to sell irrigated land for as much as $40 to $50 per acre as compared with $2.60 per acre for dry land, a powerful inducement for the railroad to fund irrigation. The Yakima River was the means to irrigate, populate, and make this land productive.

Walter Granger (1855-1930) was an irrigation engineer without whose diligence and determination Yakima County might not have attained its global reputation as an agricultural cornucopia and the fruit basket of the nation. Hired by Northern Pacific president Thomas Oakes (1843-1919) in 1889, Granger organized and managed the Yakima Canal and Land Company (in partnership with the Northern Pacific Railroad under the name Northern Pacific, Yakima, and Kittitas Irrigation Project) and the Washington Irrigation Company.

Charged with building irrigation systems and deciding where town sites and stations would be established along the railroad's Yakima Valley route, Granger and Northern Pacific employees took frequent scouting trips, often accompanied by the press or railroad VIPs. Granger determined the locations and names of Zillah, Granger, Sunnyside, and possibly other towns in the county and built the Sunnyside Canal, the largest irrigation canal in the Northwest at the time.

Irrigating the Valley

Most of Yakima County's population is centered along the Yakima River. Irrigation for farming was crucial to the success of these communities, and individual farmers had created small canals from the time of non-Indian settlement. The Sunnyside Canal began operation in 1892 and other private irrigation canals followed. These unregulated projects over-appropriated Yakima River supplies.

The United States Congress passed the Reclamation Act on June 17, 1902, paving the way for federally funded dam and irrigation construction projects throughout the arid West. The Act required that water users repay construction costs of the irrigation projects from which they received benefits. The Yakima Project, authorized on December 12, 1905, was one of the first and largest efforts of the Federal Bureau of Reclamation, and has irrigated the Yakima Valley since 1910. The government purchased many of the earlier canals and incorporated them into the Yakima Project. Water from the Keechulus, Kachess, and Lake Cle Elum reservoirs feed the Yakima River, while the Tieton and Bumping Lake Reservoirs feed the Yakima's tributaries, the Naches and Tieton Rivers. These rivers in turn supply the Yakima Valley's nearly 2,100 miles of irrigation canals.

Planting and Growing

On March 15, 1893 the Washington State Legislature passed the State Fair Act designating North Yakima in Yakima County the site for an annual State Agricultural Fair. Yakima got the event as a consolation prize after losing (to Olympia) the race to have Yakima City proclaimed state capital. With the exception of 1895, the Washington State Fair was held annually from 1894 until 1930, when the state legislature declined to fund a budget. From 1932 to 1936, scaled down versions of the fair occurred but were not considered successful. In 1939 the Central Washington State Fair was founded, using the old State Fairgrounds. The Central Washington State Fair is held annually in September.

The first wine grapes in the Yakima Valley were planted in 1869, the first hops in 1872, and the first commercial fruit orchard in 1887. All of these crops would eventually become major parts of Yakima County's primary industry, agriculture. Once the land was pegged for commercial fruit production, the transformation from sagebrush to cultivated acreage was accomplished briskly. In the Selah Valley, for example, 36,000 fruit trees were reportedly set out in one year alone. The Northern Pacific Railroad provided a ready way for farmers to ship their produce to market, and processing plants and fruit storage facilities soon flourished near railroad stations.

Migrant Labor in the Valley

Commercial farming was dependant on migratory harvesters. Indian pickers harvested hops each fall. During the Great Depression of the 1930s Yakima County's laden trees and fields provided much-needed employment for the thousands of families from across the country seeking work, and migrant campsites dotted the region. Conditions at these migrant camps varied, but many lacked basic sanitary facilities. By the early 1940s many families of Japanese origin were farming in Yakima County. These families, more than 1,000 individuals, were forced to abandon their farms and enter internment camps under Executive Order 9066.

Increased farm production to aid the war effort and labor shortages caused by internment and the exodus of men into the military during World War II led to the creation of the Bracero Program, a federal program that brought Mexican and Mexican American migrant workers into Washington and other states to harvest crops. After the Bracero Program was discontinued in 1964 Mexican and Mexican American workers continued to provide a substantial portion of the farm labor in Yakima County. In recent years a federal guest worker program has brought Thais to Yakima County to harvest field and tree fruit crops.

Today (2006) 558,000 acres of private land in Yakima County are used for agriculture. Manufacturing (especially of food-related products) and fruit warehousing are other major industries in the county. Forestry and livestock are significant industries. Yakima County is a leading global producer of apples, hops, mint, and asparagus, and the county's wine industry continues to expand and flourish.

The State of Washington
Washington State Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation


HistoryLink.org

The Treaty with the Yakama was signed on June 9, 1855, by Isaac Stevens (1818-1862), Governor of Washington Territory, and by Chief Kamiakin (spelled "Kamaiakun" in the treaty) and other tribal leaders and delegates. (Note that while the Tribe's name is spelled "Yakama" in the treaty, the spelling "Yakima" later became common, and is still used in the names of the river, county, and city derived from the tribal name, but in 1994 the Yakima Tribe changed the spelling of its name back to the original Yakama Tribe.) The complete text of the treaty follows.

The Yakama Treaty

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the treaty-ground, Camp Stevens, Walla-Walla Valley, this ninth day of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by and between Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory of Washington, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned head chiefs, chiefs,. head-men, and delegates of the Yakama, Palouse, Pisquouse, Wenatshapam,, Klikatat, Klinquit, Kaw-was-say-ee, Li-ay-was, Skin-pah,, Wish-ham, Shyiks, Ochechotes, Kah-milt-pah,, and Se-ap-cat, confederated tribes and bands of Indians, occupying lands hereinafter bounded and described and lying in Washington Territory, who for the purposes of this treaty are to be considered as one nation, under the name of "Yakama," with Kamaiakun as its head chief, on behalf of and acting for said tribes and bands, and being duly authorized thereto by them.

ARTIGO 1. The aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to the lands and country occupied and claimed by them, and bounded and described as follows, to wit:

Commencing at Mount Ranier, thence northerly along the main ridge of the Cascade Mountains to the point, where the northern tributaries of Lake Che-lan and the southern tributaries of the Methow River have their rise thence southeasterly on the divide between the waters of Lake Che-lan and the Methow River to the Columbia River thence, crossing the Columbia on a true east course, toil, point whose longitude is one hundred and nineteen degrees and ten minutes, (119° 10',) which two latter lines separate the above confederated tribes and bands from the Oakinakane tribe of Indians thence in a true south course to the forty-seventh (47°) parallel of latitude thence east on said parallel to the main Palouse River, which two latter lines of boundary separate the above confederated tribes and hands from the Spokanes thence down the Palouse River to its junction with the Moh-hah-ne-she, or southern tributary of the same thence in a southesterly[sic] direction, to the Snake River, at the mouth of the Tucannon River, separating the above confederated tribes from the Nez Percé tribe of Indians thence down the Snake River to its junction with the Columbia River thence up the Columbia River to the "White Banks" below the Priest's Rapids thence westerly to a lake called "La Lac" thence southerly to a point on the Yakama River called Toh-mah-luke thence, in a southwesterly direction, to the Columbia River, at the western extremity of the "Big Island," between the mouths of the Umatilla River and Butler Creek all which latter boundaries separate the above confederated tribes and bands from the Walla-Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla tribes and bands of Indians thence down the Columbia River to midway between the mouths Of White Salmon and Wind Rivers thence along the divide between said rivers to the main ridge of the Cascade Mountains and thence along said ridge to the place of beginning.

ARTIGO 2. There is, however, reserved, from the lands above ceded for the use and occupation of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians, the tract of land included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing on the Yakama River, at the mouth of the Attah-nam River thence westerly along said Attah-nam River to the forks thence along the southern tributary to the Cascade Mountains thence southerly along the main ridge of said mountains, passing south and east of Mount Adams, to the spur whence flows the waters of the Klickatat and Pisco Rivers thence down said spur to the divide 'between the waters of said rivers thence along said aivide to the divide separating the waters of the Satass River from those flowing into the Columbia River thence along said divide to the main Yakama, eight miles below the mouth of the Satass River and thence up the Yakama River to the place of beginning.

All which tract shall be set apart and, so far as necessary, surveyed and marked out, for the exclusive use and benefit of said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, as an Indian reservation nor shall any white man, excepting those in the employment of the Indian Department, be permitted to reside upon the said reservation without permission of the tribe and the superintendent and agent. And the said confederated tribes and bands agree to remove to, and settle upon, the same, within one year after the ratification of this treaty. In the mean time it shall be lawful for them to reside upon any ground not in the actual claim and occupation of citizens of the United States and upon any ground claimed or occupied, if with the permission of the owner or claimant.

Guaranteeing, however, the right to all citizens of the United States to enter upon and occupy as settlers any lands not actually occupied and cultivated by said Indians at this time, and not included in the reservation above named.

And provided, That any substantial improvements heretofore made by any Indian, such as fields enclosed and cultivated, and houses erected upon the lands hereby ceded, and which he may be compelled to abandon in consequence of this treaty, shall be valued, under the direction of the President of the United States, and payment made therefore[sic] in money or improvements of an equal value made for said Indian upon the reservation. And no Indian will be required to abandon the improvements aforesaid, now occupied by him, until their value in money, or improvements of an equal value shall be furnished him as aforesaid.

ARTIGO 3. And provided, That, if necessary for the public convenience, roads may be run through the said reservation and on the other hand, the right of way, with free access from the same to the nearest public highway, is secured to them as "also the right, in common with citizens of the United States, to travel upon all public highways.

The exclusive right of taking fish in all the streams, where running through or bordering said reservation, is further secured to said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, as also the right of taking fish at all usual and accustomed places, in common with the citizens of the Territory, and of erecting temporary buildings for curing them:

ARTIGO 4. In consideration of the above cession, the United States agree to pay to the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, in addition to the goods and provisions distributed to them at the time of signing this treaty, the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, in the following manner, that is to say: Sixty thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the President of the United States, the first year after the ratification of this treaty, in providing for their removal to the reservation, breaking up and fencing farms, building houses for them, supplying 'them with provisions and a suitable outfit, and for such other objects as he may deem necessary, and the remainder in annuities, as follows: For the first five years after the ratification of the treaty, ten thousand-dollars each year, commencing September first, 1856 for the next five years, eight thousand dollars each year for the next five years, Six thousand dollars per year and for the next five years, four thousand dollars per year.

All which sums of money shall be applied to the use and benefit of said Indians, under the direction of the President of the United States, who may from time to time determine, at his discretion, upon what beneficial objects to expend the same for them. And the superintendent of Indian affairs, or other proper officer, shall each year inform the President of the wishes of the Indians in relation thereto.

ARTIGO 5. The United States further agree to establish at suitable points within said reservation, within one year after the ratification hereof, two schools, erecting the necessary buildings, keeping them in repair, and providing them with furniture, books, and stationery, one of which shall be an agricultural and industrial school, to be located at the agency, and to be free to the children of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, and to employ one superintendent of teaching and two teachers to build two blacksmiths' shops, to one of which shall be attached a tin-shop, and to the other a gunsmith's shop one carpenter's shop, one wagon and plough maker's shop, and to keep the same in repair and furnished with the necessary tools to employ one superintendent of farming and two farmers, two blacksmiths, one tinner, one gunsmith, one carpenter, one wagon and plough maker, for the instruction of the Indians in trades and to assist them in the same to erect one saw-mill and one flouring-Mill, keeping the same in repair and furnished with the necessary tools and fixtures to erect a hospital, keeping the same in repair and provided with the necessary medicines and furniture, and to employ a physician and to erect, keep in repair, and provided with the necessary furniture, the building required for the accommodation of the said employees. The said buildings and establishments to be maintained and kept in repair as aforesaid, and the employees to be kept in service for the period of twenty years.

And in view of the fact that the head chief of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians is expected, and will be called upon to perform many services of a public character, occupying much of his time, the United States further agree to pay to the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians five hundred dollars per year, for the term of twenty years after the ratification hereof, as a salary for such person as the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians may select to be their head chief, to build for him at a suitable point on the reservation a comfortable house, and properly furnish the same, and to plough and fence ten acres of land. The said salary to be paid to, and the said house to be occupied by, such head chief so long as he may continue to hold that office.

And it is distinctly understood and agreed that at the time of the conclusion of this treaty Kamaiakun is the duly elected and authorized head chief of the confederated tribes and bands aforesaid, styled the Yakama Nation, and is recognized as such by them and by the commissioners on the part of the United States holding this treaty and all the expenditures and expenses contemplated in this article of this treaty shall be defrayed by the United States, and shall not be deducted from the annuities agreed to be paid to said confederated tribes and band of Indians. Nor shall the cost of transporting the goods for the annuity payments be a charge upon the annuities, but shall be defrayed by the United States.

ARTIGO 6. The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole or such portions of such reservation as he may think proper, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to such individuals or families of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate on the same as a permanent home, on the same terms and subject to the same regulations as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the same may be applicable.

ARTIGO 7. The annuities of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians shall not be taken to pay the debts of individuals.

ARTIGO 8. The aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians acknowledge their dependence upon the Government of the United States, and promise to be friendly with all citizens thereof, and pledge themselves to commit no depredations upon the property of such citizens.

And should any one or more of them violate this pledge, and the fact be satisfactorily proved before the agent, the property taken shall be returned,'or in default thereof, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the Government out of the annuities.

Nor will they make war upon any other tribe, except in self-defence, but will submit all matters of difference between them and other Indians to the Government of the United States or its agent for decision, and abide thereby. And if any of the said Indians commit depredations on any other Indians within the Territory of Washington or Oregon, the same rule shall prevail as that provided in this article in case of depredations against citizens. And the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians agree not to shelter or conceal offenders against the laws of the United States, but to deliver them up to the authorities for trial.

ARTIGO 9. The said confederated tribes and bands of Indians desire to exclude from their reservation the use of ardent spirits, and to prevent their people from drinking the same, and, therefore, it is provided that any Indian belonging to said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, who is guilty of bringing liquor into said reservation, or who drinks liquor, may have his or her annuities withheld from him or her for such time as the President may determine.

ARTIGO 10. And provided, That there is also reserved and set apart from the lands ceded by this treaty, for the use and benefit of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands, a tract of land not exceeding in quantity one township of six miles square, situated at the forks of the Pisquouse or Wenatshapam River, and known as the " Wenatshapam Fishery," which said reservation shall be surveyed and marked out whenever the President may direct, and be subject to the same provisions and restrictions as other Indian reservations.

ARTIGO 11. This treaty shall be obligatory upon the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States.

In testimony whereof, the said Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory, of Washington, and the undersigned head chief, chiefs, headmen, and delegates-of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the place and on the day and year herein before written.


Yakama Tribe

This article contains interesting facts, pictures and information about the life of the Yakama Native American Indian Tribe, aka Yakima, of the Columbia River Plateau region.

Facts about the Yakama Native Indian Tribe
This article contains fast, fun facts and interesting information about the Yakama Native American Indian tribe.

Find answers to questions like where did the Yakama tribe live, what clothes did they wear, what did they eat and who were the names of their most famous leaders? Discover what happened to the Yakama tribe with facts about their wars and history.

What language did the Yakama tribe speak?
The Yakama tribe spoke in a Sahaptian dialect of the Penutian language and called themselves Pakintlema meaning "people of the gap," or Waptailmim meaning "people-of-the-narrows," reflecting the location of their villages near Union Gap on the Yakima River. After the introduction of the horse the Yakama people hunted buffalo on the Great Plains and adopted the some of the lifestyle elements of this cultural group. The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, or simply the Yakama Nation (formerly Yakima), was a consolidation of 14 bands, or tribes.

Where did the Yakama tribe live?
The Yakama are people of the Plateau Native American cultural group. The location of their tribal homelands are shown on the map in the modern day state of Washington. The geography of the region in which they lived dictated the lifestyle and culture of the Yakama tribe.

What was the lifestyle and culture of the Yakama tribe?
The Yakama tribe lived a semi-nomadic lifestyle fishing, hunting, or gathering wild plants for food. The Yakama tribe lived in pit houses in the winter and tule-mat lodges or tepees in the summer. The Lewis and Clark expedition encountered the Plateau Yakama tribe during their explorations in 1806. The Yakama adopted many of the ideas of the Great Plains Indians including the use of the tepee which were covered with buffalo hides and some items of clothing also made from buffalo hides.

The Yakama tribe and the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark encountered the Yakama tribe in October 1805 and met Chief Kamiakin, the war leader of the Yakama Nation.

What did the Yakama tribe live in?
The Yakama were semi-nomadic and needed shelters that were easy to set up and take down. They lived in one of three shelters, depending on the season. The types of shelters were a semi-subterranean pit house, a tepee or a tule-mat lodge.

  • Pit houses were winter shelters that were built with logs and sealed for insulation with earth (sod) and grasses. They were built below ground with an entrance and ladder at the top
  • The summer shelters were the tepee and tule-mat lodge, both above ground.
  • Tepees were covered with animal skins but the tule-mat lodge was covered with mats of strong, durable, tule reeds (bulrushes).

What transportation did the Yakama use? Dugout Canoes
When the tribe inhabited the Plateau region they built dugout canoes made from the hollowed-out logs of large trees. The men hollowed logs with controlled fire that softened the timber so they could carve and shape their canoe to have a flat bottom with straight sides. The canoe was perfect means of transportation for travel along fast streams and shallow waters of the Columbia, Wenatchee and Yakima Rivers.

What food did the Yakama tribe eat?
The food of the Yakama tribe included salmon and trout and a variety of meats from the animals and birds they hunted. They supplemented their protein diet with seeds, roots, nuts and fruits.

What clothes did the Yakama wear?
The clothes worn by the Yakama men and women of the tribe were similar to the clothing of the Nez Perce - please refer to this article for details.

What weapons did the Yakama use?
The weapons used were spears, lances, clubs, knives and bows and arrows. The Yakama also used shields for defensive purposes.

Who were the allies and enemies of the Yakama tribe?
The allies of the Yakama tribe were many of the other Native American Indians who inhabited the Plateau region including the Cayuse, Walla Walla, Spokane, Coeur D'Alene, Payuse and the Nez Perce. The main enemies of the Yakama tribe were the Great Basin groups to the south, including the Shoshone, Northern Paiute, and the Bannock tribes.

Who were the famous chiefs of the Yakama tribe?
The most famous leaders and chiefs of the Yakama tribe included Chief Kamiakin, Chief Qualchan and Chief Leschi of the Nisqually Native American tribe.

What happened to the Yakama tribe?
The following Yakama history timeline details facts, dates and famous landmarks and battles fought by the Yakama Nation. The Yakama history timeline explains what happened to the people of their tribe.


Yakama

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Yakama, formerly spelled Yakima, self-name Waptailmim (“People of the Narrow River”), na íntegra Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, North American Indian tribe that lived along the Columbia, Yakima, and Wenatchee rivers in what is now the south-central region of the U.S. state of Washington. As with many other Sahaptin-speaking Plateau Indians, the Yakama were primarily salmon fishers before colonization. In the early 21st century they continued to be involved in wildlife management and fisheries.

The Yakama acquired historical distinction in the Yakama Indian Wars (1855–58), an attempt by the tribe to resist U.S. forces intent upon clearing the Washington Territory for prospectors and settlers. The conflict stemmed from a treaty that had been negotiated in 1855, according to which the Yakama and 13 other tribes (identified in the treaty as Kah-milt-pah, Klikatat, Klinquit, Kow-was-say-ee, Li-ay-was, Oche-chotes, Palouse, Pisquose, Se-ap-cat, Shyiks, Skin-pah, Wenatshapam, and Wish-ham) were to be placed on a reservation and confederated as the Yakama Nation. Before the treaty could be ratified, however, a force united under the leadership of Yakama chief Kamaiakan, who declared his intention to drive all nonnatives from the region. After initial Yakama successes, the uprising spread to other tribes in Washington and Oregon. Three years of raids, ambushes, and engagements followed until September 1858, when the Native American forces were decisively defeated at the Battle of Four Lakes on a tributary of the Spokane River.

In 1859 the treaty of 1855 was effected, with the Yakama and most of the other tribes confined to reservations and their fertile ancestral lands opened to colonial appropriation. Since that time, all the residents of the Yakama Reservation have been considered members of the Yakama Nation. Several tribes in the region, notably the Palouse, refused to acknowledge the treaty and would not enter the reservation.

Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 11,000 individuals of Yakama Nation ancestry.


Vídeo

On January 2019, there was an MMIW event.

I spoke along with Yakama Nation Elected Officials, a Washington State Elected Official, and the Yakima County Sheriff. This Presentation was hosted by CWU Department of Law and Justice & Museum of Culture and Environment.

About Native Friends

Native Friends was founded by Emily Washines, MPA and scholar. She is an enrolled Yakama Nation tribal member with Cree and Skokomish lineage. This company is a Native lifestyle empowerment brand with a focus on history and culture. Building understanding and support for Native Americans is evident in her films, writing, speaking, and exhibits. Emily speaks Ichiskiin (Yakama language) and other Native languages. Yakima Herald-Republic lists her as Top 39 under 39. She lives on the Yakama reservation with her husband and three children.


Assista o vídeo: Indian Reservation. Paul Revere and the Raiders. Lyrics (Pode 2022).