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O líder confederado John Hunt Morgan é capturado

O líder confederado John Hunt Morgan é capturado

Em 26 de julho de 1863, o líder da cavalaria confederada John Hunt Morgan e 360 ​​de seus homens são capturados em Salineville, Ohio, durante um ataque espetacular no Norte. A partir de julho de 1862, Morgan fez quatro grandes ataques ao território do norte ou do norte ao longo de um ano. Embora tivessem importância estratégica limitada, os ataques serviram como um incentivo ao moral do sul e capturaram os suprimentos muito necessários.

O quarto ataque de Morgan começou em 2 de julho de 1863, quando ele e 2.400 soldados deixaram o Tennessee e se dirigiram ao rio Ohio. Ele esperava desviar a atenção do comandante da União William Rosecrans, que estava dirigindo para Chattanooga, Tennessee. Morgan chegou ao rio em julho 8, usando barcos a vapor roubados para transportar suas forças para Indiana. Pelas duas semanas e meia seguintes, Morgan invadiu Indiana e Ohio, fingindo em direção a Cincinnati, depois cavalgando pelo sul de Ohio. Sua força encontrou pouca resistência e dispersou milícias locais que os enfrentaram. Com a cavalaria da União em sua perseguição, Morgan foi para a Pensilvânia. Por mais de uma semana, Morgan e suas tropas passaram 21 horas por dia na sela. Em Pomeroy, Ohio, Morgan perdeu mais de 800 homens quando os Yankees o alcançaram e capturaram grande parte de sua força. Ele e os demais membros de seu comando foram forçados mais ao norte e, em 26 de julho, os homens exaustos se renderam.

No final, apenas 400 soldados de Morgan conseguiram voltar em segurança para o sul. Os capturados foram espalhados pelos campos de prisioneiros do Norte. Morgan e seus oficiais foram enviados para a recém-inaugurada Penitenciária do Estado de Ohio. Ele e seus homens escavaram um túnel em 27 de novembro de 1863; no entanto, Morgan foi morto em batalha um ano depois.

LEIA MAIS: Estados Confederados da América


John Hunt Morgan

John Hunt Morgan - conhecido como "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy" e lembrado como o ideal do romântico cavalaria sulista - nasceu em 1º de junho de 1825 em Huntsville, Alabama, mas é totalmente identificado com o estado natal de sua mãe, Kentucky. Morgan mudou-se para o Bluegrass State quando menino e por um breve período cursou o Transylvania College em Lexington antes de ser expulso por mau comportamento. Ele se alistou na 1ª Cavalaria do Kentucky no início da Guerra do México e serviu sob o comando de Zachary Taylor, destacando-se na Batalha de Buena Vista. Depois da guerra, de volta ao seu amado Kentucky, Morgan se tornou um fabricante de maconha de sucesso e equipou uma milícia, conhecida como ‘Lexington Rifles’, de seu próprio bolso.

Durante a crise da secessão, Morgan não compartilhou da hesitação de seu estado e imediatamente jogou sua sorte com a nova Confederação do Sul e liderou seus "rifles Lexington" para Bowling Green para unir forças com o general Buckner. Morgan foi nomeado coronel em abril de 1862 e participou da Batalha de Shiloh antes de ser anexado à divisão de Joseph Wheeler no Exército do General Braxton Bragg do Tennessee. Morgan estava longe de "apegado", no entanto. Naquele verão, Morgan começou a liderar o tipo de ataque rápido e ousado que caracterizou os líderes da cavalaria confederada durante a guerra.

Em 4 de julho de 1862, Morgan partiu para uma viagem de 1.600 quilômetros pelo Kentucky - destruindo ferrovias e linhas de telégrafo, apreendendo suprimentos, fazendo prisioneiros e geralmente causando estragos na retaguarda da União. Seu ataque chegou às manchetes nacionais e ajudou a consolidar a reputação temível do cavaleiro sulista. Morgan liderou empreendimentos igualmente bem-sucedidos em outubro e dezembro, o que acabou forçando cerca de 20.000 soldados da União a se destacarem da frente para proteger as linhas de comunicação e de abastecimento.

No ano seguinte, em julho de 1863, enquanto a Confederação se recuperava das perdas duplas de Vicksburg e Gettysburg, Morgan começou seu ataque mais ambicioso da guerra. Contra as ordens explícitas de Bragg, Morgan e 2.400 homens cruzaram o Ohio e cavalgaram mais de mil milhas ao longo da margem norte do rio. Por três semanas, Morgan aterrorizou as defesas locais do sul de Indiana e Ohio antes de ser capturado em Salineville pela cavalaria da União sob o general Edward H. Hobson e enviado para a Penitenciária do Estado de Ohio em Columbus. Incrivelmente, em 26 de novembro de 1863, o mesmo dia em que o general Patrick Cleburne defendia obstinadamente Ringgold Gap no norte da Geórgia, Morgan escapou da prisão e voltou para as linhas confederadas.

Morgan foi nomeado chefe do Departamento do Sudoeste da Virgínia em abril de 1864, e determinado a atacar Knoxville, Tennessee, uma cidade com uma população em grande parte pró-União. Enquanto estava acampado em Greeneville, Tennessee, em 3 de setembro, Morgan foi pego em um ataque surpresa e baleado e morto por um soldado da União que já havia servido sob seu comando.

Morgan é frequentemente incluído entre John S. Mosby, Jeb Stuart e Nathan Bedford Forrest na memória de "Causa Perdida" como um exemplo das qualidades superiores de luta do cavaleiro do sul. Ele está enterrado em Lexington.


John Hunt Morgan: Cavalheiro cavalheiresco ou bandido devasso?

Embora nunca tenha subido acima do posto de general de brigada, John Hunt Morgan foi um dos cavaleiros e invasores mais coloridos da Confederação. Suas façanhas o levaram para trás das fronteiras federais e lhe renderam uma reputação de audácia e criatividade - até mesmo comparações favoráveis ​​com Francis Marion, o famoso "Raposa do Pântano" do Sul da era da Guerra Revolucionária.

Nascido no Alabama, mas em Kentuck desde a infância, Morgan inicialmente não apoiou a causa confederada em seu estado natal, chegando a escrever a seu irmão que acreditava que Abraham Lincoln seria um bom presidente. No entanto, à medida que as tensões em Kentucky aumentaram e o governo estadual começou a se fragmentar sob o peso de sua neutralidade vacilante e autoimposta, ele começou a reconsiderar sua posição.

O general John Hunt Morgan liderou incursões em Kentucky, Indiana e Ohio. Biblioteca do Congresso

Antes da guerra, Morgan era um empresário de Lexington que havia lutado como soldado de cavalaria durante a Batalha de Buena Vista em 1847. Voltando para casa da Guerra do México, ele se casou e reingressou na vida privada, embora tenha criado e comandado duas companhias de milícias durante a década de 1850. Em setembro de 1861, após a morte de sua esposa devido a uma doença prolongada, Morgan e a maioria de sua milícia "Lexington Rifles" entraram no Tennessee para se alistar no Exército Confederado. A banda formou o ponto crucial da 2ª Cavalaria de Kentucky, que lutou com distinção na Batalha de Shiloh.

A primeira grande escapada de Morgan veio no verão de 1862, quando ele e 900 cavaleiros passaram três semanas cavalgando pelo Kentucky, interrompendo o progresso das forças da União no estado e aumentando as esperanças dos separatistas que buscavam trazer o estado totalmente para a Confederação. Morgan e seus invasores supostamente capturaram e deram liberdade condicional a 1.200 soldados da União, adquiriram várias centenas de cavalos e confiscaram ou destruíram grandes quantidades de suprimentos federais.

Uma edição de agosto de 1862 do Harper's Weekly descreveu Morgan como um "guerrilheiro e bandido" com "instintos predatórios" e caracterizou seus homens como "um bando de vagabundos ousados" que passavam seu tempo "queimando pontes, destruindo trilhos de trem, roubando trens de abastecimento e saqueando e destruindo as poucas porções prósperas restantes do Kentucky. " O mesmo artigo, no entanto, também admitiu algumas das características que deram a Morgan um culto à personalidade no Sul - "a coragem mais desesperada" e "algumas das qualidades cavalheirescas de seu homônimo e protótipo, Morgan, o corsário do Mar do Caribe" - antes de notar que estes "não irão, no entanto, salvá-lo de ser enforcado se ele cair nas mãos de seus concidadãos em Kentucky."

No verão de 1863, Morgan lançou uma incursão ainda mais audaciosa em Kentucky, Indiana e Ohio. Suas táticas inventivas e altamente bem-sucedidas incluíam fazer seu telégrafo se disfarçar de soldado da União e enviar mensagens falsas e totalmente divergentes, informando sobre as ações, objetivos e força das tropas de Morgan, criando confusão e impedindo qualquer resposta. Apesar do grande sucesso inicial, Morgan foi derrotado na Batalha de Buffington Island, Ohio, em 19 de julho de 1863, e cerca de 750 cavaleiros confederados foram capturados. Poucos dias depois, perseguidos pela cavalaria federal, 300 dos homens de Morgan cruzaram o rio Ohio inchado para a Virgínia Ocidental, o resto continuou para o norte e leste, esperando uma chance de cruzar o rio com relativa segurança. Depois de outra derrota na Batalha de Salineville em 26 de julho, Morgan foi capturado e levado com alguns de seus oficiais para a Penitenciária do Estado de Ohio, enquanto a maioria dos homens alistados foi enviada para Camp Douglas em Chicago como prisioneiros de guerra.

Em novembro de 1863, Morgan e seis outros escaparam abrindo um túnel para fora de uma cela e escalando as paredes da prisão. Dois foram recapturados, mas o resto voltou para o sul, e Morgan recomeçou suas façanhas militares. Seus ataques posteriores em Kentucky, com uma força inferior à que ele havia perdido em seu grande ataque, resultaram em pesadas baixas e pilhagens abertas, levando a acusações de banditismo. Em 4 de setembro de 1864, enquanto tentava escapar de um ataque da União em Greeneville, Tennessee, Morgan foi baleado e morto.

Embora seguido sem fôlego pela imprensa, o ataque de Morgan carece da maior importância estratégica de outros eventos militares do verão de 1863, como os combates em Gettysburg e Vicksburg. Além disso, Morgan conduziu sua incursão violando as ordens diretas de não cruzar o rio Ohio, perdendo a confiança de seus superiores e prejudicando sua reputação para sempre. Ainda assim, seus resultados foram impressionantes. Ele capturou e libertou cerca de 6.000 soldados da União, destruiu 34 pontes, interrompeu linhas ferroviárias em 60 locais e desviou dezenas de milhares de soldados de outros propósitos. Somente em Ohio, os homens de Morgan roubaram 2.500 cavalos e invadiram mais de 4.300 casas e empresas. Pedidos de indenização de perdas infligidas pelos homens de Morgan ainda estavam sendo feitos no início do século XX.


John Hunt Morgan e Kentucky Raid # 8217s

4 de julho de 1862 & # 8211 O coronel confederado John Hunt Morgan liderou 867 guerrilheiros da cavalaria em um ataque ao Kentucky para assediar a linha de abastecimento do Exército Federal de Ohio.

Morgan deixou Knoxville, Tennessee com soldados testados em batalha do Texas, Geórgia e o estado natal de Morgan, Kentucky. Seu alvo era Gallatin, Tennessee, para cortar a ferrovia Louisville e Nashville e retardar o avanço federal em Chattanooga.

No dia 7, os soldados de Morgan completaram um passeio de 104 milhas a oeste através do Planalto Cumberland. Eles haviam se defendido de guerrilheiros sindicalistas nas montanhas do leste do Tennessee antes de ganhar recrutas na cidade amplamente pró-confederada de Sparta, Tennessee. Com sua força agora aumentada para cerca de 1.100 homens, os guerrilheiros se voltaram para o norte em direção à fronteira estadual de Kentucky.

A força de Morgan alcançou Celina perto da fronteira no dia seguinte. Durante a noite, os confederados cavalgaram até cinco milhas de Tompkinsville, Kentucky, que foi ocupada por cerca de 400 homens da 9ª Cavalaria da Pensilvânia. Os habitantes da Pensilvânia eram conhecidos por sua dura ocupação do Líbano, tendo insultado vulgarmente as mulheres de lá, dizendo-lhes que a única maneira de manter sua virtude era "costurar a parte de baixo de suas anáguas".

No início de 9 de julho, Morgan dividiu seu comando, enviando uma parte para atacar a guarnição do norte enquanto ele ficava com a parte que atacaria do sul. A ala sul atacou primeiro, disparando contra os federais com rifles e artilharia de cerca de 300 jardas. Os federais, liderados pelo major Thomas J. Jordan, tentaram escapar para o norte para a floresta, mas a ala norte de Morgan os bloqueou.

Os homens de Jordan romperam a linha do norte e fugiram em direção a Burkesville, com os confederados logo atrás. Eles finalmente cercaram Jordan e o forçaram a se render. Morgan relatou: “O inimigo fugiu, deixando cerca de 22 mortos e 30 a 40 feridos em nossas mãos. Temos 30 prisioneiros e meu esquadrão do Texas ainda está perseguindo os fugitivos ”. Os soldados de Morgan apreenderam "um valioso trem de bagagem, consistindo em cerca de 20 carroças e 50 mulas ... também cerca de 40 cavalos de cavalaria e suprimentos de açúcar, café, etc."

Os confederados perderam apenas um morto e três feridos. Morgan deu liberdade condicional a todos os prisioneiros, exceto Jordan, que foi enviado para a prisão em Richmond. Seus partidários continuaram em direção a Glasgow naquela tarde, enquanto os federais próximos começaram a ouvir rumores de que cavaleiros confederados estavam no estado. O general de brigada Jeremiah Boyle, comandando em Louisville, notificou o coronel John F. Miller em Nashville que cerca de 2.000 confederados estavam à solta em Kentucky e pediu a Miller que enviasse um regimento a Munfordville.

Morgan capturou o depósito de suprimentos federal em Glasgow no dia seguinte. Ele emitiu uma proclamação na esperança de inspirar os Kentuckianos a "se levantarem e se armarem e expulsarem os invasores de Hesse de seu solo":

“Que todo verdadeiro patriota atenda ao apelo! Lute por suas famílias, por seus lares, por aqueles que você mais ama, por suas consciências e pelo livre exercício de seus direitos políticos, para nunca mais ser colocado em risco pelo invasor de Hesse. ”

Os confederados abordaram o Líbano na noite do dia 11, expulsando os defensores federais e forçando a rendição da cidade por volta das 22h. Boyle pediu reforços ao Major General Don Carlos Buell: “Todos os rebeldes do Estado se juntarão a ele (Morgan) se não houver uma demonstração de força e poder enviada na cavalaria. O Estado ficará desolado a menos que este assunto seja resolvido. ”

Boyle relatou inicialmente que seus federais haviam derrotado Morgan no Líbano, mas então ele descobriu a verdade e começou a entrar em pânico:

“Morgan passou ao redor e escapou e incendiou o Líbano está se movendo em Danville e em direção a Lexington. Não tenho cavalaria e tenho pouca força. Todo o Estado estará em armas se o general Buell não enviar uma força para abatê-lo ... Morgan é devastador com fogo e espada. ”

“É certo que Morgan não pode ser capturado sem cavalaria. Ele vai devastar grandes partes do Estado. Ele está mirando em Lexington. Eu não tenho força para pegá-lo. Se Buell fosse salvar Kentucky, isso deveria ser feito instantaneamente. Eu sei do que falo. ”

Moradores das proximidades de Lexington e Louisville, e até mesmo de Cincinnati, Ohio e Evansville, Indiana, começaram a entrar em pânico, devido ao avanço de Morgan ou às mensagens frenéticas de Boyle. Boyle pediu ao prefeito de Cincinnati George Hatch para “enviar o maior número possível de homens em um trem especial sem demora”. Os governadores de Ohio e Indiana pediram ao Departamento de Guerra que enviasse tropas para deter Morgan, mas o secretário da Guerra, Edwin M. Stanton, disse que o departamento precisava de “conhecimentos mais definidos antes de poder agir com inteligência”.

Enquanto isso, os confederados de Morgan continuaram seu ataque, operando perto de Harrodsburg e Cynthiana, e lutando contra os federais em torno de Mackville. Ele chegou a Georgetown no dia 15, onde emitiu outra proclamação:

“Kentuckianos! Eu venho para libertá-lo de um despotismo de uma facção tirânica e para resgatar meu Estado natal das mãos de seus opressores. Em todos os lugares, o inimigo covarde fugiu de meus braços vingadores. Meu bravo exército é estigmatizado como um bando de guerrilheiros e saqueadores. Não acredite. Aponto com orgulho seus atos como uma refutação dessa calúnia infame. Não viemos para molestar indivíduos pacíficos ou para destruir propriedade privada, mas para garantir proteção absoluta a todos os que não estão em armas contra nós. Pedimos apenas para conhecer as legiões mercenárias de Lincoln. Os olhos de seus irmãos da (Confederação) estão sobre você. Seus corajosos concidadãos estão aderindo ao seu padrão. Nossos exércitos estão avançando rapidamente para sua proteção. Em seguida, cumprimente-os com as mãos dispostas de 50.000 bravos de Kentucky. O avanço deles já está com você. Então, ‘Ataque pelos túmulos verdes de seus senhores! Ataque por seus altares e suas fogueiras! Deus e sua terra natal. ”

No entanto, poucos habitantes de Kentucky se juntaram a Morgan porque temiam represálias federais após a saída de Morgan. Alguns até se juntaram aos federais para ajudar a expulsar Morgan do estado.


Ataque de Morgan no condado de Vinton

Durante o verão de 1863, o general John Hunt Morgan, um líder da cavalaria confederado de Kentucky, invadiu o sul de Ohio com 2.460 homens montados. Ao longo da campanha, os homens de Morgan saquearam e saquearam antes de serem capturados pelas forças da União. Em 17 de julho, Morgan liderou suas tropas em Wilkesville roubando cavalos, saqueando lojas e roubando cidadãos particulares. Naquela noite, Morgan e algumas de suas tropas alojaram-se e fizeram refeições com sua prima Ruth Virginia Althar Cline e seu marido, o Dr. William Cline. As tropas de Morgan acamparam perto da casa de John e Eliza Levis, onde Eliza cozinhava para os homens por medo de que eles prejudicassem sua família. Soldados adicionais do grupo de ataque permaneceram na praça da aldeia. Diz a lenda que enquanto Morgan dormia na Mansão Cline, seu servo negro roubou seu dinheiro saqueado e os abolicionistas Dr. Cline e Abraham Morris o ajudaram a escapar para a liberdade na Estrada de Ferro Subterrânea.

Erigido em 2002 pela Ohio Bicentennial Commission, The Longaberger Company, Village of Wilkesville Council e The Ohio Historical Society. (Número do marcador 3-82.)

Tópicos e séries. Este marcador histórico está listado nestas listas de tópicos: Patriots & Patriotism & bull War, US Civil. Além disso,

ele está incluído na lista da série Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection. Um mês histórico significativo para esta entrada é julho de 1838.

Localização. 39 & deg 4.545 & # 8242 N, 82 & deg 19.659 & # 8242 W. Marker está em Wilkesville, Ohio, no condado de Vinton. O marcador está na Main Street (Ohio Route 124), à esquerda ao viajar para o leste. O marcador está no parque da cidade. Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está nesta área dos correios: Wilkesville OH 45695, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 8 outros marcadores estão dentro de 7 milhas deste marcador, medidos em linha reta. Henry Duc e os Defensores do Nosso País (a uma curta distância deste marcador) Wilkesville (a cerca de 600 pés de distância, medido em uma linha direta) Ewington Academy (a aproximadamente 4,8 milhas de distância) Morgan's Raid (a aproximadamente 6,9 ​​milhas de distância) Bridge Loft / Charging House (aproximadamente 6,9 ​​milhas de distância) Carvão (aproximadamente 7 milhas de distância) Matérias-primas (aproximadamente 7 milhas de distância) Limestone (aproximadamente 11 milhas de distância). Toque para obter uma lista e um mapa de todos os marcadores em Wilkesville.

Veja também . . . Raid de Morgan. (Enviado em 21 de fevereiro de 2012, por William Fischer, Jr. de Scranton, Pensilvânia.)


A Invasão de Indiana: Incursão de Morgan e a Batalha de Corydon


O Raid de Morgan foi uma das poucas batalhas da Guerra Civil travada no Norte, e continua sendo a última batalha travada dentro das fronteiras de Indiana.

No meio da Guerra Civil Americana, o que começou como uma pequena incursão diversionária para o Norte pelo Exército Confederado durante a Campanha de Tullahomma, tornou-se uma invasão do Sul de pleno direito que se estendeu por mil milhas Union.

Começando no Tennessee e viajando por Kentucky, Indiana e Ohio, esta famosa incursão ficou conhecida simplesmente como Morgan's Raid.

Em 8 de julho de 1863, o som de granadas explodindo encheu o ar, quando as tropas do general confederado John Hunt Morgan cruzaram o rio Ohio perto da pequena cidade de Mauckport, Indiana.

Anteriormente, Morgan havia enviado um espião, Thomas Hines, para descobrir se o sentimento de Hoosier seria de alguma forma simpático aos confederados. Ele encontrou pouco apoio para os sulistas e foi forçado a fugir de volta para Kentucky quando foi descoberto que ele era um intruso.

Roubando dois barcos a vapor, o J.T McCombs e a Alice Dean, na margem do Kentucky, a cavalaria evitou o fogo de artilharia inexperiente da guarda doméstica de Indiana, enviando-os sob uma forte barragem de fogo de artilharia. No total, levou 17 horas para todas as tropas de Morgan cruzarem o rio com sucesso.

Sem se deixar abater pela escaramuça e pelas claras ordens dos confederados de permanecer para trás, Morgan continuou a empurrar suas forças para o noroeste, chegando a Corydon, a antiga capital de Indiana, até 1825, no dia seguinte. Poucos quilômetros fora da cidade, o general foi abordado por 400 entusiastas, mas inexperientes voluntários da União, que haviam sido organizados às pressas pelo governador Oliver Morton, um forte apoiador da causa sindical.

Os valentes esforços da cidade para se defender chegaram a um fim abrupto quando as tropas de Morgan dispararam dois tiros de advertência que resultaram em 15 vítimas Corydon. Percebendo imediatamente a situação desesperadora de proteger a cidade de 2.500 cavaleiros que avançavam, o coronel da União Lewis Jordan ergueu a bandeira branca em sinal de rendição para evitar perdas desnecessárias de vidas.

A cavalaria confederada, encorajada por sua vitória e pelas ordens de Morgan, correu para a cidade, atacando e resgatando o que puderam encontrar. Além de algumas mortes de civis, os bens danificados ou roubados totalizaram quase o equivalente a US $ 500.000 em moeda moderna, a maioria dos quais foi reembolsada pelo governo.

Embora a Batalha de Corydon em si tenha sido uma vitória dos confederados, o Raid de Morgan concluiu com a captura de Morgan e sua morte. Foi uma das poucas batalhas da Guerra Civil travada no Norte e continua sendo a última batalha travada dentro das fronteiras de Indiana.

O Raid de Morgan foi homenageado pela John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail. Estendendo-se por Kentucky e Indiana, permite que os visitantes sigam o caminho histórico da Raid de Morgan. Os verdadeiros aventureiros às vezes optam por participar da reconstituição anual da batalha, um evento de fim de semana completo com Chá Feminino e Bola Militar.


John Hunt Morgan

O comandante da cavalaria confederada John Hunt Morgan nasceu em Huntsville, Alabama, em 1º de junho de 1825. Educado na Universidade da Transilvânia, ele lutou na Guerra do México como primeiro-tenente dos Voluntários Montados do Kentucky e entrou em ação na batalha de Buena Vista. Morgan casou-se com Rebecca Bruce em 1848. Trabalhando como fabricante de maconha em Lexington, Morgan se tornou maçom e um líder ativo da comunidade, servindo no conselho escolar e no conselho municipal e como capitão do corpo de bombeiros.

De 1852 a 1854 ele serviu como capitão de uma companhia de artilharia na milícia estadual. Em 1857, ele formou os Lexington Rifles e anexou a unidade à milícia da guarda estatal em 1860. Morgan inicialmente apoiou a neutralidade do Kentucky, mas em setembro de 1861, por sua própria conta, ele liderou os Lexington Rifles em uma série de ataques de guerrilha antes de entrar oficialmente no A Confederação como capitão da cavalaria em outubro de 1861.

Em abril de 1862, Morgan foi promovido a coronel e continuou suas atividades de invasão, ganhando o apelido de & # 8220Francis Marion da Guerra & # 8221 Ele liderou um esquadrão na batalha de Shiloh. Em um ataque de Knoxville a Cynthiana, Kentucky, de 4 a 28 de julho de 1862, ele recrutou trezentos voluntários para a causa confederada. Em 12 de agosto de 1862, Morgan interrompeu com sucesso a campanha do General Don Carlos Buell & # 8217 contra Chattanooga queimando os túneis gêmeos da ferrovia Louisville e Nashville perto de Gallatin, que eram ligações vitais na linha de abastecimento da Union. Envergonhado com a perda, Buell enviou toda a sua força de cavalaria contra Morgan e sofreu uma derrota, incluindo a captura do general Richard Johnson. O sucesso de Morgan & # 8217s encorajou os planos confederados para uma invasão do Kentucky, e a cavalaria de Morgan & # 8217s juntou-se ao General Braxton Bragg na campanha de Perryville. Em 7 de dezembro de 1862, Morgan capturou uma guarnição de 1.834 soldados da União em Hartsville, Tennessee.

Em Murfreesboro, em 14 de dezembro de 1862, Morgan, viúvo desde 1861, casou-se com Martha, de dezessete anos, & # 8220Mattie & # 8221 Ready no que foi o ponto alto da temporada social de inverno da cidade & # 8217s. A maior parte do alto comando confederado compareceu à cerimônia, realizada pelo tenente-general (e bispo) Leônidas Polk. Este casamento gerou uma filha, Johnnie, que nasceu após a morte de Morgan. Duas semanas após o casamento, as tropas de Morgan & # 8217s participaram de ataques durante a batalha de Stones River, desviando as tropas da União de auxiliar o exército do General William S. Rosecrans & # 8217s.

Durante suas incursões, Morgan freqüentemente evitou o combate direto por meio de planos táticos que envolviam ardil e engano, incluindo a interceptação de mensagens telegráficas e o envio de mensagens falsas aos comandos da União. Durante 1862, seu comando cresceu de 325 para uma divisão de 3.900 e ele foi promovido a brigadeiro-general em 11 de dezembro de 1862.

No início de 1863, quando a cavalaria da União no teatro ocidental ganhou proficiência e força, Morgan começou a sofrer perdas em seus confrontos. Em uma tentativa de recuperar parte do prestígio e do moral perdidos, ele embarcou em seu lendário & # 8220Great Raid. & # 8221 Morgan liderou suas tropas em um ataque não autorizado em Kentucky, Indiana e Ohio. Durante o ataque, que durou de 1 ° a 26 de julho de 1863, Morgan espalhou o pânico em cada cidade que se aproximava, encontrando milícias convocadas às pressas que ofereciam resistência relativamente fraca. Passando pelo sul de Indiana, ele cruzou para Ohio em Harrison, e mudou-se para sete milhas de Cincinnati. Capturado com a maior parte de seu comando em West Point, Ohio, Morgan escapou da Penitenciária do Estado de Ohio em 27 de novembro de 1863 e voltou para Kentucky. Seu & # 8220Great Raid & # 8221 foi a incursão ao norte das tropas confederadas do oeste e serviu para elevar o moral do sul após a derrota de Lee & # 8217 em Gettysburg. Também serviu para garantir o status lendário de Morgan & # 8217s entre os generais da Guerra Civil.

Apesar da raiva do alto comando confederado & # 8217s com sua incursão impetuosa e não autorizada, ele foi restaurado ao comando. Relatos de saques por homens de Morgan & # 8217s durante uma operação malsucedida perto de Cynthiana, Kentucky, em junho de 1864, levaram à sua suspensão do comando e ao agendamento de um tribunal de investigação para 10 de setembro. Morgan foi surpreendido por soldados federais em Greeneville, Tennessee, em 4 de setembro, e morreu tentando escapar. Originalmente enterrado em Richmond, Virgínia, seu corpo foi transferido para Lexington, Kentucky, em 1868.


Morgan & # 8217s Raid durante a Guerra Civil

Conhecido como o & # 8220Thunderbolt of the Confederacy & # 8221 e lembrado como o ideal do romântico cavaleiro do sul, o general John Hunt Morgan.

Cortesia de Jordan Pickens

Morgan & # 8217s Raiders, de & # 8220Harper & # 8217s Pictorial History of the Civil War & # 8221

Cortesia de Jordan Pickens

Um mapa da Rota de Incursão de Morgan & # 8217s.

Cortesia de Jordan Pickens

USS Fairplay 1862-1865, Tinclad # 17

Cortesia de Jordan Pickens

O cartaz de procurado pelo General Morgan após escapar da Penitenciária de Ohio.

Cortesia de Jordan Pickens

2 de julho de 1863 marcou o início do ataque de 1.000 milhas do General Confederado John Hunt Morgan e # 8217s em Sparta, Tennessee. Conhecido como o & # 8216Thunderbolt of the Confederacy & # 8217 e lembrado como o ideal do romântico cavalaria sulista, Morgan então cruzou para o Kentucky, na época um & # 8220 estado fronteiriço & # 8221 devido a ainda ser parte da União, mas permitindo a escravidão. O general confederado Braxton Bragg, o comandante regional, pretendia que os cavaleiros do Morgan & # 8217 fornecessem uma distração ao entrar no Kentucky. Morgan, entretanto, confidenciou a alguns de seus oficiais que há muito desejava invadir Indiana e Ohio para levar o terror da guerra ao Norte.

Bragg lhe dera & # 8220carte blanche & # 8221 ou total liberdade para agir como se desejasse ou achasse melhor, para cavalgar pelo Tennessee e Kentucky, mas ordenou-lhe que em hipótese alguma cruzasse o rio Ohio. Mesmo assim, Morgan cruzou o Ohio em Brandenburg, Kentucky, em Indiana e, em seguida, mudou-se para a fronteira Ohio-Indiana em Harrison, Ohio, em 13 de julho. De lá, ele contornou Cincinnati para chegar a Williamsburg, Ohio, na parte oriental do condado de Clermont. Ele então foi para o Tribunal de Washington, passando pelos condados de Ross, Pike, Jackson e Vinton, até o condado de Meigs.

De acordo com Edgar Ervin & # 8217s Pioneer History of Meigs County,

O ataque de Morgan & # 8217s no Condado de Meigs é importante porque foi o limite norte que qualquer exército do sul, ou fragmento dele, atingiu em batalha. Era surpreendente que um líder ousado como ele pudesse ir tão longe, mas do ponto de vista militar, conseguisse tão pouco com seu ataque. Isso deu ao condado de Meigs uma consciência de guerra que eu nunca havia experimentado antes. Ele aproveitou as condições e cronometrou sua invasão em um momento em que partes do rio Ohio, no condado de Meigs, podiam ser atravessadas a cavalo. Se sua invasão tivesse ocorrido 60 dias antes ou 60 dias depois, o rio Ohio teria sido mais uma barreira para ele.

Antes do início da expedição, Morgan havia enviado espiões ao longo do Ohio para descobrir vaus ou locais mais fáceis de travessia. Um dos melhores estava em Buffington Island, cerca de 30 milhas acima de Pomeroy e aproximadamente à mesma distância abaixo de Parkersburg, ou talvez um pouco mais longe. Este então se tornou o ponto objetivo de Morgan. Depois de deixar Williamsburg, Morgan dividiu suas forças, o coronel Richard Morgan (seu irmão), seguindo para o sudoeste e passando por Georgetown, a sede do condado de Brown, e o general John Hunt Morgan com sua coluna marchou na direção nordeste até Tribunal de Washington. Dali, virando-se para sudeste, passou pelo condado de Ross, deixando Chillicothe à sua esquerda, onde uma força considerável de milicianos esperava. Passando por Piketon no condado de Pike e Jackson no condado de Jackson, roubando cavalos e suprimentos ao longo do caminho.

O general John Hunt Morgan era um maçom. Em 1846, Morgan tornou-se maçom no Daviess Lodge # 22 em Lexington, Kentucky. Durante a pilhagem pela cidade de Jackson, alguns de seus homens teriam saqueado e saqueado itens do Trowel Lodge # 132 em Jackson, mais notavelmente a espada Tyler & # 8217s. Morgan supostamente repreendeu os homens e ordenou que devolvessem a parafernália roubada ao Templo Maçônico. Dali, Morgan foi para Vinton, no condado de Gallia, e depois para Wilkesville, entrando então no condado de Meigs.

A resposta da União não demorou a chegar, já que o Major General Ambrose Burnside, comandando o Departamento de Ohio, ordenou a saída de todas as tropas disponíveis, além de enviar várias canhoneiras da Marinha da União subindo o rio Ohio para contestar qualquer tentativa dos confederados de chegar a Kentucky ou West Virginia e segurança. Brigue. O general Edward H. Hobson liderou várias colunas da cavalaria federal em perseguição aos invasores do Morgan & # 8217s, que agora estavam reduzidos a cerca de 1.700 homens. O governador de Ohio, David Tod, convocou a milícia local, e voluntários formaram empresas para proteger as cidades e travessias de rios em toda a região.

Em 18 de julho, Morgan, tendo dividido sua coluna antes, liderou sua força reunida em direção a Pomeroy, onde Morgan pretendia cruzar para a Virgínia Ocidental. Lutando contra o fogo de armas pequenas, os homens de Morgan & # 8217s tiveram o acesso negado ao rio e à própria Pomeroy por uma milícia local.

De acordo com Ervin & # 8217s Pioneer History of Meigs County,

A milícia local à frente dele estava começando a derrubar árvores e a destruir pontes para obstruir o progresso do Morgan. Perto de Pomeroy, eles se posicionaram. Por quatro ou cinco milhas sua estrada corria através de uma ravina, com cruzamentos ocasionais de estradas em colinas. Em todas essas travessias, ele encontrou uma milícia local postada e, das colinas acima dele, eles fizeram de sua passagem pela ravina uma corrida perfeita da manopla. On front, flank and rear the militia pressed and closed eagerly upon his track.

It was fortune that two of the Middleport companies of Ohio National Guard – one of infantry commanded by Captain RB Wilson, Lieutenants OP Skinner and Samuel Grant the other of artillery, Captain John Schreiner, the two numbering about 120 men – to render service so valuable that it should find a place in history. With other organizations these companies were ordered to rendezvous at Marietta.

On the very night of their arrival in camp came tidings of the enemy’s approach to their own town and they at once asked for orders to return to the defense of their homes. With but a little delay they were put aboard a steamer, and by daylight the following morning had disembarked and were several miles out on the roads by which Morgan was approaching.

William Grant, George Womeldorff and James Waddell, three of the most reliable men of the command, “were directed to find a point well up the road from which they could observe the approach and estimate the number of the enemy, and by an agreed signal advised headquarters of the fax ascertains.” The “artillery” consisted of an old gun that had been used for celebrating the Fourth of July, which, loaded with spikes and pieces of chain “commanded” for several hundred yards a straight piece of road flanked on one side by timber where part of [the Meigs County] men were concealed and on the other side by a creek with steep banks. Scarcely had the dispositions been made when the enemy appeared. William Grant and his comrades, assisted by the darkness, avoided the approaching raiders, who, a few moments later, ran up on the picket commanded by Lieutenant Samuel Grant and surrendered without much resistance. They were marched to Pomeroy and placed under guard in the courthouse to be turned over as prisoners of war, 68 enlisted men and seven officers.

From The History of Meigs and Gallia Counties, published by the Union Publishing Company,

… The show of resistance was enough to turn him aside and he moved off of the river towards Buffington Island.

At Chester, he resisted for an hour and a half and hunted for a guide. That stop though so short was fatal for it was 8 o’clock when he had reached the ford, too late and dark to undertake to cross. And he persisted right on after arriving at Chester that to him most precious hour and a half would no doubt have seen him safely on the Virginia side. Tired and worn out, both men and horses, he decided to rest for the night on the north bank of the Ohio. The handful of men who had thrown up works near the riverbank and attempted to impede his progress, might then have been easily brushed aside. But the dawn of another morning brought him more formidable enemy and the person of general Judah with his regulars who had arrived in the night by a boat, fresh and ready for the conflict.

Here is the description of the movements as given by Whitelaw Reid in his Ohio in The War, that refer to the stop at Chester.

But [Morgan’s] evil genius was upon him. He had lost an hour and a half at Chester in the afternoon – the most precious hour and a half since his horse’s feet touched Northern soil: and he now decided to waste the night.

In the hurried counsel with his exhausted officers it was admitted on all hands that Judah had arrived – but some of his troops had probably given force to the skirmishing near Pomeroy – that they would certainly be at Buffington by morning and that gunboats would accompany them. But his men were in bad condition and he feared to trash them in the night attack upon a fortified position which she had not reconnoitered. The fear was fatal.

Even yet, by abandoning his wagon trains and his wounded he might have reached unguarded forwards a little higher up. This too, was mentioned by Morgan‘s officers. He would save all he promptly replied or lose altogether. And so he gave mortgages to fate. By morning Judah was up.

Information reached Captain Wilson that one detachment would undertake to cross the Ohio as a show place several miles above Pomeroy, and reinforced by about 20 men, under Daniel Davis of Pomeroy, he immediately marched up to intercept the fugitive, reaching the point late in the evening.

At daybreak Duke advanced with a couple of rebel regiments to storm the earth work, but found it abandoned. He was rapidly proceeding to make dispositions for crossing when Judah’s advance struck him. At first he repulsed it and took a number of prisoners, the adjutant general of Judah’s staff among them. Morgan then ordered him to hold the force on his front and check. He was not able to return to his command until it had been broken and thrown into fall retreat before and impetuous charge of Judah’s cavalry, headed by Lieutenant O’Neal of Fifth Indiana. He succeeded in rallying then reforming his line. But now, advancing up the Chester and Pomeroy Road, came the gallant cavalry that over three states had been galloping on their tract – the 3000 of Hobson’s command – who for now two weeks had been only a day, a forenoon, an hour behind them.

As Hobson’s guidons fluttered out in the little valley by the riverbank where they fought, every man of that band that had so long defied 100,000 knew that the contest was over. They were almost out of ammunition, exhausted and scarcely 2000 strong. Against them were Hobson’s 3000 and Judah’s still larger force. To complete the overwhelming odds that, in spite of their efforts, had at last been concentrated upon them, the tin-clad gun boats steamed up an open fire.

Morgan comprehended the situation as readily as a hard riding troopers, who, still clinging to their bolts of calico, we’re already beginning to gallop towards the rear. He at once essayed to extricate his trains and then to withdraw his regiments by column of fours from right of companies, keeping up meanwhile, as sturdy resistance as he might. For some distance the withdrawal was made in tolerable order then under a charge of a Michigan cavalry regiment, everything was broken, and the retreat became a rout. Morgan with not quite 1200 man escaped. His brother with Colonels Duke, Ward, Huffman and about 700 men were taken prisoner.

This was the battle of Buffington Island. It was brief and decisive. But for his two grave mistakes of the night before, Morgan might have avoided it and escaped, and many a thrilling tale of the events that happened in the following seven days and nights of the raid would never have been told,… But it cannot be said he yielded to blow that insured his fate without resistance, and the courage and tenacity worthy of a better cause. The superiority in forces was overwhelming and the Union losses small. The boats carried the prisoners back to Cincinnati and the troops, with a little rest, pushed on after Morgan and the 1,200 men who had escaped.

About 15 or 20 miles above Buffington Island he again attempted to cross and succeeded in landing 1/4 of his men on Virginia soil. Morgan himself was in the middle of the Ohio River but the gunboats were to close upon him and he was forced back to the Ohio side with his remaining 900 men. Again, his hurried flight was taken up. Almost insurmountable difficulties surrounded him. His men were exhausted from long, forced marches and enormous work. Their pillaging had greatly demoralized them. The blow of defeat was severe causing a lack of faith in themselves and a loss of confidence in their intrepid commander. They were harassed on every hand. Every loophole of escape shut off hunted like game, day or night.

Yet to the very last the energy of this during cavalryman worthy of admiration of all – even his enemies. With no apparent possibility of escape at Buffington Island he slipped away from Judah and Hobson with more than half of his forces.

After Belleville, he headed almost west and went far as MacArthur. His course then ran back to Blennerhassett Island, thence through Athens, eastern Hocking and Perry Counties and into Morgan County near Porterville on July 22, 1863. He then continued through Muskingum County, Noble, Guernsey, Carroll, Harrison, Jefferson and Columbiana Counties where he was captured at Salineville, near Steubenville. He was then confined to the Ohio penitentiary several months until his escape November 27, through Cincinnati, Kentucky and Tennessee to Richmond, Virginia. He was killed in 1864 in a skirmish in East Tennessee.

Known as the “Thunderbolt of the Confederacy” and remembered as the ideal of the romantic Southern cavalryman, general John Hunt Morgan.


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About Brig. General John Hunt Morgan (CSA)

Confederate cavalry commander John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, on June 1, 1825. Educated at Transylvania University, he fought in the Mexican War as a first lieutenant in the Kentucky Mounted Volunteers and saw action at the battle of Buena Vista. Morgan married Rebecca Bruce in 1848. Working as a hemp manufacturer in Lexington, Morgan became a Mason and an active community leader, serving on the school board and city council and as captain of the fire department.

From 1852 to 1854 he served as captain of an artillery company in the state militia. In 1857 he formed the Lexington Rifles and attached the unit to the state guard militia in 1860. Morgan initially supported Kentucky neutrality, but in September 1861, on his own authority, he led the Lexington Rifles in a series of guerrilla raids before officially joining the Confederacy as a captain of cavalry in October 1861.

In April 1862 Morgan was promoted to colonel and continued his raiding activities, earning the sobriquet 𠇏rancis Marion of the War.” He led a squadron at the battle of Shiloh. On a raid from Knoxville to Cynthiana, Kentucky, from July 4-28, 1862, he recruited three hundred volunteers for the Confederate cause. On August 12, 1862, Morgan successfully disrupted General Don Carlos Buell’s campaign against Chattanooga by burning the twin Louisville and Nashville Railroad tunnels near Gallatin, which were vital links in the Union supply line. Embarrassed by this loss, Buell sent his entire cavalry force against Morgan and suffered a rout, including the capture of General Richard Johnson. Morgan’s success emboldened Confederate plans for a Kentucky invasion, and Morgan’s cavalry joined General Braxton Bragg in the Perryville campaign. On December 7, 1862, Morgan captured a garrison of 1,834 Union troops at Hartsville, Tennessee.

In Murfreesboro, on December 14, 1862, Morgan, widowed since 1861, married seventeen-year-old Martha “Mattie” Ready in what was the highlight of the city’s winter social season. Most of the Confederate high command attended the ceremony, which was performed by Lieutenant General (and Bishop) Leonidas Polk. This marriage produced a daughter, Johnnie, who was born after Morgan’s death. Two weeks after the wedding, Morgan’s troops participated in raids during the battle of Stones River, diverting Union troops from assisting General William S. Rosecrans’s army.

During his raids, Morgan often avoided direct combat through tactical plans which involved ruse and deception, including intercepting telegraph messages and sending out false ones to Union commands. During 1862 his command grew from 325 to a division of 3,900 and he was promoted to brigadier general on December 11, 1862.

In early 1863, as Union cavalry in the western theater gained proficiency and strength, Morgan began suffering losses in his confrontations. In an attempt to recoup some lost prestige and morale, he embarked on his legendary “Great Raid.” Morgan led his troops on an unauthorized raid through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. During the raid, which lasted from July 1 to 26, 1863, Morgan spread panic in each successive town he approached, encountering hastily convened militia who offered relatively weak resistance. Passing through southern Indiana, he crossed into Ohio at Harrison, and moved within seven miles of Cincinnati. Captured with most of his command at West Point, Ohio, Morgan escaped from the Ohio State Penitentiary on November 27, 1863, and returned to Kentucky. His “Great Raid” was the northernmost incursion of western Confederate troops and served to bolster Southern morale after Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg. It also served to secure Morgan’s legendary status among Civil War generals.

Despite the Confederate high command’s anger at his unauthorized, impetuous raid, he was restored to command. Reports of looting by Morgan’s men during an unsuccessful raid near Cynthiana, Kentucky, in June 1864 led to his suspension from command and the scheduling of a court of inquiry for September 10. Morgan was surprised by Federal soldiers in Greeneville, Tennessee, on September 4, and died attempting to escape. Originally buried in Richmond, Virginia, his body was moved to Lexington, Kentucky, in 1868.

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her pregnancy, Rebecca developed a blood clot in her leg.

After eight years of suffering, she died an invalid and childless at age thirty-one. John would be a widower for two years before he met and married his second wife, Martha "Mattie" Ready of Murfreesboro, Tennessee (1840-1887). She was twenty-two when she married John who was then thirty-seven. Eles tiveram duas filhas. The first was born November 27, 1863, and lived only one day. Their second, Johnnie, was born April 7, 1865, following John?s death.

His grandfather, John Wesley Hunt, was an early founder of Lexington and one of the wealthiest men west of the Allegheny Mountains. It is said that he was Lexington?s first millionaire. He had significant investments in merchandising, manufacturing, banking and government securities

John Morgan stood arrow-straight at six feet tall, weighed 185 pounds. He had curly sandy hair and gray eyes. Early in the Civil War, Carrie Pyncheon of Huntsville wrote in her diary, "Before the town was occupied by the Yankees, I spent an evening with Captain Jack [John] Morgan, our second Marion. He was so mild and gentle in his manners that I would not have taken him for a soldier but for his boots and spurs, so unwarrior-like did he seem."

As the war began, he was elected captain of the Morgan Squadron, which formed the nucleus of the 2nd KY cavalry. By the end of 1862, he rose through the ranks and was a brigadier general at the time of the Ohio-Indiana raid.

To the South, he was one of their greatest, their Robin Hood. Northern newspapers called him "The King of Horse Thieves, a bandit, a freebooter, no better than a thug." In the South, he was admired as the "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy."

"I want to be a cavalryman And with John Hunt Morgan ride, A colt revolver in my belt A saber by my side. I want a pair of epaulets to match my suit of gray, The uniform my mother made  And lettered 'CSA'. "

Family Data Collection - Births

American Civil War General Officers

Highest Rank: Brigadier General

Birth Place: Huntsville, Alabama

Promotions: Promoted to Full Colonel (2nd KY Cav)

Biography: Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan

Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan was born at Huntsville,

Ala., June 1, 1825, but was reared in Kentucky from the age of

four years, upon the farm near Lexington to which his parents

removed. He was the eldest of six brothers, of whom all bore

arms for the Confederacy. It is said that he was a lineal

descendant of Daniel Morgan, of Revolutionary fame.

His first military experience was at the time of the war with

Mexico, when he had the rank of lieutenant in Capt. O. P.

Beard's company, General Marshall's cavalry, and in later

years he was captain of the Lexington Rifles. Durante o

period following the Mexican war he devoted himself with

On April 16, 1861, he telegraphed President Davis: "Twenty

thousand men can be raised to defend southern liberty against

northern conquest. Do you want them?" But he was not

encouraged to immediate action.

In September he was arrested by Home Guards while conveying

jeans cloth southward from his factory, and imprisoned for

three days and in the latter part of that month he joined the

Confederate forces at Bowling, mustered in November 5th.

He became a colonel in the summer of 1862, when he organized

the Second cavalry at Chattanooga. Then, in July, he won fame

by his first Kentucky raid. In August he covered the front of

Bragg's army concentrating at McMinnville, Tenn., with

victorious engagements at Gallatin and Hartsville.

During Bragg's occupation of Kentucky, part of his men

advanced to the Ohio river at Augusta. On October 18th, he

captured several hundred Federals at Lexington, after a severe

fight. On the return to Tennessee he was given command of a

cavalry brigade, composed of his own regiment and the Seventh,

Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Kentucky cavalry.

On December 7th, he won a brilliant victory at Hartsville. Sobre

the 11th he was commissioned brigadier-general. Then followed

his "Christmas raid" in Kentucky, which, with his previous

exploits, elicited a resolution of thanks from Congress.

His cavalry division was now formed, the First brigade

including the Second, Fifth, Sixth and Ninth Kentucky and

Ninth Tennessee regiments the Second brigade, the Third,

Eighth, Eleventh and Tenth Kentucky. Taking position on the

right of Bragg's army in middle Tennessee, he fought the enemy

at Vaught's Hill, Milton, Liberty, and Snow's Hill, March 19th

to April 3rd, and on May 10th defeated the Federals in

southeast Kentucky, at the battle of Greasy Creek.

On June 27th, as Rosecrans advanced to force Bragg from

Tennessee, General Morgan started out from Sparta, to draw off

the Federal strength by an invasion of the Northwest. Isto

happened that his heaviest fighting was in Kentucky.

Colonel Chenault, Major Brent, and many other brave men fell

at Green River bridge, July 4th, and at Lebanon young Thomas

After a circuit through Indiana and Ohio around Cincinnati, he

attempted to recross the Ohio river at Buffington island, July

19th. But after a spirited battle, Colonel Duke and part of

his command were captured, and Morgan, with the remainder,

forced to continue eastward.

On the 26th, Colonels Grigsby and Johnson, with 300 or 400

men, forded the river, and Morgan himself was halfway across

when he saw that most of his men must be captured, and

returned to share their fate.

He and his officers were treated rather as criminals than

military prisoners, and confined, with the usual indignities,

in the Ohio State prison. But before the end of the year he

had escaped with six companions, and passed through Kentucky

and Tennessee to the Confederate lines.

In January, 1864, he was given authority to reorganize his

command, and in the following month, at his own request, was

ordered from Decatur, GA, to Abingdon, Va. There he had the

duty of defending the salt works and lead mines, soon

threatened by formidable columns under Crook and Burbridge.

He checked Crook at Wytheville in May, and then made a raid in

Kentucky to compel the retreat of Burbridge. On June 8th he

took Mt. Sterling and 400 men, and on the 11th captured

General Hobson and 1,800 men at Cynthiana.

But Burbridge was in close pursuit, and Morgan was badly

defeated on the 12th. Overwhelmed by misfortune, he yet

demonstrated his great nature by renewed efforts to defend his

The enemy having penetrated Bull's Gap in August, he was

advancing on that post with about 1,000 men when attacked at

Greeneville, Tenn., at daylight, September 4th, by Gillem's

cavalry. While escaping from the house in which he had passed

the night, he was shot and killed. His body, shamefully

treated at the time, was afterward interred with honor in the

Source: Confederate Military History, vol. XI, p. 245

John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta (Hunt) Morgan. He was an uncle of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan and a grandson of John Wesley Hunt, an early founder of Lexington, Kentucky, and one of the first millionaires west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was also the brother-in-law of A.P. Hill and of Basil W. Duke.[2]

Morgan's father lost his Huntsville home in 1831 when he was unable to pay the property taxes following the failure of his pharmacy. The family then moved to Lexington, where Calvin Morgan would manage one of Hunt's sprawling farms. Morgan also attended Transylvania College for two years, but was suspended in June 1844 for dueling with a fraternity brother. In 1846, Morgan joined the Freemasons, as had his father before him.

In 1846 Morgan enlisted in the U.S. Army as a cavalry private during the Mexican-American War, and saw combat at the Battle of Buena Vista. On his return to Kentucky, he became a hemp manufacturer and eventually took over his grandfather's prosperous mercantile business. In 1848, he married Rebecca Gratz Bruce, 18-year-old sister of Morgan's business partner. Morgan raised a militia artillery company in 1852, but it was disbanded two years later.

In 1853, Morgan's wife delivered a stillborn son. Rebecca Morgan contracted septic thrombophlebitis, an infection of a blood clot in a vein, which eventually led to an amputation. Relations with his wife's family suffered over different views on slavery and with her health problems. In 1857, Morgan raised an independent infantry company known as the "Lexington Rifles," and spent much of his free time drilling them.

John Hunt Morgan Memorial in downtown Lexington, Kentucky

Like most Kentuckians, Morgan did not initially support secession. Immediately after Lincoln's election in November 1860, he wrote to his brother, Thomas Hunt Morgan, then a student at Kenyon College in northern Ohio, "Our State will not I hope secede[.] have no doubt but Lincoln will make a good President at least we ought to give him a fair trial & then if he commits some overt act all the South will be a unit." By the following spring, Tom Morgan (who also had opposed Kentucky's secession) had transferred home to the Kentucky Military Institute and there began to support the Confederacy. Just before the fourth of July, he quietly left for Camp Boone, just across the Tennessee border, by way a steamer from Louisville to enlist in the Kentucky State Guard. John stayed at home in Lexington to tend to his troubled business and his ailing wife. Becky Morgan finally died on July 21, 1861. In September, Captain Morgan and his militia company went to Tennessee and joined the Confederate States Army. Morgan soon raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment and became its colonel on April 4, 1861.[2]

Morgan and his cavalrymen fought at the Battle of Shiloh in May 1862, and he soon became a symbol to secessionists in their hopes for obtaining Kentucky for the Confederacy. A Louisiana writer, Robert D. Patrick, compared Morgan to Francis Marion and wrote that "a few thousands of such men as his would regain us Kentucky and Tennessee." In his first Kentucky raid, Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, 1862, with almost 900 men and in three weeks he swept through Kentucky, deep in the rear of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army. He reported the capture of 1,200 Federal soldiers, whom he paroled, acquired several hundred horses, and destroyed massive quantities of supplies. He unnerved Kentucky's Union military government and President Abraham Lincoln received so many frantic appeals for help that he complained that "they are having a stampede in Kentucky." Historian Kenneth M. Noe wrote that Morgan's feat "in many ways surpassed J.E.B. Stuart's celebrated 'Ride around McClellan' and the Army of the Potomac the previous spring." The success of Morgan's raid was one of the key reasons that the Confederate Heartland Offensive of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith was launched later that fall, assuming that tens of thousands of Kentuckians would enlist in the Confederate Army if they invaded the state.[3]

Morgan was promoted to brigadier general (his highest rank) on December 11, 1862.[2] He received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863 for his raids on the supply lines of Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans in December and January, most notably his victory at the Battle of Hartsville on December 7.[4] Also in December, Morgan married Martha "Mattie" Ready, the daughter of Tennessee United States Representative Charles Ready and a cousin of William T. Haskell, another former U.S. representative from Tennessee.

Hoping to divert Union troops and resources in conjunction with the twin Confederate operations of Vicksburg and the Gettysburg in the summer of 1863, Morgan set off on the campaign that would become known as "Morgan's Raid". Morgan crossed the Ohio River, and raided across southern Indiana and Ohio. After many skirmishes and battles, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers[citation needed], Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio (actually closer to New Lisbon-now called just Lisbon), Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender.

On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.

Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from Gen. Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning. The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U.S. government well into the early 20th century. However, the Confederacy's irreplaceable loss of some of the finest light cavalry[citation needed]in American history far outweighed the Union's replaceable losses in equipment and supplies. When taken in together with the defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the loss of Morgan's cavalry brigade dealt another serious blow to Confederate morale.

[edit] Late career and death

After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia.[5]

However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties. By now Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry[citation needed], likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.[1]

On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt.

Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.

John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War.

Morgan is best known for Morgan's Raid in 1863, when he led 2,460 troops racing past Union lines into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio in July 1863. This would be the farthest north any uniformed Confederate troops penetrated during the war.

John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta (Hunt) Morgan. He was an uncle of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan and a grandson of John Wesley Hunt, an early founder of Lexington, Kentucky, and one of the first millionaires west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was also the brother-in-law of A.P. Hill and of Basil W. Duke.

In 1846, Morgan enlisted in the U.S. Army as a cavalry private during the Mexican-American War, and saw combat at the Battle of Buena Vista. On his return to Kentucky, he became a hemp manufacturer and eventually took over his grandfather's prosperous mercantile business. In 1848, he married Rebecca Gratz Bruce, 18-year-old sister of Morgan's business partner. Morgan raised a militia artillery company in 1852, but it was disbanded two years later.

Like most Kentuckians, Morgan did not initially support secession. Immediately after Lincoln's election in November 1860, he wrote to his brother, Thomas Hunt Morgan, then a student at Kenyon College in northern Ohio, "Our State will not I hope secede, I have no doubt but Lincoln will make a good President at least we ought to give him a fair trial & then if he commits some overt act all the South will be a unit." Neverthless, in September 1861, Captain Morgan and his militia company went to Tennessee and joined the Confederate States Army. Morgan soon raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment and became its colonel on April 4, 1862.

Morgan and his cavalrymen fought at the Battle of Shiloh in May 1862, and he soon became a symbol to secessionists in their hopes for obtaining Kentucky for the Confederacy. A Louisiana writer, Robert D. Patrick, compared Morgan to Francis Marion and wrote that "a few thousands of such men as his would regain us Kentucky and Tennessee." In his first Kentucky raid, Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, 1862, with almost 900 men and in three weeks he swept through Kentucky, deep in the rear of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army. He reported the capture of 1,200 Federal soldiers, whom he paroled, acquired several hundred horses, and destroyed massive quantities of supplies. He unnerved Kentucky's Union military government and President Abraham Lincoln received so many frantic appeals for help that he complained that "they are having a stampede in Kentucky." Historian Kenneth M. Noe wrote that Morgan's feat "in many ways surpassed J.E.B. Stuart's celebrated 'Ride around McClellan' and the Army of the Potomac the previous spring." The success of Morgan's raid was one of the key reasons that the Confederate Heartland Offensive of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith was launched later that fall, assuming that tens of thousands of Kentuckians would enlist in the Confederate Army if they invaded the state.

Morgan was promoted to brigadier general (his highest rank) on December 11, 1862, though the Promotion Orders were not signed by President Davis until December 14, 1862. He received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863 for his raids on the supply lines of Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans in December and January, most notably his victory at the Battle of Hartsville on December 7. Also on December 14, Morgan married Martha "Mattie" Ready, the daughter of Tennessee United States Representative Charles Ready and a cousin of William T. Haskell, another former U.S. representative from Tennessee.

Hoping to divert Union troops and resources in conjunction with the twin Confederate operations of Vicksburg and Gettysburg in the summer of 1863, Morgan set off on the campaign that would become known as "Morgan's Raid". Morgan crossed the Ohio River, and raided across southern Indiana and Ohio. At Corydon, Indiana the raiders met 450 local Home Guard in a battle that resulted in eleven Confederates killed and five Home Guard killed.

After several more skirmishes, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers[citation needed], Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio (actually closer to New Lisbon-now called just Lisbon), Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender.

On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.

Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from Gen. Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning. The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U.S. government well into the early 20th century. However, the Confederacy's irreplaceable loss of some of the finest light cavalry[citation needed]in American history far outweighed the Union's replaceable losses in equipment and supplies. When taken in together with the defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the loss of Morgan's cavalry brigade dealt another serious blow to Confederate morale.

After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia.

However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties. By now Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry, likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.

On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt.

Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.

John Hunt Morgan, Brig. General (CSA) Birth: June 1, 1825 Huntsville, AL, USA Death: September 4, 1864 (39) Greenville, Green Co., TN

Son of Calvin Morgan and Henrietta Morgan Husband of Rebecca Bruce and Martha Ready

Father of Infant Morgan, Sidney Morgan, Johnny Morgan and Johnny Morgan Brother of Henrietta Duke, Charlton Hunt Morgan, Calvin Morgan, Richard Morgan, Thomas Morgan and 1 other, and Katherine Morgan « less Half brother of John Morgan, Gen., Henrietta Morgan, Calvin Morgan, Jr., Mary Morgan, Ann Morgan and 7 others, Catherine Morgan, Richard Morgan, Charlton Morgan, Thomas Morgan, Francis Morgan, Catherine Morgan and Eleanor Morgan « less

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her p. read more

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her pregnancy, Rebecca developed a blood clot in her leg.

After eight years of suffering, she died an invalid and childless at age thirty-one. John would be a widower for two years before he met and married his second wife, Martha "Mattie" Ready of Murfreesboro, Tennessee (1840-1887). She was twenty-two when she married John who was then thirty-seven. Eles tiveram duas filhas. The first was born November 27, 1863, and lived only one day. Their second, Johnnie, was born April 7, 1865, following John?s death.

His grandfather, John Wesley Hunt, was an early founder of Lexington and one of the wealthiest men west of the Allegheny Mountains. It is said that he was Lexington?s first millionaire. He had significant investments in merchandising, manufacturing, banking and government securities

John Morgan stood arrow-straight at six feet tall, weighed 185 pounds. He had curly sandy hair and gray eyes. Early in the Civil War, Carrie Pyncheon of Huntsville wrote in her diary, "Before the town was occupied by the Yankees, I spent an evening with Captain Jack [John] Morgan, our second Marion. He was so mild and gentle in his manners that I would not have taken him for a soldier but for his boots and spurs, so unwarrior-like did he seem."

As the war began, he was elected captain of the Morgan Squadron, which formed the nucleus of the 2nd KY cavalry. By the end of 1862, he rose through the ranks and was a brigadier general at the time of the Ohio-Indiana raid.

To the South, he was one of their greatest, their Robin Hood. Northern newspapers called him "The King of Horse Thieves, a bandit, a freebooter, no better than a thug." In the South, he was admired as the "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy."


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Hart County High School, in Munfordville, Kentucky, the site of the Battle for the Bridge, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men. Also, a large mural in the town depicts Morgan.

Trimble County High School, in Bedford, Kentucky, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men.

The John Hunt Morgan Memorial statue in Lexington is a tribute to him.

The Hunt-Morgan House, once his home, is a contributing property in a historic district in Lexington.

The General Morgan Inn, located at the spot he was killed in Greeneville, Tennessee is named after him.


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