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Demanda de rendição confederada - História

Demanda de rendição confederada - História

"Senhor: o Governo dos Estados Confederados tem, até agora, prescindido de qualquer manifestação hostil contra Fort Sumter, na esperança de que o Governo dos Estados Unidos, com vistas ao ajuste amigável de todas as questões entre os dois Governos, e para evitar o calamidades da guerra, iria evacuá-lo voluntariamente.

"Houve uma época em que houve motivos para acreditar que esse seria o curso seguido pelo Governo dos Estados Unidos, e sob essa impressão meu governo se absteve de fazer qualquer exigência para a rendição do forte. Mas os Estados Confederados não podem mais demora para assumir a posse efectiva de uma fortificação que comande a entrada de um dos seus portos, e necessária à sua defesa e segurança.

"Recebi ordens do Governo dos Estados Confederados para exigir a evacuação do Forte Sumter. Meus auxiliares, Coronel Chesnut e Capitão Lee, estão autorizados a fazer tal exigência de você. Todas as instalações adequadas serão fornecidas para a remoção de você e do comando , juntamente com as armas e propriedades da empresa, e todas as propriedades privadas, para qualquer posto nos Estados Unidos que você selecionar. A bandeira que você defendeu por tanto tempo e com tanta firmeza, nas circunstâncias mais difíceis, pode ser saudada por você em derrubá-lo. "'

Resposta de Anderson

"General," tenho a honra de acusar o recebimento de sua comunicação exigindo a evacuação deste forte, e de dizer, em resposta a ela, que é uma exigência com a qual lamento que meu senso de honra e de minhas obrigações para com meu governo, impeça minha obediência. Agradecendo pelos termos justos, viris e corteses propostos, e pelo alto elogio que me fez, sou, general, com muito respeito, seu servo obediente, Robert Anderson, Major, Primeira Artilharia, Comandante. "


Guerra Civil Americana: General Edmund Kirby Smith

O general Edmund Kirby Smith foi conhecido comandante confederado durante a Guerra Civil. Veterano da Guerra Mexicano-Americana, ele se juntou ao Exército Confederado em 1861 e inicialmente serviu na Virgínia e no Leste do Tennessee. No início de 1863, Smith assumiu o comando do Departamento de Trans-Mississippi. Responsável por todas as forças confederadas a oeste do rio Mississippi, ele habilmente defendeu seu departamento das incursões da União durante a maior parte de seu mandato. As forças de Smith foram o último grande comando confederado a se render quando capitularam ante o general Edward R.S. Canby em Galveston, TX em 26 de maio de 1865.


Confederate Surrender at Bennett & # 8217s Place (17 a 26 de abril de 1865)

No início de abril de 1865, a Virgínia caiu nas mãos da União com a captura de Richmond e Petersburgo. O general do sindicato William T. Sherman, que queria desesperadamente fazer parte da rendição de Lee & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s, prosseguiu com a última parte de sua campanha das Carolinas e marchou para Raleigh, Carolina do Norte. O general confederado Joseph E. Johnston posicionou suas forças para proteger Raleigh contra o ataque. A cavalaria confederada montou resistência na estrada de Goldsboro a Raleigh e as pequenas escaramuças retardaram o avanço das forças da União. Sherman não soube da rendição de Lee e acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s em Appomattox Court House (9 de abril de 1865) até 11 de abril.

Em 12 de abril, o governador da Carolina do Norte, Zebulon Baird Vance, enviou comissários para se encontrar com Sherman e discutir o fim das hostilidades. Após atrasos causados ​​pelas forças confederadas e sindicais, a mensagem chegou a Sherman, e ele concordou em se encontrar com funcionários do governo da Carolina do Norte. & Acirc No entanto, por causa dos atrasos, os membros do governo em Raleigh fugiram da capital. O prefeito de Raleigh, William H. Harrison, se preparou para render a cidade esperando que o edifício da capital e o museu fossem poupados. Em 13 de abril de 1865, Sherman assumiu o controle de Raleigh e escreveu cartas concedendo passagem segura a Vance e solicitando seu retorno à cidade. As escaramuças continuaram entre a cavalaria da União e da Confederação ao longo de 13 de abril, mas a cidade de Raleigh não foi responsabilizada ou punida.

Em 14 de abril de 1865, Sherman visitou com Thomas Bragg: Braxton Bragg & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s irmão, um ex-governador da Carolina do Norte e um amigo próximo de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s de antes da guerra. Sherman perguntou sobre o bem-estar de Braxton & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s e informou a Thomas que Raleigh não foi molestado. Em Greensboro, Johnston se reuniu com o presidente confederado Jefferson Davis e o convenceu a autorizar a suspensão das hostilidades.

Mais tarde, em 14 de abril, Sherman recebeu uma carta sob a bandeira de trégua do General Johnston buscando o fim da guerra. & Acirc Sherman concordou em suspender as hostilidades e se reunir com o General Confederado. Após atrasos causados ​​pela cavalaria do General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s e pelo Presidente Confederado Davis deixando Greensboro, os generais concordaram em se encontrar na estação Durham & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s, Carolina do Norte. Kilpatrick argumentou que Johnston não era confiável e tentaria escapar, mas Sherman acreditava na sinceridade do comandante confederado. A notícia da reunião criou expectativa entre os soldados de ambos os lados em 15 e 16 de abril. Em 17 de abril, enquanto Sherman se preparava para partir para a estação Durham & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s, chegou uma mensagem informando-o do assassinato do presidente Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s. Sherman jurou sigilo ao telegrafista para não comprometer o moral dos soldados ou as negociações de paz. Mais tarde naquele dia, Sherman cavalgou para se encontrar com Johnston e seus generais.

A reunião aconteceu na Bennett Farm House, fora da estação Durham & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s. Sherman e Johnston discutiram a rendição dentro da casa da fazenda sem testemunhas. Sherman compartilhou a notícia sobre o assassinato de Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s com Johnston e Johnston expressou que Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s death & acirc & # 8364 & # 339 foi a maior calamidade possível para o Sul. & Acirc & # 8364 Sherman ofereceu a Johnston os mesmos termos de rendição dados a Lee . No entanto, Johnston acreditava que o objetivo da reunião era cessar os combates e dar às autoridades civis o tempo necessário para encerrar a guerra. Ele sugeriu que os termos de uma paz permanente deveriam ser arranjados e o acordo deveria render todas as forças confederadas ainda no campo. Sherman concordou ansiosamente porque queria acabar com a guerra. Ele também estava preocupado com a possibilidade de que os soldados da Johnston & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s continuassem lutando em uma guerra de guerrilha.

Os dois discutiram os termos de paz e o desejo de Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s de restaurar a União. Johnston queria incluir uma cláusula geral de anistia para proteger os soldados e governos do Sul, incluindo Davis e seu gabinete. Visto que nenhuma decisão pôde ser tomada no primeiro dia, os dois generais voltaram a seus lados durante a noite e concordaram em se encontrar no mesmo local no dia seguinte. Naquela noite, Sherman informou suas tropas sobre o assassinato de Lincoln e da desaprovação de Johnston & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s pela morte de Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s. Antes do anúncio, Sherman tomou precauções para proteger a cidade de Raleigh contra represálias. Durante seu discurso, Sherman disse aos soldados que era o primeiro dia de negociações de trégua com os confederados. Na cidade de Raleigh, começaram a circular rumores de que as tropas da União iriam saquear a cidade. No entanto, as precauções de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s evitaram que quaisquer atos destrutivos ocorressem na cidade. Apenas um incêndio foi iniciado na noite do dia 17 de abril, e foi um acidente em uma oficina abandonada.

Em 18 de abril de 1865, Sherman e Johnston se encontraram novamente na Bennett & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s Farm para finalizar os termos de rendição. Johnston informou Sherman que tinha autoridade para entregar todas as forças confederadas em campo. Sherman e Johnston discutiram os direitos políticos dos soldados que se renderam. A Proclamação de Anistia de Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s de 1863 concedeu anistia completa a todos os oficiais e homens abaixo do posto de coronel. Os termos oferecidos por Grant a Lee perdoavam todos os oficiais, mesmo os de patente mais alta. Incerto sobre as especificidades jurídicas, Johnston incluiu o general John Breckinridge, que tinha formação jurídica e política, nas discussões. Sherman inicialmente se opôs porque Breckinridge era um oficial civil da Confederação e concordou somente depois de ter certeza de que Breckinridge atuaria apenas como major-general.

Depois de discutir as possíveis questões, Sherman começou a escrever um conjunto de termos. Ele parou apenas uma vez para pegar um gole de uísque. O contrato que Sherman escreveu concedeu aos confederados cidadania e direitos de propriedade, desde que deponham as armas, voltem para casa em paz e vivam dentro dos limites da lei. Ambas as partes concordaram com os termos e assinaram o acordo de paz. Com o acordo assinado, Sherman começou a cumprir sua promessa de que defenderia os direitos do sul e ajudaria na reconstrução do sul.

Existe debate se os termos de paz de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s seguiram o plano de Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s. Aqueles que afirmam que Sherman agiu por conta própria argumentam que os termos eram muito mais abrangentes do que qualquer coisa que Lincoln teria oferecido os termos reconheceram governos estaduais insurgentes, pagaram a dívida de guerra dos confederados e mantiveram os direitos à propriedade escrava. Sherman afirmou que entrou no processo de paz sem nenhuma orientação ou orientação do governo oficial. Sem surpresa, os termos de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s foram rejeitados em Washington e ele foi ridicularizado por ser generoso demais. As instruções de Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s para Grant eram para discutir apenas a rendição dos militares e não para lidar com questões políticas. No entanto, Sherman não sabia que Lincoln havia rescindido a ordem para permitir que o Legislativo da Virgínia se reunisse e tinha a impressão de que o governo federal reconhecia qualquer governo que parasse de se rebelar.

Sherman imediatamente implementou o cessar das hostilidades federais e, com a ajuda de Johnston, comunicou o cessar-fogo ao general James H. Wilson na Geórgia e ao general George Stoneman no oeste da Carolina do Norte. De 19 a 24 de abril de 1865, um grande número de tropas confederadas desertou acreditando que a guerra havia acabado. Em 23 de abril de 1865, Sherman recebeu a decisão do Washington & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s quando Grant apareceu pessoalmente em Raleigh. Grant informou Sherman que seus termos foram rejeitados, e ele só foi autorizado a fornecer os mesmos termos dados a Lee. Grant deveria assumir o comando e tinha uma ordem ordenando que as tropas federais não obedecessem a Sherman.

O secretário da Guerra, Edwin M. Stanton, fez com que o comitê rejeitasse por unanimidade o acordo de paz de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482 e acusou Sherman de querer assumir o governo. Grant, amigo de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s, esteve presente nas reuniões de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s com Lincoln e sabia que Sherman agiu com sinceridade para encerrar a guerra. Sherman enviou comunicações a Johnston discutindo a rejeição dos termos e também escreveu cartas a Stanton e Grant informando-os de que ele acreditava que o uso de governos locais seria o melhor método de reintegrar o sul.

Em 24 de abril de 1865, Sherman recebeu O jornal New York Times e vi o Departamento de Guerra publicar um artigo com a assinatura de Stanton & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s alegando que Sherman desobedeceu deliberadamente a ordem de Lincoln & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s direcionando-o a discutir apenas questões militares & # 8211 algo que Sherman desconhecia na época & # 8211 e acusando Sherman de aceitar um suborno para permitir a fuga de Davis. As afirmações de Stanton & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s enfureceram Sherman e alimentaram ainda mais sua desconfiança em relação aos políticos e à imprensa.

Johnston recebeu cartas de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s e enviou uma mensagem a Davis. Davis respondeu que a infantaria deveria se dispersar temporariamente e se reformar mais tarde e a cavalaria deveria escoltar Davis enquanto ele fugia do Sul. & Acirc Johnston deliberadamente desobedeceu às ordens e enviou uma mensagem a Sherman que eles deveriam se reunir novamente para discutir os termos da rendição. Sherman e Johnston se encontraram novamente na casa da fazenda Bennett & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s em 26 de abril. Inicialmente, Sherman e Johnston tiveram dificuldade para chegar a um acordo. Johnston temia que, sem provisões adequadas, os confederados em dissolução se transformassem em saqueadores e ladrões.

O problema foi resolvido quando o general John McAllister Schofield apontou que ele se tornaria o comandante do departamento após a saída de Sherman e cuidaria dos problemas relacionados à dispersão do exército. Sherman e Johnston concordaram que os soldados da Johnston & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s se reunissem em Greensboro, depositariam seus suprimentos militares e voltariam para casa. Schofield acrescentou seis termos suplementares e o acordo foi assinado por Johnston e Schofield, mas não por Sherman. Grant ficou satisfeito com os termos e voltou para Washington. Os termos foram aceitos pelas autoridades de Washington e encerraram oficialmente a Campanha das Carolinas de Sherman & # 8217s e as hostilidades no sul. Depois de ser repreendido por sua posição amigável em relação ao Sul, Sherman passou seu tempo ajudando com a situação econômica em torno de Raleigh. Ele emitiu ordens para cessar todas as atividades de coleta e ordenou que os comandantes emprestassem cavalos, mulas, carroças e animais capturados aos habitantes locais para apoiar os esforços agrícolas.

O pronunciamento dos termos iniciais de rendição de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482 por Stanton causou críticas a Sherman na imprensa em toda a América. No entanto, os soldados de Sherman e acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s defenderam fervorosamente seu comandante e chegaram perto da insurreição. As pessoas no sul também reconheceram as nobres intenções de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482 e, durante a reconstrução, Sherman seria um dos funcionários do norte mais respeitados e confiáveis. Sherman deixou Raleigh em 29 de abril de 1865. Para ajudar a desarmar a situação potencialmente destrutiva criada por Stanton, as autoridades de Washington encenaram uma grande revisão da vitória nas ruas de Washington DC. Para a surpresa da nova administração, o desfile de Sherman & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s foi maior do que Grant & acirc & # 8364 & # 8482s.

Fontes

Alan Axelrod, Generals South Generals North: Os Comandantes da Guerra Civil Reconsiderados. (Lyons Press: Guilford, Connecticut, 2011) 211-225.

John G. Barrett, Marcha de Sherman pelas Carolinas, (University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1956).

John G. Barrett, A Guerra Civil na Carolina do Norte, (University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1963).

Sharyn Kane e Richard Keeton, Fiery Dawn: A Batalha da Guerra Civil em Monroe’s Crossroads, Carolina do Norte, preparado para o Exército dos EUA, XVIII Airborne Corps e Fort Bragg, Fort Bragg, Carolina do Norte, pelo Departamento do Interior dos EUA, National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center, Tallahassee, Florida, 1999.

Mark L. Bradley, Última Resistência na Carolina: A Batalha de Bentonville. (Campbell: Savas Woodbury Publishers, 1996).


Forças da União se rendem em Fort Sumter

Após um bombardeio de 33 horas por canhões confederados, as forças da União rendem o Forte Sumter na Carolina do Sul e o porto de Charleston # x2019s. O primeiro confronto da guerra terminou com a vitória dos rebeldes.

A rendição encerrou um impasse que começou com a secessão da União na Carolina do Sul em 20 de dezembro de 1860. Quando o presidente Abraham Lincoln mandou dizer a Charleston no início de abril que planejava enviar comida para a guarnição sitiada, os confederados entraram em ação. Eles abriram fogo contra Sumter na madrugada de 12 de abril. No dia seguinte, quase 4.000 tiros foram lançados em direção à silhueta negra de Fort Sumter.

Dentro de Sumter estava seu comandante, Major Robert Anderson, 9 oficiais, 68 homens alistados, 8 músicos e 43 trabalhadores da construção civil que ainda estavam dando os retoques finais no forte. O capitão da União Abner Doubleday, o homem muitas vezes imprecisamente creditado como inventor do jogo de beisebol, respondeu ao fogo quase duas horas após o início da barragem. Na manhã de 13 de abril, a guarnição em Sumter estava em apuros. Os soldados sofreram apenas ferimentos leves, mas não conseguiram resistir por muito mais tempo. O forte foi seriamente danificado e os tiros do Confederate & # x2019s estavam se tornando mais precisos. Por volta do meio-dia, o mastro da bandeira foi alvejado. Louis Wigfall, um ex-senador dos EUA pelo Texas, remou sem permissão para ver se a guarnição estava tentando se render. Anderson decidiu que mais resistência seria inútil e ergueu uma bandeira branca em um mastro improvisado.

O primeiro confronto da guerra acabou, e a única vítima foi um cavalo confederado. A força da União foi autorizada a partir para o norte antes de partir, os soldados dispararam uma salva de 100 tiros. Durante a saudação, um soldado foi morto e outro mortalmente ferido por um cartucho que explodiu prematuramente. A Guerra Civil havia começado oficialmente.


Quem possuía escravos?

“Muitos civis do Norte possuíam escravos. Antes, durante e mesmo depois da Guerra da Agressão do Norte. ”

"Mamãe, ele fez isso também!" raramente é uma forma convincente ou convincente de argumento histórico, especialmente quando - como neste caso - alguém está se referindo a ações que foram muito diferentes em grau e tempo.

É verdade que a escravidão não era exclusividade do Sul: tanto durante a era colonial quanto após a independência, a escravidão existia em áreas que agora compreendem o que consideramos Estados do “Norte”. Mas a sugestão de que “muitos civis do Norte” possuíam escravos na época da Guerra Civil está totalmente errada. Todos os estados do Norte, com uma única exceção discutível, (por lei ou pela prática) acabaram com a escravidão dentro de suas fronteiras muito antes do início da Guerra Civil.

Onde a escravidão legalizada ainda existia no Norte em 1861? Apenas em Delaware, um estado que estava longe de ser inegavelmente um estado "Norte": dependendo dos critérios usados, alguém poderia justificadamente ter classificado Delaware na época da Guerra Civil como sendo Norte, Sul, Meio-Atlântico ou alguma combinação disso. De qualquer forma, embora os esforços legislativos para abolir a escravidão em Delaware tenham sido malsucedidos, na época do censo de 1860 91,7% da população negra de Delaware estava livre e menos de 1.800 escravos permaneceram no estado - dificilmente uma condição que apóie a noção de que “Muitos” nortistas possuíam escravos.

Embora Missouri, Kentucky e Maryland nunca tenham se separado formalmente da União, eles não eram estados do “Norte” em um sentido geográfico ou cultural. Todos eram o lar de elementos pró-confederados substanciais e contribuíram com um número significativo de tropas para o lado confederado durante a Guerra Civil. Kentucky e Missouri foram reivindicados como estados membros pela Confederação e foram representados no Congresso Confederado, e Maryland permaneceu na União principalmente porque as tropas dos EUA rapidamente impuseram a lei marcial e guarneceram o estado para impedir os esforços de secessão. (Maryland tinha de ser mantido na União por todos os meios necessários, caso contrário, a capital dos Estados Unidos no Distrito de Columbia teria sido completamente fechada dentro do território confederado.) O estado de Nova Jersey era uma espécie de outlier. Embora a legislatura de Nova Jersey tenha aprovado uma medida de emancipação gradual em 1804 e abolido permanentemente a escravidão em 1846, o estado permitiu que alguns ex-escravos fossem reclassificados como “aprendizes vitalícios” - uma condição que poderia ser considerada escravidão em tudo, exceto no nome. No entanto, o censo de 1860 registrou apenas 18 escravos em toda a Nova Jersey.


Demanda de rendição de Morgan

Situação: o fosso do rifle dianteiro do coronel Moore ficava na ravina à sua esquerda. As forças confederadas estavam à sua direita se preparando para atacar.

Brigue. O general John Hunt Morgan escreveu uma nota e deu-a ao tenente-coronel Robert A. Alston, seu chefe de gabinete. Sob uma bandeira de trégua, Alston, acompanhado pelo tenente-coronel Joseph T. Tucker e o major William P. Elliot, cavalgou para o centro deste campo. Eles foram recebidos pelo 25º comandante de Michigan, Coronel O. H. Moore, montado em seu cavalo, Lion. A nota dizia:

Hd. Qrs. Divisão Morgan
No campo, na frente de Green
Stockade, 4 de julho de 1863.

Aos oficiais que comandam as Forças Federais
Em Stockade perto da ponte Green River,

Senhor,
Em nome do Governo dos Estados Confederados, exijo a rendição imediata e incondicional de toda a força sob o seu comando, juntamente com a paliçada.

Eu sou, muito respeitosamente,
Jno. H. Morgan
Comdy. Divisão Cav. C.S.A.

O coronel Moore respondeu baixinho: "Apresente meus cumprimentos ao general Morgan e diga-lhe que, sendo quatro de julho, não posso aceitar a proposta de me render."

Depois de apertar as mãos, Alston respondeu: "Adeus, Coronel Moore, só Deus sabe quem pode cair primeiro."

voltaram para o lado deles para aguardar seu destino e a luta começou imediatamente.

Union Pvt. Henry G. Phillips, 25º Michigan, escreveu sua versão da resposta de Moore à irmã, 14 de julho de 1863. Phillips morreu um mês depois.

"no dia 4 de julho, o velho malandro (Morgan) e toda a sua divisão vieram e nos pediram com muita educação para nos rendermos incondicionalmente, mas nosso Galiant Col. disse a ele que era tarde demais para se render e, além disso, era 4 de julho e os meninos queriam selebrá-lo. "
Union Pvt. Henry G. Phillips
25º Michigan

"Então eles viraram seus cavalos e galoparam."
-Lt. Benjamin Travis, 25º Michigan

Uma série de destacadas lideranças confederadas estava presente neste campo de batalha. Fora de vista na extrema direita, mas esperando Alston, Tucker e Elliott retornarem com a resposta de Moore estavam Brig. Gen. J.H. Morgan, Coronel Basil Duke, Coronel Adam R. Johnson e Tenente Coronel D. Howard Smith.

Erguido pela Comissão de Trilhas da Guerra Civil de Kentucky Heartland.

Tópicos e séries. Este marcador histórico está listado nesta lista de tópicos: Guerra, Civil dos EUA. Além disso, está incluído na lista da série John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail em Kentucky. Uma data histórica significativa para esta entrada é 4 de julho de 1863.

Localização. 37 e 14.166 e # 8242 N, 85 e 21.039 e # 8242 W. Marcador está perto de Campbellsville Anúncio Pago

, Kentucky, no Condado de Taylor. Marker está na Tebbs Bend Road 0,3 milhas a oeste de Harley Road, à direita ao viajar para o oeste. Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está nesta área dos correios: Campbellsville KY 42718, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 8 outros marcadores estão a uma curta distância deste marcador. "No Day to Surrender" (aproximadamente 0,2 milhas de distância) Batalha de Green River Bridge (aproximadamente milhas de distância) Posição de Artilharia Confederada (aproximadamente 0,4 milhas de distância) Dia da Independência - 1863 (aproximadamente meia milha de distância) Michigan em Tebbs Bend (cerca de meia milha de distância) "Nobly Did They Die" (cerca de meia milha de distância) Federal Stockade (cerca de 0,9 milhas de distância) Green River Bridge / Green River Bridge Skirmish Site (aprox. Uma milha de distância). Toque para obter uma lista e um mapa de todos os marcadores em Campbellsville.


CONFEDERACY IN CHAOS

Os governadores estaduais se encontravam continuamente em conflito com Davis sobre o desafio do governo aos sagrados direitos estaduais, especialmente as leis de recrutamento federal.

Os militares exacerbaram a situação: à medida que a guerra se arrastava, algumas tropas rondavam o campo para roubar civis. Outros prenderam civis por infrações aleatórias (muitas vezes infundadas), enfurecendo as autoridades locais.

O governo federal refletiu esse caos. Davis viu sua autoridade desafiada repetidamente, quase enfrentando o impeachment. Davis rivalizava regularmente com o vice-presidente Stephens, brigava com generais, muitas vezes precisava reconstruir seu gabinete e enfrentava repetidas reações de jornais que o apoiavam.


2 de junho na História da Guerra Civil: a última rendição e o primeiro uso da guerra de trincheiras

A maioria das pessoas pensa em Appomattox quando pensa na última rendição da Guerra Civil, mas não foi. A rendição final foi no Trans-Mississippi Theatre em 2 de junho de 1865. Foi apenas um ano antes que o General Lee planejou a primeira Guerra de Trincheiras na batalha sangrenta de Cold Harbor, onde cerca de 18.000 meninos e homens morreram. Você ainda pode ver algumas das trincheiras.

A Guerra Civil foi travada para libertar os escravos e pelos direitos dos Estados. Originalmente, era supostamente apenas para preservar a União, mas estava claro que o presidente Abraham Lincoln queria que a instituição da escravidão fosse abolida por todos os meios necessários.

Houve uma estimativa de 1,5 milhão de vítimas, com 620.000 mortos, 476.000 feridos e 400.000 capturados e desaparecidos.

A maioria das vítimas e mortes na Guerra Civil foram o resultado de doenças não relacionadas com o combate. Para cada três soldados mortos em batalha, mais cinco morreram de doenças. A natureza primitiva da medicina da Guerra Civil, tanto em sua base intelectual quanto em sua prática nos exércitos, significava que muitos ferimentos e doenças eram desnecessariamente fatais.

Nossa concepção moderna de baixas inclui aqueles que foram psicologicamente prejudicados pela guerra. Essa distinção não existia durante a Guerra Civil. Os soldados que sofriam do que agora reconheceríamos como transtorno de estresse pós-traumático não foram catalogados e nem receberam cuidados.

Um em cada quatro soldados que foram para a guerra nunca mais voltou. Estima-se que uma em cada três famílias do Sul perdeu pelo menos um membro da família.

2 DE JUNHO

2 de junho de 1865 marca a última rendição dos Confederados no Trans-Mississippi Theatre.

Houve operações federais contra índios nas proximidades de Crystal Palace Bluff, sobre Fort Rice, no território de Dakota, quando um homem morreu ferido por flechas.

Em 26 de maio de 1865, os comandantes federais aceitaram a rendição da última grande força confederada organizada ainda em campo.

O General Confederado Edmund Kirby Smith comandou o Distrito Trans-Mississippi, no qual o Exército do Oeste foi designado para cobrir o oeste da Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, o Território Indígena (agora Oklahoma), Texas e os territórios do Novo México e Arizona. O exército não tinha sido uma grande força de combate desde sua incursão fracassada no Missouri no outono passado, mas Smith incitou seus homens a continuarem resistindo mesmo assim:

“Mostre que você é digno de sua posição na história. Prove ao mundo que seus corações não falharam na hora do desastre e que no último momento vocês apoiarão a sagrada causa que tem sido tão gloriosamente lutada por seus irmãos a leste do Mississippi ... Os grandes recursos deste departamento, é em grande medida, os números, a disciplina e a eficiência do exército garantirão aos termos do nosso país que um povo orgulhoso pode aceitar, e pode, sob a Providência de Deus, ser o meio de impedir o triunfo de nosso inimigo e assegurar o sucesso final da nossa causa. ”

No início de maio, Smith rejeitou uma proposta do Major General John Pope, comandando o Departamento Federal do Missouri, de se render sob os mesmos termos que Ulysses S. Grant havia dado a Robert E. Lee, William T. Sherman havia dado a Joseph E. Johnston e ERS Canby deu a Richard Taylor. Dois dias depois, Smith relatou que a maioria de seus 50.000 homens havia “dissolvido toda a organização militar e voltado para suas casas”.

No entanto, Smith continuou resistindo enquanto outros comandantes confederados cediam. Brigadeiro-general M. Jeff Thompson, o "Raposa do Pântano da Confederação" que havia assediado Federais no Missouri e Arkansas durante a guerra, entregou os restos de sua brigada em Chalk Bluff, Arkansas. O Major General Samuel Jones rendeu seu pequeno comando na Flórida em Tallahassee. E o notório raider William C. Quantrill foi mortalmente ferido no condado de Spencer, Kentucky, encerrando assim a maior parte da guerra de guerrilha nos estados fronteiriços.

Finalmente percebendo que os números federais podem ser muito esmagadores, Smith convocou uma conferência com os governadores exilados de Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas e Texas em Marshall, Texas, no dia 13. Smith disse aos participantes que era seu dever resistir “pelo menos até que o presidente Davis chegue a este departamento, ou eu receba algumas ordens definidas dele”. Smith ainda não sabia que Jefferson Davis havia sido capturado.

Os governadores discordaram, considerando-o "inútil". No entanto, o Brigadeiro General Joseph O. "Jo" Shelby, um dos tenentes de Smith, ameaçou prender seu superior se ele seguisse o conselho dos governadores e se rendeu. Os homens decidiram nomear o governador da Louisiana, Henry W. Allen, para ir a Washington para tentar negociar um acordo.

Dois dias depois, Smith recusou uma segunda abertura do Papa para se render. O mensageiro do Papa ofereceu a Smith uma escolha entre a rendição incondicional ou "todos os horrores da subjugação violenta".

Smith disse ao homem que não poderia "adquirir um certo grau de imunidade contra a devastação às custas da honra de seu exército (da Confederação)".

Enquanto isso, em Washington, Grant enviou o major-general Philip Sheridan para destruir o que restava do exército de Smith. Sheridan pediu para ficar em Washington para participar da Grand Review, mas Grant insistiu que ele fosse embora imediatamente. Grant explicou que Sheridan não apenas forçaria a rendição de Smith, mas também desencorajaria a França de colonizar o México, violando a Doutrina Monroe. A temível reputação de Sheridan de pilhagem e destruição certamente precederia sua chegada.

Smith logo recebeu a notícia de que Sheridan estava chegando e Jefferson Davis havia sido capturado. Com seu exército se dissolvendo rapidamente, ele decidiu finalmente negociar.

Ele despachou seu chefe de gabinete, o tenente-general Simon B. Buckner, para discutir a paz, não com Pope em St. Louis, mas com o general E.R.S. Canby em Nova Orleans. Smith não esperava que Buckner tomasse essa decisão sem consultá-lo sobre os termos que ele poderia esperar.

Buckner e Canby começaram a conferenciar no dia 25 e, no dia seguinte, Buckner tomou essa decisão sem consultar Smith.

Ele entregou o Exército Confederado do Oeste ao chefe do Estado-Maior de Canby, General Peter J. Osterhaus, sob os mesmos termos que Grant havia dado a Lee. Como quis o destino, Buckner havia rendido o primeiro exército confederado no Forte Donelson em 1862, e agora ele rendeu o último.

Smith chegou a Houston no dia 27 e soube que seu exército havia se rendido no dia anterior.

Ele se recusou a endossar o acordo e, no dia 30, deu uma ordem final aos poucos homens restantes na forma de uma advertência: “Soldados! Eu fiquei um comandante sem exército - um general sem tropas. Você fez sua escolha. Foi imprudente e antipatriótico, mas é definitivo. Eu oro para que você não viva para se arrepender. ”

Smith finalmente cedeu e assinou os artigos de rendição em 2 de junho, a bordo do vapor Fort Jackson em Galveston. Aqueles que se recusaram a desistir foram pagos em ouro e recrutados, incluindo Jo Shelby e outros que esperavam continuar a luta do México. O próprio Smith se juntaria a eles mais tarde.

A rendição de E.K. O distrito Trans-Mississippi de Smith significava que a última força de combate Confederada significativa não existia mais. Alguns comandantes que lideravam unidades pequenas e menos organizadas continuaram resistindo, incluindo o General Stand Watie. Outros simplesmente voltaram para casa, aceitando que a guerra finalmente havia acabado.

No ano anterior, a batalha Cold Harbor estava sendo travada em junho enquanto Lee tentava retomar o campo de batalha.

COLD HARBOR BATTLEFIELD, RICHMOND VA

O campo de batalha é considerado um dos lugares mais assustadores da Terra. É onde a guerra de trincheiras foi travada pela primeira vez.

1 DE JUNHO
Lee desejava retomar o Old Cold Harbor e enviou a divisão do Major General Joseph Kershaw & # 8217s para se juntar a Hoke em um ataque matinal. O esforço foi curto e descoordenado. Hoke failed to press the attack and Sheridan’s troopers, armed with Spencer repeating carbines, easily repulsed the assault.

Grant, encouraged by this success, ordered up reinforcements and planned his own attack for later the same day. If the Union frontal assault broke through the Confederate defenses, it would place the Union army between Lee and Richmond. After a hot and dusty night march, Major General Horatio Wright’s VI Corps arrived and relieved Sheridan’s cavalry, but Grant had to delay the attack Major General William Smith’s XVIII Corps, Army of the James, marching in the wrong direction under out-of-date orders, had to retrace its route and arrived late in the afternoon.

The Union attack finally began at 5 p.m. Finding a fifty yard gap between Hoke’s and Kershaw’s divisions, Wright’s veterans poured through, capturing part of the Confederate lines. A southern counterattack however, sealed off the break and ended the day’s fighting. Confederate infantry strengthened their lines that night and waited for the battle to begin next morning.

JUNE 2
Disappointed by the failed attack Grant planned another advance for 5 a.m. on June 2. He ordered Major General Winfield Hancock’s II Corps to march to the left of the VI Corps.

Exhausted by a brutal night march over narrow, dusty roads, the II Corps did not arrive until 6:30 a.m. Grant postponed the attack until 5 p.m.

Later that day, he approved a postponement until 4:30 a.m. of June 3 because of the spent condition of Hancock’s men.

The Union delays gave Lee precious hours, time he used to strengthen his defenses. The Confederates had built simple trenches by daybreak of June 2. Under Lee’s personal supervision, these works were expanded and strengthened throughout the day. By nightfall the Confederates occupied an interlocking series of trenches with overlapping fields of fire. Reinforcements under Major General John Breckinridge and Lieutenant General Ambrose Hill arrived and fortified the Confederate right. Lee was ready.

JUNE 3
At 4:30 on the morning of June 3 almost 50,000 Federal troops in the II, VI and XVIII Corps launched a massive assault.

The Confederate position, now well entrenched, proved too strong for the Union troops. In less than an hour, thousands of Federal soldiers lay dead and dying between the lines.

Pinned down by a tremendous volume of Confederate infantry and artillery fire, Grant’s men could neither advance nor retreat. With cups, plates, and bayonets, they dug makeshift trenches. Later, when darkness fell, these trenches were joined and improved.

JUNE 4-12
The great attack at Cold Harbor was over. Hundreds of wounded Federal soldiers remained on the battlefield for four days as Grant and Lee negotiated a cease-fire. Few survived the ordeal.

From June 4 to June 12 both armies fortified their positions and settled into siege warfare. The days were filled with minor attacks, artillery duels and sniping. With the Union defeat at Cold Harbor, Grant changed his overall strategy and abandoned further direct moves against Richmond.

On the night of June 12 Union forces withdrew and marched south towards the James River. During the two week period along the Totopotomoy and at Cold Harbor, the Federal army lost 12,000 killed, wounded, missing, and captured while the Confederates suffered almost 4,000 casualties.

Grant’s next target was Petersburg and the railroads that provided needed supplies to the Confederate army. Cold Harbor proved to be Lee’s last major field victory and changed the course of the war from one of maneuver to one of entrenchment.


Conteúdo

The fighting of the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War between Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s Army of the Potomac and Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was reported considerably more often in the newspapers than the battles of the Western Theater. Reporting of the Eastern Theater skirmishes largely dominated the newspapers as the Appomattox Campaign developed. [2] Lee’s army fought a series of battles in the Appomattox Campaign against Grant that ultimately stretched thin his lines of defense. Lee's extended lines were mostly on small sections of thirty miles of strongholds around Richmond and Petersburg. His troops ultimately became exhausted defending this line because they were too thinned out. Grant then took advantage of the situation and launched attacks on this thirty mile long poorly defended front. This ultimately led to the surrender of Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox. [2]

The Army of Northern Virginia surrendered on April 9 around noon followed by General St. John Richardson Liddell's troops some six hours later. [2] Mosby's Raiders disbanded on April 21 General Joseph E. Johnston and his various armies surrendered on April 26 the Confederate departments of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana surrendered on May 4 and the Confederate District of the Gulf, commanded by Major General Dabney H. Maury, surrendered on May 5. [3] Confederate President Jefferson Davis held his last cabinet meeting on May 5 and his government dissolved. He was captured on May 10, along with the Confederate Departments of Florida and South Georgia, commanded by Confederate Major General Samuel Jones. [4] Also on May 10, United States President Andrew Johnson declared the rebellion's armed resistance virtually ended . [5] Thompson's Brigade surrendered on May 11, Confederate forces of North Georgia surrendered on May 12, and Kirby Smith surrendered on May 26 (officially signed June 2). [6] The last battle of the American Civil War was the Battle of Palmito Ranch in Texas on May 12 and 13. The last significant Confederate active force to surrender was the Confederate allied Cherokee Brigadier General Stand Watie and his Indian soldiers on June 23. The last Confederate surrender occurred on November 6, 1865, when the Confederate warship CSS Shenandoah surrendered at Liverpool, England. [7] President Johnson formally declared the end of the war on August 20, 1866.

General Robert E. Lee commanded the Army of Northern Virginia, while Major General John Brown Gordon commanded its Second Corps. Early in the morning of April 9, Gordon attacked, aiming to break through Federal lines at the Battle of Appomattox Court House, but failed, and the Confederate Army was then surrounded. At 8:30 A.M. that morning, Lee requested a meeting with Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant to discuss surrendering the Army of Northern Virginia. Shortly after twelve o'clock, Grant's reply reached Lee, and in it Grant said he would accept the surrender of the Confederate Army under certain conditions. Lee then rode into the little hamlet of Appomattox Court House, where the Appomattox county court house stood, and waited for Grant's arrival to surrender his army. [3]

The Confederates lost the city of Spanish Fort in Alabama at the Battle of Spanish Fort, which took place between March 27 and April 8, 1865 in Baldwin County. After losing Spanish Fort, the Confederates went on to lose Fort Blakely to Union forces at the Battle of Fort Blakely, between April 2 and 9, 1865. This was the last battle of the American Civil War involving large numbers of United States Colored Troops. [10] The Battle of Fort Blakely happened six hours after Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox. In the course of the battle, Brig. Gen. St. John Richardson Liddell was captured and surrendered his men. Out of 4,000 soldiers originally, Liddell lost 3,400 that were captured in this battle. About 250 were killed and only some 200 men escaped. The successful Union assault can be attributed in large part to African-American forces. [11]

Unaware of Lee's surrender on April 9 and the assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, General James H. Wilson's Raiders continued their march through Alabama into Georgia. On April 16, the Battle of Columbus, Georgia was fought. This battle – erroneously – has been argued to be the "last battle of the Civil War" and equally erroneously asserted to be "widely regarded" as such. [12] [13] [14] Columbus fell to Wilson's Raiders about midnight on April 16, and most of its manufacturing capacity was destroyed on the 17th. Confederate Colonel John Stith Pemberton, the inventor of Coca-Cola, was wounded in this battle which resulted in his obsession with pain-killing formulas, ultimately ending in the recipe for his celebrated drink.

Mosby's Rangers, also known as the 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry, were a special force of Confederate military troops who opposed the Union control of the Loudoun Valley area. Under the command of General Robert E. Lee, John S. Mosby had formed the battalion on June 10, 1863, at Rector's Cross Roads near Rectortown, Virginia. Mosby practiced psychological and guerrilla warfare techniques to disrupt the Union stronghold. Mosby's men never formally surrendered and were disbanded on April 21, 1865, almost two weeks after Lee had surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant. [15] On the last day of Mosby's striking force, a letter from him was read aloud to his men: [16]

With no formal surrender, however, Union Major General Winfield S. Hancock offered a reward of $2,000 for Mosby's capture, later raised to $5,000. On June 17, Mosby surrendered to Major General John Gregg in Lynchburg, Virginia. [18]

The next major stage in the peace-making process concluding the American Civil War was the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston and his armies to Major General William T. Sherman on April 26, 1865, at Bennett Place, in Durham, North Carolina. [19] Johnston's Army of Tennessee was among nearly one hundred thousand Confederate soldiers who were surrendered from North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. [19] The conditions of surrender were in a document called "Terms of a Military Convention" signed by Sherman, Johnston, and Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant at Raleigh, North Carolina. [20]

The first major stage in the peace-making process was when Lee's surrender occurred at Appomattox on April 9, 1865. [21] This, coupled with Lincoln's assassination, induced Johnston to act, believing: "With such odds against us, without the means of procuring ammunition or repairing arms, without money or credit to provide food, it was impossible to continue the war except as robbers." [22] On April 17 Sherman and Johnston met at Bennett Place, and the following day an armistice was arranged, when terms were discussed and agreed upon. Grant had authorized only the surrender of Johnston's forces, but Sherman exceeded his orders by providing very generous terms. These included: that the warring states be immediately recognized after their leaders signed loyalty oaths that property and personal rights be returned to the Confederates the reestablishment of the federal court system and that a general amnesty would be given. On April 24 the authorities in Washington rejected Sherman's proposed terms, and two days later Johnston agreed to the same terms Lee had received previously on April 9. [23]

General Johnston surrendered the following commands under his direction on April 26, 1865: the Department of Tennessee and Georgia the Army of Tennessee the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia. [24] In doing so, Johnston surrendered to Sherman around 30,000 men. [23] On April 27 his adjutant announced the terms to the Army of Tennessee in General Orders #18, and on May 2 he issued his farewell address to the Army of Tennessee as General Orders #22. [25] The remaining parts of the Florida "Brigade of the West" surrendered with the rest of Johnston’s forces on May 4, 1865, at Greensboro, North Carolina. [19]

The documentation of the surrender of Lieutenant General Richard Taylor's small force in Alabama was another stage in the process of concluding the American Civil War. The son of former U.S. President Zachary Taylor, Richard Taylor commanded the Confederate troops in the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana of about ten thousand troops. [26] On May 4 Taylor's subordinate Col. J.Q. Chenowith surrendered the Department to Union officer Col. John A. Hottenstein. [27]

Mobile, Alabama, had fallen to Union control on April 12, 1865. [28] Reports reached Taylor of the meeting between Johnston and Sherman about the terms of Johnston's surrender of his armies. Taylor agreed to meet with Major General Edward R. S. Canby for a conference north of Mobile, and they settled on a 48 hour's truce on April 30. Taylor agreed to a surrender after this time elapsed, which he did on May 4 at Citronelle, Alabama. [26]

Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest surrendered on May 9 at Gainesville, Alabama. His troops were included with Taylor's. The terms stated that Taylor could retain control of the railway and river steamers to be able to get his men as near as possible to their homes. Taylor stayed in Meridian, Mississippi, until the last man was sent on his way. He was paroled May 13 and then went to Mobile to join Canby. Canby took him to his home in New Orleans by boat. [27]

President Davis met with his Confederate Cabinet for the last time on May 5, 1865, in Washington, Georgia, and officially dissolved the Confederate government. [29] [ failed verification ] The meeting took place at the Heard house, the Georgia Branch Bank Building, with 14 officials present.

The Confederate District of the Gulf was commanded by Major General Dabney H. Maury. On April 12, he retreated with his troops after the two major Confederate forts of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely were lost to the Union forces. He declared Mobile, Alabama, an open city after these battles. Maury went to Meridian, Mississippi, with his remaining men.

Maury wanted to join the remains of the Army of Tennessee in North Carolina. However, hearing of Johnston's surrender to Sherman on April 26 he soon ran out of options. Ultimately Maury surrendered Mobile's about four thousand men to the Union army on May 5 at Citronelle, Alabama. [30]

Despite the fact that there were still small pockets of resistance in the South, the president declared that the armed resistance was "virtually" ended and that nations or ships still harboring fugitives would be denied entry into U.S. ports. Persons found aboard such vessels would no longer be given immunity from prosecution of their crimes. [31]

On May 10, Union cavalrymen, under Major General James H. Wilson, captured Confederate President Jefferson Davis after he fled Richmond, Virginia, following its evacuation in the early part of April 1865. On May 5, 1865, in Washington, Georgia, Davis had held the last meeting of his Cabinet. At that time, the Confederate government was declared dissolved. [4]

The sequence of events that led to Davis' capture began early in May 1865, when the 4th Michigan Cavalry was set up in an encampment of tents at Macon, Georgia. The military unit of several battalions was commanded by Lieut. Col. Ben Pritchard. On May 7, he was given orders to join many other units searching for the Confederate president. Pritchard's troops scouted through the country along the Ocmulgee River, and by the next day the Michiganders had come to Hawkinsville, Georgia, about fifty miles south of Macon, from where they continued along the river to Abbeville, Georgia. There, Pritchard learned from Lieutenant Colonel Henry Harnden that his First Wisconsin Cavalry was hot on Davis's trail. After a meeting between the two colonels, Harnden and his men headed off towards Irwinville, some twenty miles south of their position. [32]

Pritchard received word from local residents that on the night before a party, probably including the Confederate President, had crossed the Ocmulgee River just north of Abbeville. Since there were two roads to Irwindale, one of which had been taken by Harnden and his men, Pritchard decided to take the other, to see if he could capture Davis. He took with him about a hundred and forty men and their horses, while the balance of the Michiganders stayed on the Ocmulgee River near Abbeville. Some seven hours later, at 1 A.M. on May 10, Pritchard arrived at Irwindale. There was no evidence of Harnden's men being there yet. [32]

Pritchard learned from local residents that about a mile and a half to the north there was a military camp. Not knowing whether this was Davis and his group or the 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, he approached cautiously. He soon identified the camp as Davis's. At first dawn, Pritchard charged the camp, which was so surprised and overwhelmed that it offered no resistance and yielded immediately. [32]

About ten minutes after the surrender, Pritchard heard rapid gunfire to the north. He left Davis and the captured men in the hands of his 21-year-old adjutant. Once he had approached the gunfire, he realized it was the 4th Michigan and the 1st Wisconsin shooting at each other with Spencer repeating carbines, neither realizing who they were shooting at. Pritchard immediately ordered his men to stop and shouted to the 1st Wisconsin to identify the parties. In the five-minute skirmish, the 1st Wisconsin Cavalry had suffered eight men wounded, while the 4th Michigan Cavalry had lost two men killed and one wounded. [32]

Back at camp, Pritchard's adjutant was almost fooled into letting Davis escape by a ruse. Davis's wife had persuaded the adjutant to let her "old mother" go to fetch some water. The adjutant allowed this, and walked away from their tent. Mrs. Davis and a person dressed as an old woman then left the tent to go for the water. One of the other ranking officers noticed the "old woman" was wearing men's riding boots with spurs. Immediately, they were stopped and the woman's overcoat and black head shawl were removed, to reveal Davis himself. [33] The plan of escape thus failed. [34] The Confederate president was subsequently held prisoner for two years in Fort Monroe, Virginia. [35]

In 1864, Major General Samuel Jones commanded the Departments of Florida, South Carolina, and South Georgia, with his headquarters in Pensacola, Florida. His primary orders were to guard the coastal areas of these states and to destroy Union gunboats. He also destroyed all the machinery and sawmills that would be beneficial to the Union armies. [36]

In the early part of 1865, Jones was transferred to Tallahassee, soon after Savannah had fallen to Sherman and the Union forces in December 1864. There, Jones headquartered the District of Florida. On May 10, at Tallahassee, he surrendered about eight thousand troops to Brigadier General Edward M. McCook. In military action east of the Mississippi River, the city of Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital not captured during the Civil War. [36]

Wittsburg, Arkansas (the county seat of Cross County from 1868 through 1886), would witness one of the final acts in the American Civil War. This happened after the collapse of Confederate forces east of the Mississippi. Major General Grenville M. Dodge sent Lieutenant Colonel Charles W. Davis of the 51st Illinois Infantry on April 30, 1865, to Arkansas to seek the surrender of Confederate Brigadier General "Jeff" Meriwether Thompson, commander of Confederate troops in the northeast portion of Arkansas. Davis, arriving at Chalk Bluff (now non-extant) in Clay County, Arkansas, on the St. Francis River, sent communications to Thompson asking that they have a conference. These two officers met on May 9 to negotiate a surrender. [37]

Thompson requested from Davis two days to work out the details of the surrender with his officers. The Confederates under the command of Thompson agreed to surrender all the troops in the area on May 11, 1865. [a] They picked Wittsburg and Jacksonport, Arkansas, as the sites where Thompson's five thousand military troops would gather to receive their paroles. Ultimately Thompson surrendered about seventy-five hundred men all total that were under his command consisting of 1,964 enlisted men with 193 officers paroled at Wittsburg in May 1865 and 4,854 enlisted men with 443 officers paroled at Jacksonport on June 6, 1865. [6] [38]

The surrender of between 3000 and 4000 soldiers under Brigadier General William T. Wofford's command took place at Kingston, Georgia, and was received by Brig. Gen. Henry M. Judah on May 12, 1865. There were several letters between the various generals involved in the negotiation of this surrender, including Wofford, Judah, William D. Whipple and Robert S. Granger. [39]

Colonel Louis Merrill kept the Headquarters Department of the Cumberland in Nashville, Tennessee informed and according to a letter he wrote on May 4, 1865, there were about 10,000 soldiers under Wofford's command, "on paper." These consisted of all the Confederate troops in northwestern Georgia, however only about a third could actually be collected as the rest were deserters. From this group there were a number of soldiers that resisted General Wofford's efforts to make them follow his commands. [6]

There is a Georgia historical marker in Kingston, Georgia, in Bartow County at the intersection of West Main Street and Church Street to denote where this surrender took place. It further explains that the Confederate soldiers were given rations after their release.

The last land battle of the Civil War took place near Brownsville, Texas, and it was won by the Confederates. The Confederates held the city of Brownsville in the early part of 1865. In January or February Major General Lew Wallace was sent by the Union government to Texas. On March 11 Wallace had a meeting with the two major Confederate commanders of the region, Brigadier General James Slaughter and Colonel John "Rip" Ford, under the premise that the official purpose was the "rendition of criminals." The real reason was to agree that any fighting in the region would be pointless and negotiate an unofficial indefinite cease fire. Slaughter and Ford, at this point in time, occupied Fort Brown near Brownsville. [40]

In May Colonel Theodore H. Barrett was in temporary command of Union troops at Brazos Santiago Island. He had little military field experience and desired, it is surmised, "to establish for himself some notoriety before the war closed." Barrett knew that an attack on Fort Brown was in violation of orders from headquarters, since the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia already surrendered by Lee at Appomattox on April 9 and many other Confederate forces had surrendered or disbanded by then. In spite of these known facts Barrett decided anyway to go ahead with his plans. [41]

On May 12, Barrett instructed Colonel David Branson of the 34th Indiana Veteran Volunteer Infantry to attack the Confederate encampment at Brazos Santiago Depot near Fort Brown. Barrett commanded the 62nd United States Colored Infantry and the 2nd Texas Cavalry, and advanced towards Fort Brown with the intention of reoccupying Brownsville with Union forces thinking they would not encounter any problems, assuming all the Confederates surely had heard of Lee's surrender by this time. To their surprise they encountered Confederates that did not know of Lee's surrender. [41]

A ferocious battle erupted at Palmito Ranch, about 12 miles outside Brownsville. The battle was lost by Barrett's Union regiments mainly because they were outmaneuvered and overrun. Of the original 300 Union troops that fought at Palmito Ranch, they lost over one third, mostly to capture with a few killed or seriously injured.

Confederate leaders asked General Kirby Smith to send reinforcements from his Army of the Trans-Mississippi east of the Mississippi River, in the spring of 1864 following the Battle of Mansfield and the Battle of Pleasant Hill. This was not practicable due to the Union naval control of the Mississippi River and the unwillingness of western troops to be transferred east of the river. Smith instead dispatched Major General Sterling Price and his cavalry on an invasion of Missouri that was ultimately not successful. Thereafter the war west of the Mississippi River was principally one of small raids.

By May 26 1865, a representative of Smith's negotiated and signed surrender documents with a representative of Major General Edward Canby in Shreveport, Louisiana, then took custody of Smith's force of 43,000 soldiers when they surrendered, by then the only significant Confederate forces left west of the Mississippi River. With this ended all organized Southern military resistance to the Union forces. Smith signed the surrender papers on June 2 on board the U.S.S. Fort Jackson just outside Galveston Harbor. [42]

The Native American tribes of the Indian Territory realized that the Confederacy could no longer fulfill its commitments to them. Therefore, the Camp Napoleon Council was called to draft an agreement to present a united front as they negotiated a return of their loyalty to the United States. Native American tribes further west, many of them also at war with the United States troops, were also invited to take part, and several of them did. [43]

At the end of the meeting, on May 26, 1865, the council appointed commissioners (no more than five for each tribe) to attend a conference with the U.S. government at Washington D.C., at which the results of the Camp Napoleon Council would be presented and discussed. However, the U.S. government refused to treat with such a large group representing so many tribes. Furthermore the government regarded the Camp Napoleon meeting as unofficial and unauthorized. President Johnson later called for a meeting at Fort Smith (called the Fort Smith Council), which was held in September, 1865. [44]

Cherokee Brigadier General Stand Watie commanded the Confederate Indians when he surrendered on June 23. [45] This was the last significant Confederate active force. [46] Watie formed the Cherokee Mounted Rifles. He was a guerrilla fighter commanding Cherokee, Seminole, Creek, and Osage Indian soldiers. [47] They earned a notorious reputation for their bold and brave fighting. Yearly, Federal troops all over the western United States hunted for Watie, but they never captured him. He surrendered on June 23 at Fort Towson, in the Choctaw Nations area at the village of Doaksville (now a ghost town) of the Indian Territory, being the last Confederate general to surrender in the American Civil War. [48]

O CSS Shenandoah was commissioned as a commerce raider by the Confederacy to interfere with Union shipping and hinder their efforts in the American Civil War. A Scottish-built merchant ship originally called the Sea King, it was secretly purchased by Confederate agents in September 1864. Captain James Waddell renamed the ship Shenandoah after she was converted to a warship off the coast of Spain on October 19, shortly after leaving England. William Conway Whittle, Waddell's right-hand man, was the ship's executive officer. [49]

o Shenandoah, sailing south then east across the Indian Ocean and into the South Pacific, was in Micronesia at the Island of Ponape (called Ascension Island by Whittle) at the time of the surrender of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia to the Union forces on April 9, 1865. [50] Waddell had already captured and disposed of thirteen Union merchantmen.

o Shenandoah destroyed one more prize in the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan, then continued to the Aleutians and into the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, crossing the Arctic Circle on June 19. [51] Continuing then south along the coast of Alaska the Shenandoah came upon a fleet of Union ships whaling on June 22. [51] She opened continuous fire, destroying a major portion of the Union whaling fleet. [51] Capt. Waddell took aim at a fleeing whaler, Sophia Thornton, and at his signal, the gunner jerked a wrist strap and fired the last two shots of the American Civil War. [52] Shenandoah had so far captured and burned eleven ships of the American whaling fleet while in Arctic waters. [51]

Waddell finally learned of Lee's surrender on June 27 when the captain of the prize Susan & Abigail produced a newspaper from San Francisco. The same paper contained Confederate President Jefferson Davis's proclamation that the "war would be carried on with re-newed vigor". [53] Shenandoah proceeded to capture a further ten whalers in the following seven hours. Waddell then steered Shenandoah south, intending to raid the port of San Francisco which he believed to be poorly defended. En route they encountered an English barque, Barracouta, on August 2 from which Waddell learned of the final collapse of the Confederacy including the surrenders of Johnston's, Kirby Smith's, and Magruder's armies and the capture of President Davis. The long log entry of the Shenandoah for August 2, 1865, begins "The darkest day of my life." Captain Waddell realized then in his grief that they had taken innocent unarmed Union whaling ships as prizes when the rest of the country had ended hostilities. [54]

Following the orders of the captain of the Barracouta, Waddell immediately converted the warship back to a merchant ship, storing her cannon below, discharging all arms, and repainting the hull. [54] [55] At this point, Waddell decided to sail back to England and surrender the Shenandoah in Liverpool. Surrendering in an American port carried the certainty of facing a court with a Union point of view and the very real risk of a trial for piracy, for which he and the crew could be hanged. Sailing south around Cape Horn and staying well off shore to avoid shipping that might report Shenandoah's position, they saw no land for another 9,000 miles until they arrived back in England, having logged a total of over 58,000 miles around the world in a year's travel—the only Confederate ship to circumnavigate the globe. [56]

Thus the final Confederate surrender of the war did not occur until November 6, 1865, when Waddell's ship reached Liverpool and was surrendered to Capt. R. N. Paynter, commander of HMS Donegal of the British Royal Navy. [54] [57] [58] The Shenandoah was officially surrendered by letter to the British Prime Minister, the Earl Russell. [59] [60] [61] [62] Ultimately, after an investigation by the British Admiralty court, Waddell and his crew were exonerated of doing anything that violated the laws of war and were unconditionally released. Shenandoah herself was sold to Sultan Majid bin Said of Zanzibar in 1866 and renamed El Majidi. [63] Several of the crew moved to Argentina to become farmers and eventually returned to the United States.

On August 20, 1866, United States President Andrew Johnson signed a Proclamation—Declaring that Peace, Order, Tranquillity, and Civil Authority Now Exists in and Throughout the Whole of the United States of America. [64] It cited the end of the insurrection in Texas, and declared

. that the insurrection which heretofore existed in the State of Texas is at an end and is to be henceforth so regarded in that State as in the other States before named in which the said insurrection was proclaimed to be at an end by the aforesaid proclamation of the 2nd day of April, 1866. And I do further proclaim that the said insurrection is at an end and that peace, order, tranquillity, and civil authority now exist in and throughout the whole of the United States of America.


Conteúdo

The Confederate Navy could never achieve numerical equality with the Union Navy, as its adversary had 70 years of traditions and experience. It instead sought to take advantage of technological innovation, such as ironclads, submarines, torpedo boats, and naval mines (then known as torpedoes). In February 1861, the Confederate States Navy had 30 vessels, only 14 of which were seaworthy. The opposing Union Navy had 90 vessels. The C. S. Navy eventually grew to 101 ships to meet the rise in naval conflicts and threats to the coast and rivers of the Confederacy.

On April 20, 1861, the U.S. was forced to quickly abandon the important Gosport Navy Yard at Portsmouth, Virginia. In their haste, they failed to effectively burn the facility with its large depots of arms, other supplies, and several small vessels. As a result, the Confederacy captured a large supply of much-needed war materials, including heavy cannon, gunpowder, shot, and shell. Of most importance to the Confederacy was the shipyard ' s dry docks, barely damaged by the departing Union forces. The Confederacy ' s only substantial navy yard at that time was in Pensacola, Florida, so the Gosport Yard was sorely needed to build new warships. The most significant warship left at the Yard was the screw frigate USS Merrimack

The U.S. Navy had torched Merrimack ' s superstructure and upper deck, then scuttled the vessel it would have been immediately useful as a warship to their enemy. Little of the ship's structure remained other than the hull, which was holed by the scuttling charge but otherwise intact. Confederate Navy Secretary Stephen Mallory had the idea to raise Merrimack and rebuild it. When the hull was raised, it had not been submerged long enough to have been rendered unusable the steam engines and essential machinery were salvageable. The decks were rebuilt using thick oak and pine planking, and the upper deck was overlaid with two courses of heavy iron plate. The newly rebuilt superstructure was unusual: above the waterline, the sides sloped inward and were covered with two layers of heavy iron-plate armor, the inside course laid horizontally, the outside course laid vertically.

The vessel was a new kind of warship, an all-steam powered "iron-clad". In the centuries-old tradition of reusing captured ships, the new warship was christened CSS Virgínia. She later fought the Union ' s new ironclad USS Monitor. On the second day of the Battle of Hampton Roads, the two ships met and each scored numerous hits on the other. On the first day of that battle Virgínia, and the James River Squadron, aggressively attacked and nearly broke the Union Navy ' s sea blockade of wooden warships, proving the effectiveness of the ironclad concept. The two ironclads had steamed forward, tried to outflank or ram the other, circled, backed away, and came forward firing again and again, but neither was able to sink or demand surrender of its opponent. After four hours, both ships were taking on water through split seams and breaches from enemy shot. The engines of both ships were becoming dangerously overtaxed, and their crews were near exhaustion. The two ships turned and steamed away, never to meet again. This part in the Battle of Hampton Roads between Monitor e Virgínia greatly overshadowed the bloody events each side's ground troops were fighting, largely because it was the first battle in history between two iron-armored steam-powered warships.

The last Confederate surrender took place in Liverpool, United Kingdom on November 6, 1865 aboard the commerce raider CSS Shenandoah when her flag (battle ensign) was lowered for the final time. This surrender brought about the end of the Confederate navy. o Shenandoah had circumnavigated the globe, the only Confederate ship to do so.

Creation Edit

The act of the Confederate Congress that created the Confederate Navy on February 21, 1861 also appointed Stephen Mallory as Secretary of the Department of the Navy. Mallory was experienced as an admiralty lawyer and had served for a time as the chairman of the Naval Affairs Committee of the United States Senate. The Confederacy had a few scattered naval assets and looked to Liverpool, England, to buy naval cruisers to attack the American merchant fleet. In April 1861, Mallory recruited former U.S. Navy Lieutenant James Dunwoody Bulloch into the Confederate navy and sent him to Liverpool. Using Charleston-based importer and exporter Fraser Trentholm, who had offices in Liverpool, Commander Bulloch immediately ordered six steam vessels. [1]

As Mallory began aggressively building up a formidable naval force, a Confederate Congress committee on August 27, 1862, reported:

Before the war, nineteen steam war vessels had been built in the States forming the Confederacy, and the engines for all of these had been contracted for in those States. All the labor or materials requisite to complete and equip a war vessel could not be commanded at any one point of the Confederacy. [The Navy Department] had erected a powder-mill which supplies all the powder required by our navy two engine, boiler and machine shops, and five ordnance workshops. It has established eighteen yards for building war vessels, and a rope-walk, making all cordage from a rope-yarn to a 9-inch cable, and capable of turning out 8,000 yards per month . Of vessels not ironclad and converted to war vessels, there were 44. The department has built and completed as war vessels, 12 partially constructed and destroyed to save from the enemy, 10 now under construction, 9 ironclad vessels now in commission, 12 completed and destroyed or lost by capture, 4 in progress of construction and in various stages of forwardness, 23.


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