Owen Tudor

Owen Tudor, também conhecido como Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudor (c. 1437 dC), a ex-esposa de Henrique V da Inglaterra (r. 1413-1422 dC) e mãe de Henrique VI da Inglaterra (r. 1422-61 e 1470-71 dC ) O casal teve vários filhos, um dos quais era Edmund Tudor, cujo filho Henry Tudor se tornaria Henrique VII da Inglaterra (r. 1485-1509 DC) e assim fundou a casa real de Tudor. Os Tudors governariam a Inglaterra até 1603 EC, no que muitos consideram a Idade de Ouro do país. Owen Tudor, um defensor ferrenho de Henrique VI durante a disputa dinástica das Guerras das Rosas (1455-1487 CE), foi capturado e decapitado pelas forças Yorkistas em 1461 CE.

Catarina de Valois

Catarina de Valois era filha de Carlos VI da França (r. 1380-1422 CE) e ela se casou com Henrique V da Inglaterra na Catedral de Troyes em 2 de junho de 1420 CE. Este casamento foi resultado da grande vitória de Henrique contra os franceses em Agincourt em 1415 EC durante a Guerra dos Cem Anos (1337-1453 EC). Quando o rei inglês seguiu com a captura da Normandia e Paris, ele foi capaz de negociar o Tratado de Troyes favorável em maio de 1420 CE. De acordo com este tratado, Henrique seria feito rei da França após a morte de Carlos VI. O novo regime seria ligado ao antigo por meio do casamento de Henrique com Catarina. Infelizmente, Henrique morreu, provavelmente de disenteria, em 1422 EC e perdeu a chance de se tornar rei da França por menos de dois meses; Carlos VI morreu em 21 de outubro de 1422 CE. Henrique foi sucedido por seu filho com o mesmo nome, coroado Henrique VI em novembro de 1429 CE.

Catarina, agora uma ex-rainha e mãe do filho-rei reinante, não se contentou em viver uma vida aposentada pelo resto de seus dias. Ela teve um caso secreto com um nobre galês que era membro de sua família. O historiador Nigel Jones dá o seguinte relato de como o caso deles começou:

Catarina de Valois ficou desolada, uma jovem vigorosa no auge da vida. Ela não ficou solteira por muito tempo. Owen Tudor, um jovem e bonito galês de origens obscuras, havia se tornado seu Guardião do Guarda-Roupa. De acordo com o boato romântico, Owen chamou a atenção da rainha quando caiu, incapaz de bêbado, em seu colo. Intrigada, ela o espiou enquanto ele nadava nu, [e] gostou do que viu ...

(99-100)

O passado de Owen pode ser obscuro, mas sabemos que ele nasceu por volta de 1400 EC, filho de Meredudd Tudor e Margaret, filha de Dafydd Fychan. Os Tudors, ou Tewdwrs, eram reis de Deheubrath e possuíam propriedades no norte do País de Gales. Eles logo subiriam ainda mais e passariam a deter dois condados na Inglaterra, concedidos a eles por Henrique VI, que agiu como um protetor generoso de seus meio-irmãos e irmãs.

Prisão e morte

O Parlamento inglês proibiu Catarina de se casar novamente sem isso ou o consentimento do rei em 1428 EC, mas a ex-rainha ignorou isso e casou-se secretamente com Owen de qualquer maneira. A união foi mantida em segredo até 1436 DC, mas quando se tornou de conhecimento público, Catherine foi obrigada a se retirar para um convento em Bermondsey, fora de Londres, onde morreu prematuramente no ano seguinte. Owen se saiu ainda pior e foi trancado na prisão de Newgate. O galês conseguiu escapar em 1438 EC e se escondeu em sua terra natal, Gales. A sorte de Owen melhorou quando ele levantou um exército para apoiar Henrique VI, mas depois da batalha em Mortimer Cross em fevereiro de 1461 CE, Owen foi capturado pelas forças Yorkistas. Ele foi então decapitado no mercado de Hereford como a Guerra das Rosas, e a disputa dinástica entre a Casa de Lancaster e a Casa de York continuou.

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Owen Tudor e Catarina de Valois tiveram cinco filhos, e assim nasceu a dinastia Tudor.

De acordo com a tradição, quando Owen enfrentou sua execução iminente, ele lamentou que: "a cabeça que antes estava no colo da rainha Catarina agora estaria no tronco do carrasco" (citado em Jones, 107). Depois que a terrível sentença foi executada, foi dito que uma louca local havia limpado a cabeça, penteado o cabelo e cercado com velas, pois aquele dia em particular era a festa da Candelária. Owen Tudor foi enterrado em Greyfriars em Hereford.

Nascimento da Casa de Tudor

Owen Tudor e Catarina de Valois tiveram cinco filhos - três filhos e duas filhas - e assim nasceu a Dinastia Tudor. Um dos filhos do casal era Jasper Tudor, Conde de Pembroke (l. 1431-1495 EC) que mais tarde governaria efetivamente o País de Gales para a monarquia inglesa. Outro filho foi Edmund Tudor (l. 1430-1456 dC), conde de Richmond, que se casou com Margaret Beaufort (lc 1441-1509 dC), bisneta de John de Gaunt, duque de Lancaster e filho de Eduardo III da Inglaterra ( r. 1312-1377 CE). Edmund e Margaret tiveram um filho, Henry Tudor (n. 1457 DC) que poderia reivindicar por meio de sua mãe, embora de forma remota, uma conexão ilegítima com a Casa de Lancaster. Henry Tudor nunca conheceu seu pai Edmund, pois ele morreu de peste três meses antes de nascer.

Por meio de uma série de mortes e contratempos e, após a derrota na Cruz de Mortimer e o exílio de seu tio Jasper Tudor na França, Henry Tudor se tornou o principal candidato Lancaster ao trono da Inglaterra durante os estágios finais da Guerra das Rosas. Curiosamente, Henry era conhecido na época como Henry de Richmond (em homenagem ao condado que herdou de seu pai) e, apesar do amor que os historiadores modernos têm por rotular todas as coisas de 'Tudor' para o período, o sobrenome Tudor foi muito pouco usado por ele ou seus sucessores.

Como chefe da causa de Lancaster, Henrique desafiou e derrubou o impopular rei Yorkista Ricardo III da Inglaterra (r. 1483-1485 CE) e foi coroado Henrique VII da Inglaterra em 1485 CE, o primeiro monarca Tudor. Quando Henrique VII se casou com Elizabeth de York (1466-1503 CE), filha de Eduardo IV da Inglaterra (r. 1461-70 CE e 1471-83 CE) em 1486 CE, as duas casas rivais de York e Lancaster foram finalmente unidas. Os monarcas no século seguinte seriam agora Tudors e incluiriam grandes nomes como Henrique VIII da Inglaterra (r. 1509-1547 dC) e Elizabeth I da Inglaterra (r. 1558-1603 dC).


Os Tudors: Introdução a uma Dinastia Real

Os Tudors são a mais famosa dinastia real inglesa, seu nome permaneceu na vanguarda da história europeia graças ao cinema e à televisão. Claro, os Tudors não apareceriam na mídia sem algo para chamar a atenção das pessoas, e os Tudors - Henry VII, seu filho Henry VIII e seus três filhos Edward VI, Mary e Elizabeth, apenas quebrados pela regra dos nove dias de Lady Jane Gray - compreende dois dos monarcas mais famosos da Inglaterra e três dos mais conceituados, cada um com uma personalidade fascinante, às vezes inescrutável.

Os Tudors também são importantes por suas ações, tanto quanto por sua reputação. Eles governaram a Inglaterra durante a época em que a Europa Ocidental passou do medieval para o início da modernidade, e instituíram mudanças na administração do governo, na relação entre a coroa e o povo, a imagem da monarquia e a forma como as pessoas adoravam. Eles também supervisionaram uma época de ouro da escrita e exploração do inglês. Eles representam uma época de ouro (um termo ainda em uso como um filme recente sobre Elizabeth I mostrou) e uma era de infâmia, uma das famílias mais divisivas da Europa.


Owen Tudor - História


Owen Tudor (1400-1461)
Nasceu em 1400, provavelmente em Anglesey, Gwynedd
Servo real
Morreu: 2 de fevereiro de 1461 em Hereford, Herefordshire

Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur, o avô paterno do rei Henrique VII, pertencia a uma família galesa de grande antiguidade. Eles eram descendentes diretos da linhagem masculina do misterioso Rei Cadrod de Calchfynedd (os Chilterns celtas) e parentes próximos dos Príncipes de Deheubarth (sudoeste do País de Gales). Eles eram uma família de proprietários rurais de Anglesey, ocupando muitos cargos importantes sob os reis ingleses. O pai de Owain, Maredudd foi Escheator de Anglesey, em 1392, e também mordomo do Bispo de Bangor. Sua esposa era Margaret, filha de Dafydd Fychan ap Dafydd Llwyd. Foi dito que Maredudd matou um homem, foi proscrito e fugiu para Snowdon, com sua esposa, e que, lá, Owain Tudor nasceu, mas parece mais provável que Maredudd tenha fugido sozinho e que Owain tenha nascido em sua ausência. Infelizmente, Maredudd era primo materno de Owain Glyndwr e a adesão da família à sua causa rebelde levou à sua desastrosa queda em desgraça.

Diz-se que Owain estava presente como um membro do bando galês em Agincourt (1415) e se distinguiu tanto que foi recompensado por ser feito um dos escudeiros do corpo de Henrique V, mas parece ter sido bastante jovem para tal. uma postagem na época. Ele parece ter estado a serviço de Sir Walter Hungerford, o Regente do Rei, na França em 1421 e foi provavelmente por meio de seu patrono que ele foi até a Corte Real.

Nas histórias que cercam o primeiro encontro de Owain com a rainha viúva, Catarina de Valois, é difícil distinguir o fato da ficção. Pode haver alguma verdade na tradição de que ele chamou a atenção da senhora pela primeira vez quando caiu desajeitadamente em seu colo durante um baile real em Castelo de Windsor. Enfeites posteriores dizem que a rainha fixou seus olhos em Owain depois de tê-lo visto secretamente se banhar nu no Tâmisa. Trocando roupas com sua empregada, ela combinou de encontrá-lo incógnita. Owain tornou-se um tanto familiar durante o encontro e, quando Catherine o empurrou, houve uma luta e ele acidentalmente coçou a bochecha dela. Apenas, ao servir a Rainha, na manhã seguinte Owain percebeu a verdadeira identidade de sua amante!

Diz-se que a senhora desejava casar-se com Edmund Beaufort, mas foi impedida por seu cunhado, o duque de Gloucester, por motivos de facção da corte. "Incapaz de conter suas paixões carnais," Catarina procurou um plebeu contra quem o Conselho do Rei "não poderia razoavelmente se vingar de sua vida". Owain certamente se tornou um servo no quarto da rainha viúva na década de 1420 e pode ter sido nomeado escriturário de seu guarda-roupa. A Rainha e seu amante residiam principalmente no Castelo de Baynard quando na cidade, e em Wallingford Castle em Berkshire quando estiver fora da cidade. É difícil determinar a época exata em que ocorreu a união marital com Owain Tudor provavelmente por volta de 1428 , mas parece que sempre foi aceita como um casamento legal. O ato, que foi aprovado no início daquele ano, tornando uma ofensa grave casar-se com uma rainha viúva sem o consentimento do rei é evidência de que nada se sabia então sobre o assunto, em todos os eventos publicamente enquanto o nascimento dos filhos dificilmente poderia foram ocultados.

Edmund, seu filho mais velho mais tarde conde de Richmond e pai do rei Henrique VII nasceu em Hadham, em Hertfordshire, em 1430. Um segundo filho, Jasper, mais tarde conde de Pembroke e duque de Bedford, veio um ano depois. Depois, houve Owain que, na idade adulta, tornou-se monge em Westminster. Eles certamente tiveram uma filha que morreu jovem, mas as sugestões de que Thomasina, a esposa de Reynold, Lord Gray de Wilton, era sua filha, estão incorretas. Dizem que o filho bastardo de Owain, Dafydd, foi nomeado cavaleiro por Henrique VII, que o deu em casamento Maria, filha e herdeira de John de Bohun de Midhurst em Sussex.

Em 1436, talvez por influência de Gloucester, os filhos de Tudor foram tirados da Rainha e ela foi confinada, ou mais provavelmente aposentada voluntariamente devido a problemas de saúde, na Abadia de Bermondsey. Ela morreu lá em 3 de janeiro de 1437 e, sem sua proteção, Owain foi imediatamente convocado por seu enteado, Rei Henrique VI, que "desejava e desejava que um tal Owain Tudor, o que morava com a dita Rainha, viesse à sua presença". Tudor estava em Daventry em Warwickshire, na época, e se recusou a vir sem um salvo-conduto por escrito e, quando chegou ao seu alcance, ele julgou prudente buscar refúgio em Westminster. Lá, ele permaneceu algum tempo, apesar dos esforços para prendê-lo, fazendo-o se divertir em uma taverna em Westminster Gate. Por fim, ele veio perante o conselho e defendeu sua causa. Owain foi absolvido de todas as acusações e teve permissão para voltar ao País de Gales, mas, violando o salvo-conduto, foi trazido de volta por Lord Beaumont e entregue ao conde de Suffolk em sua antiga casa, o Castelo de Wallingford. Mais tarde, ele foi transferido para a prisão de Newgate. Com seu sacerdote e servo, Owain conseguiu escapar, mas logo foi devolvido ao confinamento. Em julho de 1438, ele foi transferido para o Castelo de Windsor, mas foi libertado no ano seguinte. Ele foi perdoado logo depois e subsequentemente bem tratado por seu enteado, que já tinha atingido a maioridade.

O rei aceitou Owain em sua casa, concedeu-lhe uma anuidade e foi muito gentil com seus filhos. De sua parte, Owain provou ser um lancastriano fiel. Ele se retirou para North Wales e, pouco antes da Batalha de Northampton (10 de julho de 1460), Henry o nomeou Guardião dos Parques em Denbigh. Ele foi feito prisioneiro na Batalha da Cruz de Mortimer (fevereiro de 1461) e, por ordem do jovem Eduardo IV, foi decapitado no mercado de Hereford. Sua cabeça foi colocada na cruz do mercado onde uma mulher, a quem um contemporâneo chama de louca, teve seu cabelo penteado e rosto lavado, e colocou ao redor de muitas velas acesas. Seu corpo foi enterrado em uma capela da Igreja dos Frades Cinzentos em Hereford.

Fortemente editado a partir do 'Dicionário de Biografia Nacional' de Sidney Lee (1899)


Conteúdo

Os historiadores consideram os descendentes de Ednyfed Fychan, incluindo Owen Tudor, uma das famílias mais poderosas no País de Gales dos séculos 13 a 14. Os descendentes de seus muitos filhos formariam uma rica 'aristocracia ministerial', [2] atuando como principais servos dos príncipes de Gwynedd e desempenhando um papel fundamental nas tentativas de criar um único principado galês. Este privilégio perdurou após a conquista do País de Gales por Eduardo I, com a família continuando a exercer o poder em nome do rei da Inglaterra, no País de Gales. No entanto, permaneceu uma consciência da herança galesa da família e a lealdade que os acompanhou levou-os a participar no suprimido Levante Glyndŵr. [3]

O fato de que pouco se sabe sobre o início da vida de Tudor e que ela se tornou amplamente mitificada é atribuído à participação de sua família no Levante Glyndŵr. Em várias ocasiões foi dito que ele era o filho bastardo de um dono de cervejaria, que seu pai era um assassino fugitivo, que ele lutou em Agincourt, que ele era o guardião da casa ou guarda-roupa da Rainha Catarina, que ele era um escudeiro de Henrique V, e que seu relacionamento com Catherine começou quando ele caiu no colo da rainha enquanto dançava ou chamou a atenção da rainha enquanto nadava. O cronista galês do século XVI Elis Gruffydd observou que ele era seu esgoto (alguém que coloca pratos na mesa e os prova [4]) e servo. No entanto, sabe-se que, após o Levante de Glyndŵr, vários galeses conseguiram posições na corte e, em maio de 1421, um 'Owen Meredith' juntou-se à comitiva de Sir Walter Hungerford, primeiro Barão Hungerford, o mordomo da casa do rei de 1415 a 1421. [ 1]

Henrique V da Inglaterra morreu em 31 de agosto de 1422, deixando sua esposa, a rainha Catarina, viúva. [5] A rainha viúva inicialmente viveu com seu filho bebê, o rei Henrique VI, antes de se mudar para o castelo de Wallingford no início de seu reinado. Em 1427, acredita-se que Catarina começou um caso com Edmund Beaufort, 2º duque de Somerset. A evidência deste caso é questionável, porém a ligação levou a um estatuto parlamentar, regulando o novo casamento de rainhas da Inglaterra. O historiador G.L. Harriss sugeriu que era possível que o caso tivesse resultado no nascimento de Edmund Tudor. Harriss escreveu: "Por sua própria natureza, a evidência da ascendência de Edmund Tudor é menos do que conclusiva, mas tais fatos, como podem ser reunidos, permitem uma agradável possibilidade de que Edmund 'Tudor' e Margaret Beaufort fossem primos de primeiro grau e que a casa real de ' Tudor 'surgiu de fato de Beauforts em ambos os lados. " [6] Apesar do estatuto, é aceito que Catherine se casou com Owen em uma data posterior desconhecida. [1]

"Owyn Tedder casou-se com a rainha Kateryn foi wyffe un com kyng henry ye vth & amp teve por har Edmunde yerle de rychemond Jaspar & amp Edward o dito Edmund se casou com Margarete yt era dawter & amp eyer para John duque de Somersett."

O Chronicle of London do século 15 soa uma nota semelhante. Afirma que ". Oweyn [Tudor] havia-se casado anteriormente com a quene Katerine e tinha filhos iij ou iiijor aqui." [8]

    (1430-1 de novembro de 1456) nasceu em Much Hadham Palace em Hertfordshire ou em Hadham em Bedfordshire. Edmund se tornou o primeiro conde de Richmond em 1452 e mais tarde se casou com Margaret Beaufort. Em 1456 ele morreu de peste em Carmarthen, três meses antes do nascimento do filho do casal no Castelo de Pembroke. Esse filho, Henry, mais tarde se tornou rei da Inglaterra e fundou a dinastia Tudor. [9] (1431-26 de dezembro de 1495) nasceu em Hatfield. Ele se tornou o primeiro conde de Pembroke em 1452, mas foi marcado como um traidor em 1461. No entanto, ele se tornou o primeiro duque de Bedford em 1485. Ele era o segundo marido de Catherine Woodville, viúva do duque de Buckingham e irmã de Elizabeth Woodville , esposa de Edward IV. Eles não tinham nenhum problema. Jasper tinha uma filha ilegítima chamada Ellen Tudor. Ellen casou-se com (1º) William Gardiner, de Londres, skinner (falecido testamento em 1485), de quem teve cinco filhos: Thomas (capelão do rei, prior de Blyth, Nottinghamshire, prior de Tynemouth, Northumberland), Philippe, Margaret, Beatrice e Anne. Ellen casou-se (2) antes de 1493 com William Sibson (ou Sybson), de Londres, skinner. No período 1501-2, Peter Watson de Londres, draper, e William Sybson, marido de Ellen, falecida esposa de William Gardiner, processou o prefeito, vereadores e xerifes de Londres na Chancelaria em nome dos filhos de William Gardiner, para recuperar a parte do filho de William, Thomas Gardiner, que entrou na Abadia de Westminster.
  • Edward Tudor. Muito pouco se sabe sobre a vida dessa criança. O historiador Tudor Polydore Vergil afirmou que esta criança, a quem ele não deu o nome, tornou-se "um monke da ordem de São Benet, e viveu não muito depois". [10] William Camden se referiu a esta criança como Edward Tudor, e indicou que ele está enterrado na capela de St Blaise na Abadia de Westminster, perto do túmulo do Abade Nicholas Litlington. [11] Mesmo assim, ele é chamado de Owen Tudor na maioria das fontes publicadas, as razões para as quais não são claras. O historiador moderno Pearce mostrou, entretanto, que nenhum monge chamado Edward ou Owen Tudor existia na Abadia de Westminster neste período de tempo. Uma teoria alternativa avançada por Pearce é que Edward Tudor é a mesma pessoa que Edward Bridgewater, um monge conhecido da Abadia de Westminster, que morreu por volta de 1471. Esta teoria parece não ter fundamento.
  • Polydore Vergil diz que Owen e a Rainha Katherine também tiveram uma filha que se tornou freira, embora nenhuma outra fonte corrobore isso.

Owen Tudor teve pelo menos um filho ilegítimo, de uma amante desconhecida:

  • Sir David Owen nasceu em 1459 no Castelo de Pembroke. Mais tarde, ele adquiriu Southwick Court em Wiltshire antes de se casar com uma herdeira que trouxe com ela a propriedade de Cowdray em Sussex. Ele está enterrado na igreja do priorado de Easebourne, perto de Midhurst.

Após a morte da Rainha Catarina, Owen Tudor perdeu a proteção do estatuto sobre o novo casamento das rainhas viúvas e foi preso na Prisão de Newgate. [13] Em 1438 ele escapou, mas mais tarde foi recapturado e mantido sob custódia do condestável do Castelo de Windsor. [14] Em 1439, Henrique VI da Inglaterra concedeu-lhe um perdão geral, restaurando seus bens e terras. [15] Além disso, Henrique VI concedeu-lhe uma pensão de £ 40 por ano, proporcionou-lhe um cargo no tribunal e nomeou-o Guardião dos Parques do Rei em Denbigh. Em 1442, Henrique VI deu as boas-vindas a seus dois meio-irmãos, Edmundo e Jasper. Em novembro de 1452, os filhos de Owen, Edmund e Jasper, foram criados condes de Richmond e Pembroke com o reconhecimento de serem meio-irmãos do rei. [16] Em 1459, a pensão de Tudor foi aumentada para £ 100 por ano. [17] Owen e Jasper foram encarregados de prender um servo de John Dwnn de Kidwelly, um Yorkista, e mais tarde naquele ano, Tudor adquiriu uma participação nas propriedades confiscadas de outro Yorkista, John, Lord Clinton. Em 5 de fevereiro de 1460, Tudor e Jasper receberam cargos vitalícios no senhorio de Denbigh do duque de York, um prelúdio para que mais tarde se apoderassem do senhorio. [1]

Owen Tudor foi uma das primeiras vítimas da Guerra das Rosas (1455-1487) entre a Casa de Lancaster e a Casa de York. Ele se juntou ao exército de seu filho Jasper no País de Gales em janeiro de 1461, uma força que foi derrotada na Batalha da Cruz de Mortimer por Eduardo de York. Em 2 de fevereiro, Tudor foi capturado e decapitado em Hereford. Sua cabeça foi colocada na cruz do mercado ali, "e uma mulher louca kembyd hys aqui e wysche um caminho a explosão de seu rosto" [18] e acendeu 100 velas sobre ele. No entanto, Tudor esperava ser preso em vez de executado. [19] Momentos antes de sua execução, ele percebeu que estava para morrer e murmurou "aquela hede xale sobre a meia que não ia se deitar na lapela de Quene Katheryn". [20] Seu corpo foi enterrado em uma capela no lado norte da Igreja Greyfriars em Hereford. Ele não teve nenhum memorial até que seu filho ilegítimo, David, pagou por um túmulo antes que o convento fosse dissolvido. [1]

Owen era descendente de Rhys ap Gruffydd (1132–1197), governante do reino de Deheubarth, por meio das linhagens que se seguem:

Rhys teve uma filha, Gwenllian ferch (filha de) Rhys, que se casou com Ednyfed Fychan, Senescal do Reino de Gwynedd (falecido em 1246).

Ednyfed Fychan e Gwenllian ferch Rhys eram os pais de Goronwy ab Ednyfed, Senhor de Tref-gastell (falecido em 1268). Goronwy era casado com Morfydd ferch Meurig, filha de Meurig de Gwent. Meurig era filho de Ithel, neto de Rhydd e bisneto de Iestyn ap Gwrgant, o último rei de Morgannwg (reinou de 1081 a 1091) antes de sua conquista pelos normandos.

Goronwy e Morfydd eram pais de Tudur Hen, Senhor de Penmynydd (falecido em 1311). Tudur Hen casou-se com Angharad ferch Ithel Fychan, filha de Ithel Fychan ap Ithel Gan, Senhor de Englefield. Eles eram os pais de Goronwy ap Tudur Hen, Senhor de Penmynydd (falecido em 1331).

Goronwy ap Tudur foi casado com Gwerfyl ferch Madog, filha de Madog ap Dafydd, Barão de Hendwr. Eles eram os pais de Tudur ap Goronwy, também conhecido como Tudur Fychan ("Tudur, o Pequeno") para distingui-lo de seu avô Tudur Hen ("Tudur, o Velho"), Senhor de Penmynydd (falecido em 1367).

Tudur Fychan casou-se com Margaret ferch Thomas de Is Coeod, da nativa e Antiga Casa Real de Gales. Margaret e suas irmãs, Ellen e Eleanor, descendiam de Angharad ferch Llywelyn, filha de Llywelyn, a Grande.

Tudur e Margaret eram pais de Maredudd ap Tudur (morreu em 1406). Maredudd casou-se com Margaret ferch Dafydd, filha de Dafydd Fychan, Senhor de Anglesey, e sua esposa, Nest ferch Ieuan.

Maredudd ap Tudur e Margaret ferch Dafydd eram os pais de Owen Tudor.

Há poucas dúvidas de que Owen era de nascimento gentil. A rainha Catarina, ao ter a permissão dos regentes de seu filho negada para se casar com Edmund Beaufort, duque de Somerset, supostamente disse ao deixar a corte: "Vou me casar com um homem tão vil, mas de nascimento gentil, que meus senhores regentes não podem fazer objeções". [ citação necessária A objeção a Somerset era que ele era um primo de segundo grau de Henrique V através da linha Beaufort legitimada, procriada por John de Gaunt.


Owen Tudor - História

Por Nathen Amin

A história galesa e inglesa está repleta de figuras românticas, guerreiros valentes e valentes, abençoados com um senso inato de cavalheirismo e moral que garantem que seu nome viva nos anais da história. A personificação de tal personagem é, sem dúvida, o Rei Arthur, o príncipe mítico que todos os reis posteriores se esforçariam para reproduzir. Muitos homens medievais, inspirados nas muitas versões de Arthur e seus cavaleiros cavaleiros, igualmente se esforçaram para adotar tais personas na tentativa de cumprir suas vidas de acordo com o sacramento da cavalaria. Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur foi um desses homens do século 14, abençoado com inteligência, romantismo e talento marcial, bem como a formação nobre necessária para ser considerado um cavaleiro cavalheiresco.

Filho de um fora-da-lei

Owain ap Maredudd nasceu por volta de 1400, no mesmo ano em que o primo de seu pai, Owain Glyndwr, levantou uma rebelião contra o domínio inglês e é possível que a criança tenha recebido o nome de seu nobre primo em segundo grau. Quando Owain tinha 6 anos, a rebelião e o sonho da Independência do País de Gales haviam sido aniquilados e seu pai estava morto. Algumas histórias persistem de que Maredudd realmente fugiu para as montanhas de Snowdonia depois de matar um homem e de fato levou seu filho com ele, enquanto outros relatos afirmam que ele fugiu para Londres para cuidar de sua família depois que a fortuna da família e a reputação foram irrevogavelmente danificadas pelo instintivo, mas no final das contas ruinoso aliança com Glyndwr. Os irmãos mais velhos de Maredudd, Rhys e Gwilym, desempenharam um papel fundamental na rebelião de Glyndwr, que começou com sua emboscada contra as forças do rei Henrique IV quando ele chegou em sua Anglesey nativa determinado a se vingar de partes da população e das cidades locais em uma exibição aberta de força marcial e autoridade. A força imponente de Henrique IV fracassou enquanto ele era constantemente atacado pela campanha de guerrilha dos Tudor e foi forçado a uma retirada humilhante para a segurança das marchas. Amargurado por este encontro, Henrique IV emitiu uma proclamação em que se esforçava para perdoar todos os rebeldes que largassem as armas. Uma advertência a esse perdão era que três pessoas em particular foram excluídas do perdão - Owain Glyndwr, Rhys ap Tudur e Gwilym ap Tudur. Os irmãos mais velhos então aumentaram a aposta capturando uma das fortalezas mais importantes do rei em Conwy em 1 de abril de 1401.

Embora Maredudd fosse agora proscrito como resultado da rebelião, sob o rei anterior ele tinha sido um oficial local realizado, continuando uma longa tradição de serviço da Família ao monarca governante, fossem eles príncipes ingleses ou galeses. Ele tinha servido como Rhaglaw de Malltraeth de 1387 a 1395, burgo da vizinha Newborough e, finalmente, como escheator da própria Ilha de Anglesey entre 1388 e 1391. Esses títulos e terras, no entanto, seriam perdidos após a rebelião e após a morte do primeiro Maredudd e, em seguida, de seus irmãos Gwilym e Rhys, a família Tudor foi efetivamente arruinada como uma força nobre galesa. Das informações limitadas disponíveis, parece que Maredudd foi empregado como escudeiro do bispo de Bangor em 1405 no meio da revolta, no entanto, suspeita-se que em 1407 ele tivesse morrido. Mais uma vez, as circunstâncias que cercam isso são quase inexistentes, mas ele não é mencionado novamente após essa data. Maredudd conseguiu se casar pouco antes da eclosão da rebelião e, como o funcionário respeitado que era na época, entrou em uma união com Margaret ferch Dafydd, filha do Senhor de Anglesey. Foi por meio dessa união que seu filho nasceu em 1400, quando o mundo ao redor deles entrou em colapso e tornou-se repleto de perigos e incertezas. Embora não fossem as circunstâncias ideais para criar um filho, eles persistiram e batizaram a criança de Owain ap Maredudd, o homem que em breve se tornaria o único sobrevivente de linhagem masculina da dinastia dominante de Penmynydd Tudur, que em uma década foi esmagada como resultado da Guerra da Independência .

Faltam informações sobre as circunstâncias exatas que cercaram a infância de Owain, mas o que parece claro é que aos sete anos ele estava na corte inglesa de Henrique IV para se tornar pajem do Regente do Rei. Isso pode parecer incomum, já que seu pai, tios e primos estavam lutando contra Henrique IV na guerra da independência galesa, mas o fato é que era na corte onde qualquer homem ambicioso tinha que estar para fazer fortuna e com os Tudur no irredimível caminho para a ruína catastrófica, Londres foi o único lugar onde Owain se posicionou de forma realista para avançar. Assim como todos os galeses neste período terrível, Owain teria enfrentado um futuro no País de Gales sob leis estritas, severas e opressivas impostas pelo amargo Rei Henrique IV e, embora sua nacionalidade galesa não tivesse facilitado a adaptação à vida em Londres ou ao ganhar aceitação entre os locais, com a orientação e o patrono certos, havia pelo menos a oportunidade de ganhar uma vida razoável. Na época em que Owain era um adolescente, ele teria sido aceito como parte do exército do rei como um adolescente capaz e é uma possibilidade que ele tenha visto ação durante ou pelo menos em torno da infame Batalha de Agincourt em 1415. Nessa época, o rei era Henrique V e o governante corajoso e guerreiro tomaram parte pessoal na liderança de seu exército para uma vitória imortal sobre as forças francesas. Qualquer que seja o papel que Owain desempenhou na batalha, ou se ele estava realmente lá, logo depois de ser promovido à posição de “Escudeiro”, um status para meninos com cerca de 14 ou 15 anos de idade, pelo qual eles eram essencialmente Cavaleiros aprendizes.

Um Escudeiro tinha muitos papéis que precisava desempenhar para o Cavaleiro em particular para o qual foi designado, papéis semelhantes ao de um servo, mas mais de acordo com o objetivo geral de se tornar um Cavaleiro. Os papéis típicos incluem ser o portador do escudo do Cavaleiro, cuidando da armadura e dos cavalos do Cavaleiro e acompanhando o Cavaleiro em quaisquer batalhas ou recessos. Um Cavaleiro teria muitos desses Escudeiros e todos eles estariam igualmente tentando impressionar seu benfeitor a fim de conseguir uma dublagem para se tornar um Cavaleiro mítico e condecorado. Pouco mais se sabe de sua vida neste período, no entanto, parece que ele estava presente na França novamente por volta de maio de 1421 a serviço do proeminente Sir Walter Hungerford, um nobre e barão inglês que desempenhava um papel fundamental como o administrador do rei nas guerras com os franceses. Seu nome durante este período foi dado como Owen Meredith e na idade de cerca de 21 este período teria sido sua primeira introdução séria à guerra. Foi também nessa época emocionante, embora perigosa, embora a data exata seja difícil de verificar, que ele entrou ao serviço da viúva recém-viúva, a rainha Catarina de Valois, esposa sobrevivente do recém-falecido rei Henrique V. Este cargo teria sido talvez a posição mais elevada que um homem com as origens de Owain poderia esperar alcançar e é mais do que provável que ele tenha entrado por causa de seu serviço ao 1 º Barão Hungerford, que havia sido mordomo da Casa do Rei de julho de 1415 a julho de 1421. Seu papel era como Guardiã do Guarda-Roupa da Rainha quando ela morava no Castelo de Windsor e o papel essencialmente significava que ele estava no controle dos alfaiates, cômodas e qualquer outra coisa relacionada ao guarda-roupa da Rainha. Também estava sob sua responsabilidade lidar com todos os inventários dos vestidos e garantir que todas as roupas que foram levadas em andamento fossem adequadamente contabilizadas quando devolvidas. Sua presença também garantiria que qualquer ladrão de joias fosse desencorajado, uma ocorrência comum considerando a natureza opulenta do guarda-roupa de uma rainha.

Marido de uma rainha

There exists no evidence to support how exactly Owain ap Maredudd and Katherine of Valois met, although as a member of her household it is a possibility they would have had some interaction in his role as Keeper of her Wardrobe. Many apocryphal accounts exist to suggest the various ways they met and fell in love although these are generally discredited by serious historians as mere fancy of a more romantic later period. One such account states that Owain was river bathing in the summer sun and Katherine, upon seeing the handsome and tall Owain in the bare flesh, swapped clothes with her maid to introduce herself without betraying her high station. Owain apparently came on too strong after becoming besotted with her and accidently cut the cheek of the ‘maid’ thus ending the lust-driven moment. The next morning when waiting on the Queen as per usual, Owain became aware of the cut on Katherine’s cheek and at once realised with whom he had been with the previous day. The couple reconciled and thus began their loving and loyal relationship. A second story persists which claims that the lowly commoner Owain was intoxicated at Windsor Castle during a typical medieval ball and feeling unsteady on his feet whilst dancing, he tripped and fell into the lap of the seated Queen Katherine. Whichever way Owain first met his future Wife, in the words of 15 th Century poet Robin Ddu of Anglesey he “clapped his ardent humble affection on the daughter of the King of the land of wine” and they both fell deeply in love. Robin Ddu originated from the heartland of the Tudor family on the island of Anglesey and as an acquaintance of Owen Tudor it is very possible that he would have retrieved his information directly from the source, or at least have been privy to the information of those close to the couple.

Writing during their grandson’s reign and thus taken with a degree of cynicism surrounding the intention and plausibility of the words, the Italian historian Polydore Vergil wrote: “this woman after the death of her husband…being but young in years and therefore of less discretion to judge what was decent for her estate, married one Owen Tyder, a gentleman of Wales, adorned with wonderful gifts of body and minde, who derived his pedigree from Cadwalleder, the last King of the Britons”. Again due to the clandestine nature of their relationship, as it needed to be as a consequence of the parliamentarian restrictions on Katherine, the date of their actual marriage is unclear but is generally accepted to have been around 1429-1430. Living away from court may have certainly aided in keeping their relationship secret along with some loyal staff whom had pledged their devotion to the couple above that of the strict law of the land. Although such a secretive existence under the threat of constant exposure must have stressed the young and daring couple, their surreptitious marriage prospered without interference. The marriage itself was kept secret due to necessity, after all not only had the Queen broken the act by proceeding without the King’s consent but she had certainly married beneath her privileged and royal station. In 1430 their son Edmund was born at the couple’s Hertfordshire manor Much Hadham House and was followed by Jasper a year later at the Hatfield home of the Bishop of Ely. The following years also brought a third son called Owen and latterly the couple’s first daughter of whom unfortunately there is little known.

Although it seems incredible these days that a full term pregnancy could be comfortably hidden, it must be stressed that in such a period these country retreats operated completely independent of the main Court and were run by servants dependable to those at the top of the local hierarchy. Furthermore the baggy loose-fitting nature of 15 th century clothing would have helped conceal such a prominent physical feature such as pregnancy and was regularly utilised in cases where a female had conceived a bastard child. Secrets may not necessarily have been kept in a devious and underhanded manner, but being so far removed from those in power certainly helped prolong the status quo. It must be noted however that although the general public could be relatively sheltered from the matter it is likely that at least some of the main councillors knew of Katherine’s condition and her morganatic marriage. She was particularly noticeable in her absenteeism from the coronation of her son Henry VI as King of her native France at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris in December 1431, unlikely to have been an event that she would have willingly neglected to attend and more probably an event from which she was excluded from as punishment for her indiscretion. Particularly of significance around this period was Owain’s granting of “the rights of Englishmen”, a constitutional status conferred upon him that helped free him from the harsh penal restrictions placed upon all Welshmen in the post-Conquest period. Indeed it was still illegal for a Welshman to own a property in England or to marry an Englishwoman.

Although this denizenship was certainly more than the majority of his fellow Welshmen received apart from high ranking subjects whom had proved their worth to the crown during active military service against the French, he was still not granted the full rights. Owen was still barred from becoming a burgess as well as finding himself categorically restricted from holding a crown office in any city, borough or market town in the land. Although he was given permission to acquire land, bear arms, inter-marry with an Englishwoman and run a marital household the fact he still had some restrictions held over him may point to a level of suspicion directed towards him from the authorities. The Welsh, and therefore Owen, were clearly not people to be trusted. It was also possibly around this time that Owain ap Maredudd became Owen Tudor or at least began to be unofficially referred to as this. Undoubtedly his Welsh patronymic style would have caused issues in England for accountants and administrators unused to such a naming system and due to this confusion he had previously been referred to in various ways as Owen ap Meredith, Owen Meredith, Owen ap Tudur and so on. Whether it was through his own choice or through a misattribution by a muddled scribe his name was anglicised to Owen Tudor. What is curious about this action is that it was Tudur that was taken as his surname as opposed to Maredudd, Tudur of course representing the name of his grandfather as opposed to his father. Whilst perhaps not something that particularly caused much of an issue at the time for either Owain or his associates, it did have a direct consequence only a few generations later when the family ascended to the throne of England as the House of Tudor. Children in schools up until the present day very easily could have been studying “The Meredith’s” in history classrooms across the World. It was this name that was subsequently passed onto his own children in the English tradition of surnames passing from the father.

Whilst Edmund and Jasper appear to have been initially brought up by their parents, it would appear that the third brother may have been raised by Monks as unlike his brothers he spend his live serving God at Westminster Abbey and has never been recorded as living with his elder siblings. It was this third son of the brood whom was shown favour by his nephew King Henry VII later in his life when, in one particular instance in 1498, he was gifted the reasonably high sum of £2 by his brother’s son from the Royal Privy purse, recorded for posterity as “Owen Tudder”. When the monk Owen passed away not too long after this favour was shown, donations were also paid to Westminster Abbey to pray for his soul as well as the bell tolling to signify the end of this devout uncle to the King. Whilst Owen the Monk may not have been as great a figure to the religious consciousness of Henry Tudor in the way the King’s treasured half-uncle Henry VI would prove to be, he was nonetheless treated with respect by his illustrious nephew in life and death.

It was whilst heavily pregnant with yet another child that Katherine began to feel ill and she subsequently entered Bermondsey Abbey just south of the Thames, where she gave birth to another daughter Margaret on 1 st January 1437. It is a possibility that Katherine was aware she was dying from a fatal disease hence why she felt the need to seek the sanctuary and help of the Abbey nuns in South East London. It may also be a likelihood that far from going willingly to the Benedictine Abbey, she was in fact banished to the Abbey after her marriage was finally uncovered by the King or the Regency Government. As there is a lack of documents from the period to study the circumstances of the marriage will always be shrouded in mystique and doubt, particularly on the issue of when the Council finally became aware of the marriage and whether or not she was in fact banished to the Abbey. Of course it is also plausible that the Council were in fact already aware of the marriage by this point and she merely retired to the Abbey to help ease her pain from the disease that was ravaging her body, possibly terminal cancer or a tumour. Katherine of Valois, mother, sister, wife and daughter of Kings, passed away a few days later on the 3 rd January 1437 and her new born child following not long after. Regardless of her status at time of death and the possibility that she had scandalised the crown by marrying a commoner, the indisputable fact remained that Katherine was King Henry VI’s natural mother and therefore she was granted the royal prerogative of the right of burial at Westminster Abbey. She was interred and laid to rest next to her first husband Henry V in the Chantry Chapel, a sacred corner of the historic Abbey which had attained an esteemed reputation as the resting place of England’s revered warrior King.

Whilst Katherine was alive, Owen was safe from the Regency Council and any enemies he may have accumulated but as soon as she passed he found himself vulnerable and utterly exposed. His status as a commoner without any considerable estates or financial worth also proved to be a major disadvantage to his cause, a minor irritant easily crushed by those of a greater status. Clearly aware of the fate that befell him should he answer an urgent summons to court to answer charges relating to breaching the act regarding his marriage without the necessary and legal kingly consent, the wily Owen disregarded the promise of safe conduct and the Welsh adventurer instead sought sanctuary with some Monks in Westminster. Perhaps determining that no good could come from a life spent hiding like his namesake cousin Owain Glyndwr and courageously facing his noble adversaries, Owen managed to acquit himself of all the trumped up charges he faced and was subsequently set free as according to the law. Perhaps eager to escape any lingering hostility and to possibly mend a broken heart Owen began to make his way back to his native Wales, however he was tracked on the way, arrested by his pursuers and found himself officially charged once more by a council eager to punish him for deeds they clearly considered punishable. All of his possessions were seized and he was imprisoned in the notoriously dreary and tough Newgate Prison in the City of London to await punishment.

Robin Ddu again took to his craft to publicly admonish those whom he felt had wrongfully punished his beloved Owen. He loudly exclaimed that this Tudor was “neither a thief nor a robber, he is the victim of unrighteous wrath. His only fault was to have won the affection of a princess of France”. After briefly escaping from custody along with his chaplain and servant at the beginning of 1438 the group were returned to prison in March to continue their sentence before being transported to Windsor Castle. He would remain there until he was bailed in July 1439 with a notice to appear before the king on November 11 th that year or at any time the King requested. On November 12 th he was unexpectedly pardoned of all charges which suggests he had appeared in front of the king as requested to do so and received his royally sanctioned acquittal. The initial offence was still not mentioned at this point so there still remains a degree of doubt over what exactly Owen Tudor was being punished for although it is reasonable to expect that it was to do with his secret marriage, such was the determination of the council to punish him. Owen Tudor walked free from prison without a wife to begin the second period of his life as a chivalric gentleman, dutiful father and loyal step-father to his King.

The King granted Owen by “especial favour” an annual pension from his own privy purse and was certainly treated favourably by the monarch. Any past bitterness at Owen’s relations with the King’s Mother were certainly forgotten by the kind and personable Sovereign and the Welshman lived on the periphery of court life within the King’s Household. Owen himself was present with many other knights for the witnessing of a charter which was signed in the favour of the prominent Duke of Gloucester in 1440 and was even granted some further land in Surrey two years later in 1442, demonstrating his new, secure position at the court of his stepson. He was also given four further substantial grants by his generous stepson in the form of separate £40 gifts, the first in October 1442 followed by those afforded to him in February 1444, July 1444 and finally September 1444. Additionally an “Owen ap Maredudd” appears to have been included in the court party that journeyed to France in 1444 to bring back the young Margaret of Anjou, the King’s new Queen and although there is no resolute evidence that this was the same man the rarity of such a name around the court makes it almost a certainty this dutiful Welshman was the King’s dear and diligent stepfather. Over the next decade and a half Owen seems to have faded into obscurity for his whereabouts have not been recorded and it is probably that he was away from court tending to his estates, possibly in his native Wales. What is clear is that he would have been heartbroken in 1456 when his eldest son Edmund died at Carmarthen shortly after a skirmish with Yorkist soldiers after which he had been imprisoned. His son was only 26 when he died although he did leave behind Owen’s first grandchild, the young Henry, Earl of Richmond.

Father of a Dynasty

Returning to notice at the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, Owen was present at a Lancastrian Council meeting in 1459 where he, along with his son Jasper, he stood at the King’s side and swore undying loyalty to his Sovereign Lord and stepson King Henry VI. Both were issued with new estates, Jasper with one of the Duke’s castles and Owen with various manor estates in the Home Counties. Owen himself had also been knighted and was at one point a Deputy Lord Lieutenant and Warden of the Forestries. He had also been granted a further annuity of the substantial figure of £100 from the Royal coffers as well for his service. A Welshman whom had a renowned charisma, he also had seemingly not lost his touch with the opposite sex for he also fathered an illegitimate son around this time whom was called David Owen, or possibly Dafydd ap Owen in the Welsh patronymic style. This half-uncle of King Henry VII was shown royal favour in 1485 and attained the rank of Knighthood primarily due to his kinship to the new king.

Although initially unnamed as being present at the various battles between Yorkist and Lancastrian troops during 1460 and 1461, Owen played an integral part in a battle that took place in the Welsh marches on February 2 nd , 1461. In fact, it was to prove his final stand. Both armies came face to face at a small hamlet called Mortimer’s Cross in Herefordshire, roughly six miles north-west of Leominster and deep in the traditional heartland of the Mortimer-York family that the Tudor’s were fighting. Aware that victory was out of grasp after the early exchanges, the Lancastrian army broke ranks and Owen Tudor was eventually captured south of the battlefield whilst looking for a route to escape. An elderly gentleman of around 60-years-old at his time of capture, age may have played a part in Owen Tudor’s failure to escape and amongst the men he was detained by included the Tudor’s longstanding foe Sir Roger Vaughan, kinsman of William Herbert. Despite the joyous occasion of another Yorkist victory, a bitter and still grieving Edward no doubt felt this was an ideal chance to exact a measure of revenge for the death of his own father and brother at a previous battle and promptly ordered that Owen be executed in the nearby township of Hereford. Owen for his part didn’t believe that the execution would be carried out due to his close familial relationship with the Lancastrian royal family and accordingly was relying on his worth as a captive to win him a late reprieve.It was only as he was placed on the execution spot in Hereford’s High Town and his doublet torn from his neck that Owen grasped the realisation that he was to die imminently.

Rather than wailing or begging for mercy like many whom found themselves reduced to trembling wrecks at the moment of their enforced death, Owen Tudor was praised for taking his sentence meekly, obediently and humbly whilst unquestionably considering himself as adhering to the chivalric code he had always strove to honour. Regrettably for the aged and gallant Owen, chivalry was rapidly becoming a remnant of a bygone era, particularly during the height of this bitter dynastic quarrel, and he himself had become the latest victim of a bloody dispute rife with treachery and bereavement. Owen was reputed to have referred to his long-dead wife just before the axe came crashing down upon his neck when he proclaimed “that head shall lie on the stock that was wont to lie on Queen Katherine’s lap”. After the execution was completed a local madwoman recovered the head and spent a lengthy amount of time calmly brushing his hair and washing the blood away from the crimson-covered face, whilst surrounded the entire time by flickering candles in an almost ritualistic scene. The great adventurer and the swashbuckler whom had invigorated and resurrected his ancient Welsh family was no more. It was a sad end to a life that he had certainly fulfilled to its potential, from his obscure beginnings as the fatherless progeny of a failed North Welsh dynasty to the husband of a Queen. Perhaps intentionally due to the final resting place of his son Edmund, Owen was also buried in a Greyfriars Franciscan Church just outside the border town where he was put to death. Depressingly nothing exists today of his final resting place, the monastery closed under the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1538 and falling into a steep decline shortly thereafter. Unlike his son Edmund, it seems the grave of this brave and courageous family patriarch was not considered worth saving by his prestigious descendent King Henry VIII and the remains are seemingly lost to us for posterity.

Owen Tudor lived his life as a soldier of fortune, a man born into a family which had lost everything and had no prospects. Through his own wit and character he had managed to claw himself up from this lowly beginning to become the husband of the Queen and reviver of his family’s destiny. Owen’s adventures from the hills of Snowdonia to the Royal Palaces of London are often remembered for initiating the start of the House of Tudor which would become a Royal House with the ascension of his grandson Henry Tudor to the throne of England in 1485. In under a century, this family had climbed from minor outlaws in the darkest parts of Wales to the throne of the Kingdom, an incredible and certainly unrivalled rise for which Owen Tudor was greatly responsible. As a Soldier he was tough, brave and believed in chivalrous behaviour. As a man he was handsome, romantic and courtly. Owen Tudor was a proud Welshman, descended from the most prestigious of his small nation’s great leaders, including Hywel Dda and Rhodri Mawr and epitomised the incredible rags to riches rise that has always made popular reading throughout the generations. Owen Tudor, son of Outlaws and Father of Kings, your name remains immortal.


6 thoughts on &ldquo David Owen – another Tudor &rdquo

David app Owen app meaning son of in the Welsh language was a traitor like all the traitors that left the field of Bosworth on 22 day of August 1485. Henry the bastard did not raise a finger in that one sided battle.Yes he forecast victory because his whore of a mother had married Lord Stanley whom had informed Richard that he would fight on the Kings side. Richard took one of Stanleys sons as hostage knowing the danger that was real. Stanley laughed and said kill him for I have another son. know that no one even today can place a sin against poor Richard who made many good changes in law in his short two years as King. If the nephews had to be silenced or return with armies to bring again Civil war into our midst did Richard do this? We have only a loose sheet of writing from the estranged Thomas Moore to place this doubt in our minds. Yet his nobles many of them bribed by promises of power left our true King to fight alone to the very death as the lion he was. Bastards all off them whos souls must be fed to the dogs of Hades as the traitors of my family. It took a Parr lady to settle the score in her own way as Henry the bastard thought he had ethnically cleansed all Nevil and Parr supporters of the House of York when his big fat son married one of the last real Parr ladies alive then. She made certain all Nevil and House of York families came back from France and Henry never caught on to her loyal work. One did and she escaped his clutches and converted Henry V111 into a loving husband by stealth and by whit. If Richard knew that both princes had been born out of wedlock as his brother King Edward had married in secret the Talbot girl long before he secretly married Woodvile. So why did he have to kill these boys? If he did then he thought deeply of danger. The boys with Richards son had played with their favourite uncle Richard at Middleham and at Sheriff Hutton many times before it all went wrong when Woodville murdered her husband and gave her family full power to run all Britain. Many ifs here but that is how I have come to see what really happened.

Kevin, I appreciate the lingering resentment at how Henry VII gained the throne, and the dynastic propaganda that ensued.

But this was a long time ago, and one might equally argue that William I had no right to be Duke of Normandy, let alone King of England. For that matter, his relatives on the Breton side had much stronger legitimate claims to the English crown, and to Normandy, than he had.

Indeed, the Plantagenet ancestors became Counts of Anjou only because, by their own admission, one of their forefathers had been exiled from Brittany for a grievous crime.

Gong back further, the Franks betrayed the Romans by invading Gaul, deposing Syagrius and then attacking Rome’s last loyal allies in the West, the Britons of Armorica. This is also what enabled the Saxons to get a firm footing in Britain.

The true kings and queens of England, if such there be, are the Breton sovereign house. Their status as the eldest legitimate ruling house in Europe is implicitly acknowledged by the English monarch, indeed most of the monarchs of Europe, wearing ermine in their coronation robes, and by the ermine band in the coronets of the aristocracy.

I for one have grave misgivings about every de facto English monarch from John onwards.

Some interesting ideas here – are you sure you don’t approve of novels? While the approved histories definitely wouldn’t accept this I have the feeling that with the right prose style you could give Philippa Gregory a run for her money. And I guess one of the reasons for that is because you’re committed to the Plantagenet cause.

Hmm. I have to say that Margaret Beaufort being a whore is a first. Everyone is entitled to their opinion of course, but I can’t say that I would deem to truly know anything about anyone, much less from 600 years ago, and if indeed I were to speculate, it would happen after reading historical accounts written by others, and we all know how that can go. However, it is nice to see such interest and strong feelings, regardless of what I happen to think.

Julia, have you written an article on Arthur Plantagenet, paternal half-brother of Elizabeth of York?

Not yet – my problem is that i’m not always logical in my approach. It depends what I’m teaching or reading at the time. I shall, however, add him to my list – I also want to look at Richard III’s illegitimate son.

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Owen Tudor, c.1400-1461

Owen Tudor (c.1400-1461) was a member of an ancient Welsh princely family, related to Owain Glyn Dwr. His secret marriage to Catherine of Valois, Henry V's widow, brought him to national prominence and he became the founder of the house of Tudor.

Owen's grandfather was Tudur ap Goronwy. He married Margaret, the daughter of Thomas ap Llywelyn ab Owain, the last male heir to the princes of Deheubarth. Margaret's sister was the mother of Owain Glyn Dwr, making him Owen Tudor's cousin. Owen's father Maredudd ap Tudur took part in Glyn Dwr's revolt, and it would appear that Owen got a position at the English court in the aftermath of that revolt. He changed his name to Owen Tudor, taking his grandfather's name as his family name, and in 1432 was granted the rights of an Englishman.

Owen is first mentioned in English service in 1421 when he joined the retinue of Sir Walter Hungerford, steward of the king's household. At this stage he appeared as Owen Meredith. His early role at court is unclear, as are the circumstances of his meeting with Catherine of Valois. A variety of traditions exist, including one that he attracted her attention while swimming and another that he fell into her lap while dancing.

Queen Catherine became a widow in 1422, and was soon rumoured to be involved with Edmund Beaufort, a nephew of Bishop Henry Beaufort. This may be the reason that a law was passed in 1427-8 that made it illegal for a dowager queen to marry without the permission of an adult king. At this stage Henry VI was only a child, and so no such consent was possible.

However Owen and the Queen met they were soon in a relationship, and at some point around 1430 they secretly married. The marriage became rather less secret when the queen fell pregnant, and she gave birth to at least four of Owen's children - Edmund, Jasper, Owen and a probable daughter. Even so the marriage remained relatively unknown until Catherine's death in January 1437.

After the Queen's death Owen was summoned to court by Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, to answer the charges that he entered into an illegal marriage. He was granted a safe conduct but chose to seek sanctuary at Westminster. He was released, but arrested while returning to Wales. Under the law of 1427-8 his goods were forfeited - at this stage Tudor was a relatively poor man, and his possessions were valued at £137 10s 4d. He escaped from Newgate early in 1438 but was recaptured and taken to Windsor Castle in July. A year later he was released, on a £2000 recognizance (essentially on bail), and on 12 November he was officially pardoned. Although Owen and Catherine's marriage had broken the law of 1427-8 it was recognised as a legitimate marriage, so their children were in turn legitimate.

After his release Owen became a member of Henry VI's household. His son Owen became a monk, while Edmund and Jasper were in the care of Katherine de la Pole, abbess of Barking and sister of the earl of Suffolk.

The Tudors were well treated by Henry VI, and became loyal Lancastrians. In November 1452 Edmund was made earl of Richmond and Jasper was made earl of Pembroke. They were recognised as half-brothers of the king.

The Tudor claim to the throne came through Edmund's marriage to Henry's cousin Margaret Beaufort. Their son Henry Tudor thus had a distant claim to the throne through his mother, who was descended from Edward III's son John of Gaunt, but it was only the slaughter of better qualified claimants during the Wars of the Roses that turned the obscure young Henry Tudor into the Lancastrian claimant.

Owen Tudor wasn't active in the political or military crisis of 1455. His son Edmund died in 1456, and his son Henry was born posthumously. This left Jasper Tudor as the active head of the house. He had been present with the Royal army at the first battle of St. Albans, and fought on the Lancastrian side during the struggles of 1459-61. Owen did receive some lands forfeited by Yorkists in 1459.

Owen Tudor chose the wrong moment to fight. Late in 1460 Richard of York attempted to claim the throne but was rebuffed. A compromise was agreed, the Act of Accord, in which Henry remained on the throne, but York was accepted as his heir. This meant that the young Prince Edward was disinherited, and that helped trigger pro-Lancastrian revolts around England and Wales. Jasper Tudor (with James Butler, earl of Wiltshire and Ormond) raised an army in Wales, and was joined by his father. Elsewhere the Lancastrians were victorious - York was killed at Wakefield in December 1460 and Warwick was defeated at the second battle of St. Albans (17 February 1461) - but their Welsh army ran into the best commander on the Yorkist side, York's son Edward, earl of March (soon to become Edward IV).

On 2 February 1461 Pembroke and Wiltshire attacked Edward at Mortimer's Cross, and suffered a defeat. Pembroke and Wiltshire escaped, as did many of their men, but Owen Tudor was not so lucky. He may have commanded the Lancastrian right, and was captured during the battle. A few days later he was beheaded at Hereford. He was said to have refused to have believed that he would be executed right up until the last moment, and his last words were 'that head shall lie on the stock that was wont to lie on Queen Catherine's lap'.

The eclipse of the house of Lancaster in 1461 meant that Owen's son and grandson would spent most of the next twenty years either fighting in Wales or in exile, but in 1485 Henry Tudor was mount a successful invasion, landing in Wales before defeating Richard III at Bosworth Field. Owen's grandson would thus become Henry VII, and found the Tudor dynasty.


Owen Tudor

Owen was an early settler of Windsor. He and his son Samuel began the settlement on the east side of the Connecticut River, at Windsor, about 1677. Owen Tudor sold property in Windsor to John Moses in 1649. A DIGEST OF THE EARLY CONNECTICUT PROBATE RECORDS. 1687 to 1695.

Marriage 1 Mary LOOMIS b: ABT 1620 in England

Married: 13 NOV 1651 in Windsor, Hartford Co., CT

Residence 1645 Windsor, Hartford, CT

Page 111 Name: Owen Tudor Location: Windsor Invt. ?294-07-00. Taken 3d March, 1690-1, by John Moore sen. and John Porter. Will Nuncupative. John Loomis, aged about 39 years, Testifieth & saith: I was watching with Owen Tudor sen. about 3 nights before he dyed, & I Judged him to be in his right mind, & He declared to me and others that the girls should have ?10 apiece, & Samuel & Owen should have the rest, only Samuel should have a double portion & further Sayeth not. Rosamond Elmer Testifyeth the same. Abraham Colt testifyeth the same. Court Record, Page 27--March, 1690-1: Will proven & ordered to be recorded. See W. R., also "Lands," Sec. State Office: Owen Tudor & Mary Skinner were married 13 November, 1651. Samuel Tudor, son of Owen Tudor, born 5 December, 1652. Sarah Tudor, daughter of Owen Tudor, born 5 December, 1652. Owen Tudor, son of Owen Tudor, born 2 March, 1654. Anne Tudor, daughter of Owen Tudor, born 16 October, 1657 Jane Tudor, daughter of Owen Tudor, born 16 October, 1657.

Abbrev: Winsor Ancient History Title: Henry Reed Stiles, <i>The History of Ancient Winsor</i> (Somersworth: New Hampsire Publishing Company, 1976) Page: Vo. II, p. 767 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Gen. Reg. of 1st Settlers of NE Title: Genealogical Register of the First Settlers of New England (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 292 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Gen of Ancient Winsor Title: Henry Reed Stiles, <i>Genealogies and Genealogical Notes of those Families which Settled Within the Limits of Ancient Winsor, Conn., prior to 1800</i> (New York: Charles B. Norton, 1859) Repository: Name: Google Books

Page: p. 816 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Historical Sketches of John Moses of Plymouth Title: Historical Sketches of John Moses of Plymouth (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 121 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: 4:340 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Winsor Ancient History Title: Henry Reed Stiles, <i>The History of Ancient Winsor</i> (Somersworth: New Hampsire Publishing Company, 1976) Page: Vol. I, p. 167 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Loomis, Desc. of Joseph Loomis in America Title: Loomis, Elias, Descendants of Joseph Loomis in America (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com published by Elias Loomis 1875, revised by Elisha S. Loomis 1908) Page: p. 127 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: IV:340 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Tyler, W.S. Autobiography Title: Tyler, William Seymour, Autobiography of W.S. Tyler, DD, LLD (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 281 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Porter Genealogy Volume I Title: Andrews, Henry Porter, Genealogy of the Descenants of Richard Porter, Volume I Family Tree Maker GenealogyLibrary.com (Saratoga Springs: G.W. Ball, Book and Job, 1893) Page: p. 8 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Loomis Descendants (Female Lines) Title: Elias Loomis, <i>The Descendants (by the Female Branches) of Joseph Loomis</i> (New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor, 1880) Page: p. 129 Quality: 2 Abbrev: Loomis, Desc. of Joseph Loomis in America Title: Loomis, Elias, Descendants of Joseph Loomis in America (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com published by Elias Loomis 1875, revised by Elisha S. Loomis 1908) Page: p. 127 Abbrev: Richardson & Ellsworth Title: Richardson, Ruth Ellsworth, Samuel Richardson and Josiah Ellsworth (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 501 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: p. 112 Abbrev: Savage's NE Dictionary Title: James A. Savage, <i>A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England</i> (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965) Page: IV:340 Abbrev: Tyler, W.S. Autobiography Title: Tyler, William Seymour, Autobiography of W.S. Tyler, DD, LLD (Family Tree Maker Online: GenealogyLibrary.com) Page: p. 281 Abbrev: NEHGR CD ROM Title: New England Historical and Genealogical Register (The New England Historic Genealogical Society & Broderbund Software, Inc.) Repository: Name: Kimberly L. Branagan's Library Baldwinsville, NY 13027 USA

Repository: Name: Kimberly L. Branagan's Library Baldwinsville, NY 13027 USA


10 Facts About The House of Tudor You Probably Didn’t Know

Now that we’ve brought you up to speed on the rich and storied history of the infamous House of Tudor, let’s see just how much about the Tudors you really do or don’t know.

As is the case with many things in life nowadays, history has become somewhat clouded over the centuries, and there have been a number of myths and misconceptions surrounding the House of Tudor that simply are not true.

To help clear things up and help you learn more about Henry VIII and the rest of the Tudor House, here are 10 facts about the Tudors you probably didn’t know.

England Thrived Financially During Tudor Reign

Many people like to paint the House of Tudor as tyrannical beasts who looked down their noses on the general public, ruled with an iron fist, and made every decision based solely on greed and self-fulfillment.

The simple fact of the matter, though, is that during the Tudor reign, England thrived financially and became wealthier and more successful than ever.

As a result of this, the country was able to invest in better housing for the populace, as well as education.

Thanks to the finances generated during Tudor times, many schools and colleges were constructed up and down the country, helping to educate the next generation.

‘Bloody Mary’ Was Not Necessarily An Accurate Representation Of Mary I

During her reign, Mary I would become known as ‘Bloody Mary’ as she had 277 people burnt at the stake as a result of their religious beliefs and behavior.

Historians, however, believe that her reputation was the result of Elizabethan propaganda.

Instead, the general belief is that the nickname should instead have been given to Henry VIII.

During Henry VIII’s reign, according to English Chronicler Raphael Holinshed, who passed away in 1580, during Henry’s 38-year reign, the number of people executed was believed to be around 72,000.

Back then, thousands of peasants were executed for crimes which, nowadays, would barely warrant a police caution.

The Tudors Were Unusually Tall

This next piece of info on the members of the House of Tudor might not necessarily be deemed important, but if nothing else, it will give you something to talk about the next time you’re at the pub or with your friends of the family.

Henry VII was 5ft 9 inches tall, yet his son, Henry VIII was 6ft 2 inches. Historians believe he inherited this genetic trait from his grandfather, King Edward IV, who was a strapping 6ft 4 inches.

Catherine Parr was also a very tall lady for her time, standing at around 5ft 10 inches in height.

In fact, from the hundred of so skeletons of crewman discovered in the wreck of the Mary Rose, the average height was 5ft 7 – 5ft 8 which was still taller than the average male during that time.

Tudors Used To Preserve Meat With Salt

Just as we do today, the Tudors were big lovers of meat.

However, unlike us today, the Tudors did not have fridges or freezers to store their meat. So how did they stop it going bad? They preserved it with salt.

Salt preservation is a technique still used to preserve meat to this very day, yet back in Tudor times, virtually everybody who could afford meat would do it.

Mary I, Henry VIII, And Edward VI Were Not Actually British Monarchs

Though commonly referred to as British monarchs, Henry VIII, Edward VI, e Mary I were never actually officially Britons until Elizabeth I’s reign.

Upon the recommendation of Dr John Dee, Elizabeth i recognised the 3 aforementioned monarchs as Britons to help establish an Empire overseas, upon the legends of British monarchs over foreign realms.

Before being referred to as, and recognised as Britons, the monarchs were in fact English.

Students In Schools Learnt From ‘Hornbooks’

Despite the country being financially stable and investing money in education in the form of schools and colleges, back in Tudor times, there were very few books available to students.

These were very unusual contraptions which basically consisted of pages that displayed religious text, along with the alphabet, which were attached to wooden boards.

The name ‘hornbook’ came about because they finished off by being covered with a transparent sheet of cow horn.

Children Needed To Behave In Tudor Times

De volta Tudor times, if you misbehaved in school, or around the home, you didn’t get detention or grounded, instead, you would get 50 strokes of the cane on various parts of your anatomy.

Wealthy parents of students would actually hire what was known as a ‘whipping boy’.

Bizarrely, if the rich child stepped out of line and was naughty, the whipping boy would receive the punishment on behalf of the wealthy child.

The idea behind this punishment for the whipping boy was that, as the wealthy child was normally a monarch, the status of his or her tutor was below them.

Instead, the tutor would punish the whipping boy, with the idea that seeing the whipping boy punished would motivate the wealthy child not to step out of line again.

Black Teeth Were Fashionable In Tudor Times

Now, black and rotten teeth are the exact opposite of fashionable, but in Tudor times, they were very much in fashion.

Back then, sugar was seen as a status symbol because it was expensive, and so only the rich could afford it.

The wealthy would consume so much sugar that it would rot their teeth and cause them to turn black. Remember, there weren’t any toothbrushes, toothpaste, regular trips to the dentists back then, so oral hygiene was virtually non-existent.

Because of the status symbol of sugar, however, having black teeth became fashionable because it showed others that you could afford an abundance of sugar, and signified your wealth.

Tudors Did Not Have A Long Life Expectancy

During the reign of the House of Tudor, as a result of a lack of medicine, healthcare, education, and knowledge, the average life expectancy of a person living in Tudor times was far shorter than people nowadays.

The average person living in Tudor times was lucky to make it to 40, as the average life expectancy was just 35 – 40 years of age.

Martin Jones

Royal Editor

With over 30 years in the field, Martin Jones is considered as one of the world's leading Royal Commentators. He and his team report on the latest news, announcements and events from various Royal Families all across the world.


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