Podcasts de história

Aditya Chakravarty

Aditya Chakravarty


Shami Chakrabarti

Sharmishta "Shami" Chakrabarti, Baronesa Chakrabarti, CBE, PC (nascido em 16 de junho de 1969) é um político, advogado e ativista dos direitos humanos do Partido Trabalhista britânico. Ela atuou como diretora do Liberty, um grupo de defesa que promove as liberdades civis e os direitos humanos, de 2003 a 2016. De 2016 a 2020, ela atuou como Procuradora Geral Sombra para a Inglaterra e País de Gales.

Chakrabarti nasceu no bairro londrino de Harrow e estudou Direito na London School of Economics. Depois de se formar, ela foi chamada para a Ordem dos Advogados e, em seguida, trabalhou como assessora jurídica interna do Home Office.

Quando ela era a diretora do Liberty, ela fez campanha contra a legislação antiterror "excessiva". Nessa função, ela freqüentemente contribuiu para a BBC Radio 4 e vários jornais, e foi descrita em Os tempos como "provavelmente o lobista de relações públicas mais eficaz dos últimos 20 anos". Ela foi um dos membros do painel da Leveson Inquiry in Press standards ao longo de 2011 e 2012. Entre 2014 e 2017, ela atuou como Chanceler da University of Essex. [3]

Em agosto de 2016, Chakrabarti foi homenageado nas honras de renúncia do primeiro-ministro.


Aditya Chakravarty - História

Chakravarty era conhecido por se manifestar contra a escassez de mulheres na ciência e discutir abertamente o duplo fardo que as mulheres enfrentavam. Enquanto os homens na casa dos trinta só precisavam se preocupar com a carreira, as mulheres tinham a tarefa adicional de equilibrar a vida familiar e seus compromissos de trabalho. Ela conseguiu fazer um trabalho estelar gerenciando ambos e se tornou uma acadêmica talentosa ao abraçar a maternidade em 2000, quando sua filha, Krithi, nasceu.

Chakravarty era conhecido por se manifestar contra a escassez de mulheres na ciência e discutir abertamente o duplo fardo que as mulheres enfrentavam.

Conquistas

Seu trabalho foi amplamente aclamado e ela recebeu diversos prêmios e homenagens. O primeiro prêmio de Chakravarty veio em 1996, quando ela recebeu o Medalha para Jovens Cientistas de Academia Nacional de Ciências da Índia (INSA), uma sociedade líder em ciência e tecnologia na Índia. De 1996 a 2003, ela serviu como membro da Centro Internacional Abdus Salam de Física Teórica, Trieste, Itália, um instituto dedicado à pesquisa científica e à excelência. Em 1999, ela conquistou dois prêmios, o B.M. Birla Science Award e Prêmio Memorial Anil Kumar Bose de Academia Nacional de Ciências da Índia. Em 2003, ela recebeu o Swarnajayanti Fellowship do Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia e em 2006 uma bolsa de Academia Indiana de Ciências. Ela também recebeu o prestigioso Prêmio Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar em 2009 e foi Membro Associado da Centro de Ciência de Materiais Computacionais, JWaharlal Nehru Centro de Pesquisa Científica Avançada, Bangalore.

Morte e Legado

Infelizmente, perdemos o Dr. Chakravarty muito cedo, depois de uma longa e valente luta contra o câncer. Apesar de ter sido diagnosticada em 2013, ela continuou escrevendo e publicando artigos até sua morte, uma prova de sua vontade indomável. Ela até recebeu uma bolsa em 2015 do INSA, um insight para a mente brilhante que ela tinha até o fim. Charusita continuou a ter aulas nos dias em que estava bem e fazia questão de arranjar tempo para seus amigos e familiares, apesar dos efeitos colaterais dos tratamentos e da dor horrível. Ela faleceu em 2016, aos cinquenta e um anos.

Embora a tenhamos perdido muito cedo, ela exibiu uma espécie de gênio difícil de esquecer. Seu trabalho fez dela um modelo acadêmico brilhante e exemplar que levou várias mulheres a cruzar o limiar e entrar em laboratórios.

Seu legado continua vivo e seu impacto duradouro na comunidade científica é melhor elucidado por um poema de Margaret Mead lido em seu funeral.

Para os vivos, eu morri
Para os tristes, eu nunca vou voltar
Para os zangados, fui enganado
Mas para os felizes, estou em paz
E para os fiéis, eu nunca deixei
Eu não posso ser visto, mas posso ser ouvido
Então, enquanto você está em uma praia, olhando para um lindo mar - lembre-se de mim
Enquanto você olha com admiração para uma floresta poderosa e sua grande majestade - lembre-se de mim
Ao olhar para uma flor e admirar sua simplicidade - lembre-se de mim
Lembre-se de mim em seu coração, seus pensamentos e suas memórias dos tempos que amamos
As vezes que choramos, as vezes que brigamos, as vezes que rimos
Pois se você sempre pensar em mim, eu nunca irei embora.


Recuperando propriedades elásticas de fragmentos de rocha

Dang, Son, Gupta, Ishank, Chakravarty, Aditya, Bhoumick, Pritesh, Taneja, Shantanu, Sondergeld, Carl e Chandra Rai. "Recuperando propriedades elásticas de fragmentos de rocha." Petrofísica 58 (2017): 270–280.

A caracterização mecânica de uma rocha isotrópica requer as medições de pelo menos duas constantes elásticas. As constantes dinâmicas são obtidas usando técnicas ultrassônicas e as constantes estáticas são obtidas a partir da resposta tensão-deformação da rocha, ambas as técnicas podem ser usadas em pressões e temperaturas elevadas. Esses métodos envolvem tipicamente o uso de tampões cilíndricos, no entanto, a existência de fraturas naturais ou fissilidade de formações de xisto impede a extração de núcleos. O desafio é melhorar a caracterização do reservatório medindo as propriedades elásticas usando amostras de rochas menores irregulares, mas onipresentes. Propomos medir dois parâmetros elásticos, ou seja, módulo de Young e módulo de bulk por meio de experimentos de nanoindentação e pressão capilar de injeção de mercúrio (MICP), respectivamente. Com essas duas constantes e a suposição de isotropia, todas as outras constantes elásticas isotrópicas podem ser derivadas. A ideia é inferir o módulo de Young (Enano) usando nanoindentação e módulo de cálculo de estimativa (KMICP) usando dados MICP, nenhuma medição requer plugues de núcleo e pode ser realizada em fragmentos de rocha de formato irregular. Assumimos que os fragmentos são representativos da formação da confirmação de interesse vem do estabelecimento de estatísticas. Medimos amostras de núcleo de xisto de Woodford, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Wolfcamp, Bakken, Utica e Green River. Esses valores são comparados aos valores obtidos em experimentos de transmissão de pulso ultrassônico. Valores ultrassônicos de K medido a 5.000 psi de pressão de confinamento concorda bem com os valores de KMICP a 5.000 psi. De forma similar, Enano mostra uma correlação de 1: 1 com o módulo de Young derivado ultrassonicamente a uma pressão de confinamento de 5.000 psi. A uma pressão de confinamento de 5.000 psi, a influência das rachaduras é reduzida.

O uso onipresente de fraturamento hidráulico para estimular reservatórios não convencionais leva à necessidade de metodologias aprimoradas para calcular as propriedades mecânicas da rocha. A variabilidade mineralógica (Rickman et al., 2008 2009 Passey et al., 2010) no xisto deve ser considerada na decisão da colocação das laterais. A ductilidade é uma função da mineralogia, da riqueza de TOC e do perfil de tensão in-situ. Dentro de uma zona de estimulação, onde as tensões principais são minimamente variadas, a variabilidade mineralógica afeta diretamente as propriedades elásticas (Al-Tahini et al., 2006), fragilidade e ductilidade (Bai, 2016): Altas concentrações de argila tornam o xisto mais dúctil, enquanto a predominância de quartzo está associado à fragilidade. Jarvie et al., (2007) relacionou a fragilidade diretamente à mineralogia.


Conteúdo

Vikramaditya significa "o sol da bravura" (vikrama significa "valor" e aditya significa "sol"). Ele também é conhecido como Vikrama, Bikramjit e Vikramarka (arka também significa "sol"). Algumas lendas o descrevem como um libertador da Índia de mlechchha invasores os invasores são identificados como Shakas na maioria, e o rei é conhecido pelo epíteto Shakari (IAST: Śakāri "inimigo dos Shakas"). [1]

Embora Vikramaditya seja mencionado em alguns trabalhos anteriores ao período Gupta (240–550 dC), partes (incluindo Vikramaditya) podem ser interpolações posteriores da era Gupta. [2] O primeiro trabalho a mencionar Vikramaditya foi provavelmente Brihatkatha, um épico indiano escrito entre o primeiro século AEC e o terceiro século dC na língua paisaci não atestada. Sua existência (e sua menção a Vikramaditya) é confirmada apenas por adaptações em obras sobreviventes datadas do século VI e posteriores e depoimentos de poetas contemporâneos. Uma vez que não há cópia sobrevivente de Brihatkatha, não se sabe se continha as lendas Vikramaditya de suas adaptações pós-Gupta, como a Katha-Sarit-Sagara, pode conter interpolações. [3]

Gaha Sattasai (ou Gatha-Saptasati), uma coleção de poemas atribuídos ao rei Satavahana Hāla (r. 20 - 24 EC), menciona um rei chamado Vikramaditya que doou sua riqueza por caridade. No entanto, muitas estrofes neste trabalho não são comuns às suas revisões e são expansões aparentes do período Gupta. [4] O versículo sobre Vikramaditya é semelhante a uma frase—Anekago-shatasahasra-hiranya-kotipradasya- encontrada nas inscrições de Gupta sobre Samudragupta e Chandragupta II (por exemplo, as inscrições em placa de cobre de Pune e Riddhapur da filha de Chandragupta, Prabhavatigupta), essa frase pode ter sido uma inserção posterior da era Gupta na obra atribuída a Hāla. [5]

As primeiras menções incontestáveis ​​de Vikramaditya aparecem em obras do século VI: a biografia de Vasubandhu de Paramartha (499–569) e Vasavadatta por Subandhu. [4] Paramaratha cita uma lenda que menciona Ayodhya ("A-yu-ja") como a capital do rei Vikramaditya ("Pi-ka-la-ma-a-chi-ta"). [6] De acordo com esta lenda, o rei deu 300.000 moedas de ouro ao estudioso Samkhya Vindhyavasa por derrotar o professor budista de Vasubandhu (Buddhamitra) em um debate filosófico. Vasubandhu então escreveu Paramartha Saptati, ilustrando deficiências na filosofia Samkhya. Vikramaditya, satisfeito com os argumentos de Vasubandhu, deu a ele 300.000 moedas de ouro também. Vasubandhu mais tarde ensinou o budismo ao príncipe Baladitya e converteu a rainha ao budismo após a morte do rei. [7] De acordo com Subandhu, Vikramaditya era uma memória gloriosa para sua época. [4]

No dele Si-yu-ki, Xuanzang (c. 602 - c. 664) identifica Vikramaditya como o rei de Shravasti. De acordo com seu relato, o rei (apesar das objeções de seu tesoureiro) ordenou que 500.000 moedas de ouro fossem distribuídas aos pobres e deu a um homem 100.000 moedas de ouro para colocá-lo de volta nos trilhos durante uma caça ao javali. Na mesma época, um monge budista conhecido como Manoratha pagou a um barbeiro 100.000 moedas de ouro para raspar sua cabeça. Vikramaditya, que se orgulhava de sua generosidade, ficou constrangido e organizou um debate entre Manoratha e 100 estudiosos não budistas. Depois que Manoratha derrotou 99 dos estudiosos, o rei e outros não-budistas gritaram com ele e o humilharam no início do último debate. Antes de sua morte, Manoratha escreveu a seu discípulo Vasubandhu sobre a futilidade de debater com pessoas tendenciosas e ignorantes. Pouco depois da morte de Vikramaditya, Vasubandhu pediu a seu sucessor, Baladitya, que organizasse outro debate para vingar a humilhação de seu mentor. Nesse debate, Vasubandhu derrotou 100 estudiosos não budistas. [8] [9]

Após o século IX, uma era do calendário começando em 57 AEC (agora chamada de Vikrama Samvat) começou a ser associada a Vikramaditya. Algumas lendas também associam a era Shaka (começando em 78 EC) com ele. Quando o estudioso persa Al-Biruni (973–1048) visitou a Índia, ele soube que os indianos usaram cinco eras: Sri Harsha, Vikramaditya (57 aC), Shaka (78 dC), Vallabha e Gupta. A era Vikramaditya foi usada no sul e no oeste da Índia. Al-Biruni aprendeu a seguinte lenda sobre a era Shaka:

Um governante Shaka invadiu o noroeste da Índia e oprimiu os hindus. De acordo com uma fonte, ele era um Shudra da cidade de Almanṣūra, de acordo com outra, ele era um não hindu que veio do oeste. Em 78 EC, o rei hindu Vikramaditya o derrotou e o matou na região de Karur, localizada entre Multan e o castelo de Loni. Os astrônomos e outras pessoas começaram a usar esta data como o início de uma nova era. [10]

Como havia uma diferença de mais de 130 anos entre a era Vikramaditya e a era Shaka, Al-Biruni concluiu que seus fundadores foram dois reis com o mesmo nome. A era Vikramaditya recebeu o nome do primeiro, e a era Shaka foi associada à derrota do governante Shaka pelo segundo Vikramaditya. [10]

De acordo com várias lendas posteriores - particularmente lendas jainistas - Vikramaditya estabeleceu a era 57 AEC depois de derrotar os Shakas e foi derrotado por sua vez por Shalivahana, que estabeleceu a era de 78 EC. Ambas as lendas são historicamente imprecisas. Há uma diferença de 135 anos entre o início das duas eras, e Vikramaditya e Shalivahana não poderiam ter vivido simultaneamente. A associação da era que começou em 57 AEC com Vikramaditya não foi encontrada em nenhuma fonte antes do século IX. Fontes anteriores chamam essa era por vários nomes, incluindo "Kṛṭa", "a era da tribo Malava" ou "Samvat" ("Era"). [11] [12] Estudiosos como D. C. Sircar e D. R. Bhandarkar acreditam que o nome da era mudou para Vikrama Samvat durante o reinado de Chandragupta II, que adotou o título de "Vikramaditya" (veja abaixo). Teorias alternativas também existem, e Rudolf Hoernlé acreditava que Yashodharman renomeou a era Vikrama Samvat. [12] A primeira menção da era Shaka como a era Shalivahana ocorre no século 13, e pode ter sido uma tentativa de remover a associação estrangeira da era. [13]

Brihatkatha adaptações Editar

Kshemendra's Brihatkathamanjari e Somadeva do século 11 Kathasaritsagara, ambas as adaptações de Brihatkatha, contém uma série de lendas sobre Vikramaditya. Cada lenda tem várias histórias de fantasia dentro de uma história, ilustrando seu poder.

A primeira lenda menciona a rivalidade de Vikramaditya com o rei de Pratishthana. Nesta versão, esse rei é chamado de Narasimha (não Shalivahana) e a capital de Vikramaditya é Pataliputra (não Ujjain). De acordo com a lenda, Vikramaditya foi um adversário de Narasimha que invadiu Dakshinapatha e sitiou Pratishthana, ele foi derrotado e forçado a recuar. Ele então entrou no Pratishthana disfarçado e conquistou uma cortesã. Vikramaditya foi seu amante por algum tempo antes de retornar secretamente para Pataliputra. Antes de seu retorno, ele deixou cinco estátuas de ouro que recebeu de Kubera na casa da cortesã. Se um galho de uma dessas estátuas milagrosas fosse quebrado e dado a alguém, o galho dourado cresceria novamente. Lamentando a perda de seu amante, a cortesã se voltou para a caridade conhecida por seus presentes de ouro, ela logo ultrapassou Narasimha em fama. Vikramaditya mais tarde voltou para a casa da cortesã, onde Narasimha o conheceu e fez amizade com ele. Vikramaditya se casou com a cortesã e a trouxe para Pataliputra. [14]

Livro 12 (Shashankavati) contém o vetala panchavimshati lendas, popularmente conhecidas como Baital Pachisi. É uma coleção de 25 histórias nas quais o rei tenta capturar e segurar um vetala que conta uma história intrigante que termina com uma pergunta. Além de Kathasaritsagara, a coleção aparece em três outras recensões sânscritas, várias versões vernáculas indianas e várias traduções em inglês de sânscrito e hindi. É a mais popular das lendas Vikramaditya. [15] Existem pequenas variações entre as recensões, consulte a Lista de Contos de Vetala. Nas recensões de Kshemendra, Somadeva e Śivadāsa, o rei é chamado de Trivikramasena em Kathasaritsagara, sua capital está localizada em Pratishthana. [16] No final da história, o leitor descobre que ele era anteriormente Vikramaditya. Textos posteriores, como o sânscrito Vetala-Vikramaditya-Katha e as versões vernáculas modernas, identificam o rei como Vikramaditya de Ujjain. [17]

Livro 18 (Vishamashila) contém outra lenda contada por Naravahanadatta a uma assembleia de eremitas no ashram de um sábio, Kashyapa. De acordo com a lenda, Indra e outros devas contaram a Shiva que os asuras mortos renasceram como mlechchhas. Shiva então ordenou que seu assistente, Malyavat, nascesse em Ujjain como o príncipe do reino Avanti e matasse os mlechchhas. A divindade apareceu para o rei Avanti Mahendraditya em um sonho, dizendo-lhe que um filho nasceria de sua rainha Saumyadarshana. Ele pediu ao rei que chamasse a criança de Vikramaditya e disse-lhe que o príncipe seria conhecido como "Vishamashila" por causa de sua hostilidade aos inimigos. Malyavat nasceu como Vikramaditya quando o príncipe cresceu, Mahendraditya retirou-se para Varanasi. Vikramaditya começou uma campanha para conquistar vários reinos e vetalas subjugados, rakshasas e outros demônios. Seu general, Vikramashakti, conquistou o Dakshinapatha no sul de Madhyadesa na região central de Surashtra no oeste, e o país a leste do Ganges Vikramashakti também fez do reino do norte de Kashmira um estado tributário de Vikramaditya. Virasena, o rei de Sinhala, deu sua filha Madanalekha a Vikramaditya em casamento. O imperador também se casou com três outras mulheres (Gunavati, Chandravati e Madanasundari) e Kalingasena, a princesa de Kalinga. [18] [19]

o Brihatkathamanjari contém lendas semelhantes, com algumas variações, o general Vikramashakti de Vikramaditya derrotou vários mlechchhas, incluindo Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Barbaras, Tusharas e persas. No Brihatkathamanjari e Kathasaritsagara, Malyavat nasce mais tarde como Gunadhya (o autor de Brihatkatha, nos quais esses livros se baseiam). [20]

Rajatarangini Editar

Século 12 de Kalhana Rajatarangini menciona que Harsha Vikramaditya de Ujjayini derrotou os Shakas. De acordo com a crônica, Vikramaditya nomeou seu amigo, o poeta Matrigupta, governante da Caxemira. Após a morte de Vikramaditya, Matrigupta abdicou do trono em favor de Pravarasena. [21] De acordo com D. C. Sircar, Kalhana confundiu o lendário Vikramaditya com o Imperador Vardhana Harshavardhana (c. 606 - c. 47 EC) Madhusudana do século 17 Bhavabodhini da mesma forma confunde os dois reis, e menciona que Harsha, o autor de Ratnavali, teve sua capital em Ujjain. [22]

Os reis Paramara, que governaram Malwa (incluindo Ujjain) do nono ao décimo quarto século, se associaram a Vikramaditya e outros reis lendários para justificar suas reivindicações imperiais. [23]

Simhasana Dvatrimsika Editar

Simhasana Dvatrimsika (popularmente conhecido como Singhasan Battisi) contém 32 contos populares sobre Vikramaditya. Nesta coleção de histórias emolduradas, o rei Paramara Bhoja descobre o antigo trono de Vikramaditya após vários séculos. O trono tem 32 estátuas, que na verdade são apsaras que foram transformadas em pedra por uma maldição. Quando Bhoja tenta ascender ao trono, uma apsara ganha vida e lhe diz para ascender ao trono somente se ele for tão magnânimo quanto Vikramaditya (como revelado por sua história). Isso leva a 32 tentativas de Bhoja de ascender ao trono, com 32 contos da virtude de Vikramaditya após cada, Bhoja reconhece sua inferioridade. Satisfeito com sua humildade, as estátuas finalmente permitiram que ele subisse ao trono.

O autor e a data da obra original são desconhecidos. Como a história menciona Bhoja (que morreu em 1055), ela deve ter sido composta após o século XI. [24] Cinco recensões primárias da versão sânscrita, Simhasana-dvatrimsika, são datados dos séculos XIII e XIV. [25] De acordo com Sujan Rai de 1695 Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh, seu autor foi o de Bhoja wazir (primeiro ministro) Pandit Braj. [26]

Vetala Panchavimshati e Simhasana Dvatrimsika são estruturalmente opostos. No Vetala contos, Vikramaditya é o personagem central da história, mas não está conectado com os contos individuais, exceto por ouvi-los do vetala. Embora a história do quadro do Throne Tales é ambientado muito depois da morte de Vikramaditya, esses contos descrevem sua vida e feitos. [27]

Bhavishya Purana Editar

As lendas da era Paramara associam os governantes Paramara a reis lendários, a fim de realçar as reivindicações imperiais dos Paramara. [28] O Bhavishya Purana, um antigo texto hindu que foi editado até o século 19, [29] conecta Vikramaditya aos Paramaras. De acordo com o texto (3.1.6.45-7.4), o primeiro rei Paramara foi Pramara (nascido de uma fogueira no Monte Abu, portanto, um Agnivansha). Vikramaditya, Shalivahana e Bhoja são descritos como descendentes de Pramara e membros da dinastia Paramara. [23]

De acordo com Bhavishya Purana, quando o mundo foi degradado por religiões não-védicas, Shiva enviou Vikramaditya à terra e estabeleceu um trono decorado com 32 designs para ele (uma referência a Simhasana Dvatrimsika) A esposa de Shiva, Parvati, criou um vetala para proteger Vikramaditya e instruí-lo com enigmas (uma referência a Baital Pachisi legendas). Depois de ouvir as histórias do vetala, Vikramaditya realizou um ashvamedha (sacrifício de cavalo). A peregrinação do cavalo sacrificial definiu os limites do império de Vikramaditya: o rio Indo no oeste, Badaristhana (Badrinath) no norte, Kapila no leste e Setubandha (Rameshwaram) no sul. O imperador uniu os quatro clãs Agnivanshi casando-se com princesas dos três clãs não-Paramara: Vira do clã Chauhan, Nija do clã Chalukya e Bhogavati do clã Parihara. Todos os deuses, exceto Chandra, celebraram seu sucesso (uma referência aos Chandravanshis, rivais dos clãs Suryavanshi como os Paramaras). [30]

Havia 18 reinos no império de Vikramaditya de Bharatavarsha (Índia). Após um reinado perfeito, ele ascendeu ao céu. [30] No início da Kali Yuga, Vikramaditya veio de Kailasa e convocou uma assembléia de sábios da Floresta Naimisha. Gorakhnath, Bhartrhari, Lomaharsana, Saunaka e outros sábios recitaram os Puranas e os Upapuranas. [30] Cem anos após a morte de Vikramaditya, os Shakas invadiram a Índia novamente. Shalivahana, neto de Vikramaditya, subjugou a eles e a outros invasores. Quinhentos anos após a morte de Shalivahana, Bhoja derrotou invasores posteriores. [23]

Vários trabalhos de autores jainistas contêm lendas sobre Vikramaditya, incluindo: [31]

    de Prabhavaka Charita (1127 CE)
  • Somaprabha Kumara-Pala-Pratibodha (1184)
  • Kalakacharya-Katha (antes de 1279)
  • Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani (1304)
  • Jinaprabhasuri's Vividha-Tirtha-Kalpa (1315)
  • De Rajashekhara Prabandha-Kosha (1348)
  • Devamurti Vikrama-Charitra (1418)
  • Ramachandrasuri's Pancha-Danda-Chhattra-Prabandha (1433)
  • De Subhashila Vikrama-Charitra (1442) (listas de monges chefes)

Poucas referências a Vikramaditya existem na literatura Jain antes de meados do século 12, embora Ujjain apareça com freqüência. Depois do rei jainista Kumarapala (r. 1143–1172), tornou-se moda entre os escritores jainistas comparar Kumarapala com Vikramaditya. No final do século 13, lendas apresentando Vikramaditya como um imperador Jain começaram a surgir. Um tema importante na tradição jainista é que o acharya Jain Siddhasena Divakara converteu Vikramaditya ao jainismo. Diz-se que ele disse a Vikramaditya que 1.199 anos depois dele, haveria outro grande rei como ele (Kumarapala). [32]

A tradição jainista originalmente tinha quatro histórias relacionadas com Simhasana e quatro histórias de quebra-cabeças relacionadas com vetala. Autores jainistas posteriores adotaram o 32 Simhasana Dvatrimsika e 25 Vetala Panchavimshati histórias. [31]

O autor jainista Hemachandra nomeia Vikramaditya como um dos quatro reis eruditos, os outros três são Shalivahana, Bhoja e Munja. [33] Merutunga's Vicarasreni coloca sua vitória em Ujjain em 57 AEC e indica que seus quatro sucessores governaram de 3 a 78 EC. [34]

Rivalidade Shalivahana-Vikramaditya Editar

Muitas lendas, especialmente lendas Jain, associam Vikramaditya com Shalivahana de Pratishthana (outro rei lendário). Em alguns ele é derrotado por Shalivahana, que começa a era Shalivahana em outros, ele é um ancestral de Shalivahana. Algumas lendas chamam o rei de Pratishthana de "Vikramaditya". A rivalidade política entre os reis às vezes se estende à língua, com Vikramaditya apoiando o sânscrito e Shalivahana apoiando o prácrito. [35]

No Kalakacharya-Kathanaka, O pai de Vikramaditya, Gardabhilla, raptou a irmã de Kalaka (um acharya Jain). Por insistência de Kalaka, os Shakas invadiram Ujjain e fizeram de Gardabhilla seu prisioneiro. Vikramaditya chegou mais tarde de Pratishthana, derrotou os Shakas e deu início à era Vikrama Samvat para comemorar sua vitória. [21] [36] De acordo com Alain Daniélou, o Vikramaditya nesta lenda se refere a um rei Satavahana. [37]

Outros textos jainistas contêm variações de uma lenda sobre a derrota de Vikramaditya nas mãos do rei de Pratishthana, conhecido como Satavahana ou Shalivahana. Este tema é encontrado no livro de Jina-Prabhasuri Kalpa-Pradipa, Rajashekhara's Prabandha-Kosha e Salivahana-Charitra, um trabalho Marathi. De acordo com a lenda, Satavahana era filho do chefe Naga (serpente) Shesha e de uma viúva brâmane que vivia na casa de um oleiro. Seu nome, Satavahana, foi derivado de satani (dar) e Vahana (um meio de transporte) porque ele esculpiu elefantes, cavalos e outros meios de transporte com barro e os deu a outras crianças. Vikramaditya percebeu presságios de que seu assassino havia nascido. Ele enviou seu vetala para encontrar a criança, o vetala rastreou Satavahana em Pratishthana, e Vikramaditya liderou um exército lá. Com a magia Naga, Satavahana converteu suas figuras de barro de cavalos, elefantes e soldados em um verdadeiro exército. Ele derrotou Vikramaditya (que fugiu para Ujjain), começou sua própria era e se tornou um Jain. [38] [33] [39] Existem várias variações desta lenda: Vikramaditya é morto pela flecha de Satavahana na batalha, ele se casa com a filha de Satavahana e eles têm um filho (conhecido como Vikramasena ou Vikrama-charitra), ou Satavahana é o filho de Manorama, esposa de um guarda-costas do rei de Pratishthana. [38]

Em uma lenda Tamil medieval, Vikramaditya tem 32 marcas em seu corpo, uma característica dos imperadores universais. Um brâmane com necessidade de mercúrio alquímico diz a ele que ele pode ser obtido se o imperador oferecer sua cabeça à deusa Kamakshi de Kanchipuram. Embora Vikramaditya concorde em se sacrificar, a deusa realiza seu desejo sem o sacrifício. [40]

Em outra lenda Tamil, Vikramaditya se oferece para executar uma variante do navakhandam rito (cortar o corpo em nove lugares) para agradar aos deuses. Ele se oferece para cortar seu corpo em oito lugares (para os oito Bhairavas) e oferece sua cabeça à deusa. Em troca, ele convence a deusa a encerrar o sacrifício humano. [40]

Chola Purva Patayam (Registro de Chola Antiga), um manuscrito tamil de data incerta, contém uma lenda sobre a origem divina das três dinastias tamil. Nesta lenda, Shalivahana (também conhecido como Bhoja) é um rei shramana. Ele derrota Vikramaditya e começa a perseguir os adoradores de Shiva e Vishnu. Shiva então cria os três reis Tamil para derrotá-lo: Vira Cholan, Ula Cheran e Vajranga Pandiyan. Os reis têm uma série de aventuras, incluindo a descoberta de tesouros e inscrições de reis hindus da era de Shantanu a Vikramaditya. Eles derrotaram Shalivahana no ano de 1443 (de uma era de calendário incerta, possivelmente desde o início de Kali Yuga). [41]

De acordo com uma lenda em Ayodhya, a cidade foi redescoberta por Vikramaditya após ter sido perdida por séculos. Vikramaditya começou a procurar Ayodhya e conheceu Prayaga, o rei dos tirthas. Guiado por Prayaga, Vikramaditya marcou o lugar, mas depois se esqueceu de onde estava. Um iogue disse a ele que ele deveria libertar uma vaca e um bezerro. Ayodhya seria o local onde o leite começaria a fluir do úbere da vaca. Seguindo este conselho, Vikramaditya encontrou o local do antigo Ayodhya. [42]

De acordo com Hans T. Bakker, o Ayodhya dos dias atuais era originalmente o Saketa mencionado nas fontes budistas. O imperador Gupta Skandagupta, que se comparava a Rama e também era conhecido como Vikramaditya, mudou sua capital para Saketa e a renomeou como Ayodhya em homenagem à lendária cidade do Ramayana. [42] O Vikramaditya mencionado na biografia de Vasubandhu do quarto-quinto século EC de Paramartha é geralmente identificado com um rei Gupta, como Skandagupta [43] ou Purugupta. [9] Embora os reis Gupta governassem de Pataliputra, Ayodhya estava dentro de seus domínios. No entanto, estudiosos como Ashvini Agrawal rejeitam esse relato como impreciso. [44]

De acordo com o poema heróico do século 12 de Ananta, Vira-Charitra (ou Viracharita), Shalivahana (ou Satavahana) derrotou e matou Vikramaditya e governou de Pratishthana. O associado de Shalivahana, Shudraka, mais tarde aliou-se aos sucessores de Vikramaditya e derrotou os descendentes de Shalivahana. Esta lenda contém várias histórias mitológicas. [45] [46]

Século 12 a 14 de Śivadāsa Śālivāhana Kātha (ou Shalivahana-Charitra) descreve de forma semelhante a rivalidade entre Vikramaditya e Shalivahana. [47] Ananda's Mādhavānala Kāmakandalā Kathā é uma história de amantes separados que são reunidos por Vikramaditya. [47] Vikramodaya é uma série de contos em versos em que o imperador aparece como um papagaio sábio, uma série semelhante é encontrada no texto Jain, Pārśvanāthacaritra. [47] O século 15 - ou mais tarde -Pañcadaṇḍachattra Prabandha (A história dos guarda-chuvas com cinco varas) contém "histórias de magia e bruxaria, cheias de aventuras maravilhosas, nas quais Vikramāditya desempenha o papel de um poderoso mago". [47] Trabalho Gujarati do século 16 de Ganapati, Madhavanala-Kamakandala-Katha, também contém histórias de Vikramaditya. [35]

No Jyotirvidabharana (22.10), um tratado atribuído a Kalidasa, nove estudiosos notáveis ​​(os Navaratnas) estavam na corte de Vikramaditya: [12]

No entanto, muitos estudiosos consideram Jyotirvidabharana uma falsificação literária escrita após a morte de Kalidasa. [12] De acordo com V. V. Mirashi, que data a obra do século 12, ela não poderia ter sido composta por Kalidasa porque contém erros gramaticais. [21] Não há menção de tais Navaratnas na literatura anterior, e D. C. Sircar chama Jyotirvidabharana "absolutamente inútil para fins históricos". [48]

Não há nenhuma evidência histórica indicando que os nove estudiosos eram figuras contemporâneas ou protegidos do mesmo rei. [21] [49] Acredita-se que Vararuchi viveu por volta do terceiro ou quarto século EC. Embora a vida de Kalidasa seja debatida, a maioria dos historiadores o coloca por volta do século V, sabe-se que Varahamihira viveu no século VI. Dhanavantari foi o autor de um glossário médico (um nighantu), mas sua vida é incerta. Amarasimha também não pode ser datado com certeza, mas seu léxico usa obras de Dhanavantari e Kalidasa, portanto, ele não pode ser datado do primeiro século AEC (diz-se que Vikramaditya estabeleceu uma era em 57 aC). Pouco se sabe sobre Shanku, Vetalabhatta, Kshapanaka e Ghatakarpara. Alguns escritores Jain identificam Siddhasena Divakara como Kshapanaka, mas isso não é aceito pelos historiadores. [50]

Kalidasa é a única figura cuja associação com Vikramaditya é mencionada em obras anteriores a Jyotirvidabharana. De acordo com Rajasekhara's Kāvyamimāṃsa (Século 10), Bhoja's Sringara Prakasa e Kshemendra Auchitya-Vichara-Charcha (ambos do século 11), Vikramaditya enviou Kalidasa como seu embaixador no país Kuntala (atual Uttara Kannada). No entanto, a historicidade desses relatórios é duvidosa. [51]

Embora alguns autores acreditem que Vikramaditya foi um personagem mítico, outros levantam a hipótese de que ele foi um rei Malava histórico por volta do primeiro século AEC. Outros ainda acreditam que ele foi um personagem lendário baseado em um rei histórico, identificado como Chandragupta II, Gautamiputra Satakarni ou Yashodharman. [49] Vikramaditya também pode ser baseado em vários reis, lendas sobre os quais gradualmente se fundiram em uma tradição que o rodeava. De acordo com K. Krishnamoorthy, "Vikramaditya" e "Kalidasa" foram usados ​​como substantivos comuns para identificar um rei patrono e um poeta da corte. [52]

Rei Malava Editar

Rajbali Pandey, Kailash Chand Jain e outros acreditam que Vikramaditya foi um rei Malava baseado em Ujjain. The Shakas advanced from Sindh to Malwa around the first century BCE, and were defeated by Vikramaditya. The Krita era, which later came to be known as Vikrama Samvat, marked this victory. Chandragupta II later adopted the title of Vikramaditya after defeating the Shakas. Proponents of this theory say that Vikramaditya is mentioned in works dating to before the Gupta era, including Brihatkatha e Gatha Saptashati. Vikramaditya cannot be based on Chandragupta II, since the Gupta capital was at Pataliputra (not Ujjain). [49] According to Raj Pruthi, legends surrounding this first-century king gradually became intertwined with those of later kings called "Vikramaditya" (including Chandragupta II). [36]

Critics of this theory say that Gatha Saptashati shows clear signs of Gupta-era interpolation. [2] According to A. K. Warder, Brihatkathamanjari e Kathasaritsagara are "enormously inflated and deformed" recensions of the original Brihatkatha. [20] The early Jain works do not mention Vikramaditya and the navaratnas have no historical basis as the nine scholars do not appear to have been contemporary figures. [49] Legends surrounding Vikramaditya are contradictory, border on the fantastic and are inconsistent with historical facts no epigraphic, numismatic or literary evidence suggests the existence of a king with the name (or title) of Vikramaditya around the first century BCE. Although the Puranas contain genealogies of significant Indian kings, they do not mention a Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain or Pataliputra before the Gupta era. There is little possibility of an historically-unattested, powerful emperor ruling from Ujjain around the first century BCE among the Shungas (187–78 BCE), the Kanvas (75–30), the Satavahanas (230 BCE–220 CE), the Shakas (c. 200 BCE – c. 400 CE ) and the Indo-Greeks (180 BCE–10 CE). [13] [49]

Gupta kings Edit

A number of Gupta Empire kings adopted the title of Vikramaditya or its equivalent, such as Samudragupta's "Parakramanka". According to D. C. Sircar, Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri and others, the exploits of these kings contributed to the Vikramaditya legends. Distinctions among them were lost over time, and the legendary Shalivahana was similarly based on the exploits of several Satavahana kings. [53]

Chandragupta II Edit

Some scholars, including D. R. Bhandarkar, V. V. Mirashi and D. C. Sircar, believe that Vikramaditya is probably based on the Gupta king Chandragupta II. [21] [49] Based on coins and the Supia pillar inscription, it is believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya. [21] [54] The Khambat and Sangli plates of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda IV use the epithet "Sahasanka", which has also been applied to Vikramaditya, for Chandragupta II. [49] According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Chandragupta's victory against the Shakas was transposed to a fictional character who is credited with establishing the Vikrama Samvat era. [23]

In most of the legends Vikramaditya had his capital at Ujjain, although some mention him as king of Pataliputra (the Gupta capital). According to D. C. Sircar, Chandragupta II may have defeated the Shaka invaders of Ujjain and made his son, Govindagupta, a viceroy there. Ujjain may have become a second Gupta capital, and legends about him (as Vikramaditya) may have developed. [49] [55] The Guttas of Guttavalal, a minor dynasty based in present-day Karnataka, claimed descent from the Gupta Empire. Their Chaudadanapura inscription alludes to Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain, and several Gutta kings were named Vikramaditya. According to Vasundhara Filliozat, the Guttas confused Vikramaditya with Chandragupta II [56] however, D. C. Sircar sees this as further proof that Vikramaditya was based on Chandragupta II. [57]

Skandagupta Edit

The Vikramaditya of Ayodhya legend is identified as Skandagupta ( r . 455 – 467 CE ) by a number of scholars. [42] [43] Book 18 of the Kathasaritsagara describes Vikramaditya as a son of Mahendraditya of Ujjain. According to D.C. Sircar, Kumaragupta I (r. 415–455 CE) adopted the title Mahendraditya. His son, Skandagupta, adopted the title Vikramaditya, and this set of legends may be based on Skandagupta. [22]

Other rulers Edit

No Kathasaritsagara recension of the 25 vetala stories, the king is mentioned as the ruler of Pratishthana. A. K. Warder notes that the Satavahanas were the only notable ancient dynasty who ruled from Pratishthana. [17] According to a Satavahana inscription, their king Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated the Shakas. One of Gautamiputra Satakarni's epithets was vara-varana-vikrama-charu-vikrama. However, according to D. C. Sircar, the epithet means "one whose gait is as beautiful as that of a choice elephant" and is unrelated to Vikramaditya. Most other Vikramaditya legends note the king's capital as Ujjain (or, less commonly, Pataliputra), but the Satavahanas never had their capital at these cities. Vikramaditya was also described as an adversary of the Pratishthana-based king Satavahana (or Shalivahana) in a number of legends. [58]

Max Müller believed that the Vikramaditya legends were based on the sixth-century Aulikara king Yashodharman. The Aulikaras used the Malava era (later known as Vikrama Samvat) in their inscriptions. According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the name of the Malava era was changed to Vikramaditya by Yashodharman. Hoernlé also believed that Yashodharman conquered Kashmir and is the Harsha Vikramaditya mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. [12] Although Yashodharman defeated the Hunas (who were led by Mihirakula), the Hunas were not the Shakas Yashodharman's capital was at Dasapura (modern Mandsaur), not Ujjain. There is no other evidence that he inspired the Vikramaditya legends. [59] [60]

Several Vikramaditya stories appear in the Amar Chitra Katha comic-book series. [61] Indian films on king Vikramaditya include G. V. Sane's Vikram Satvapariksha (1921), Nanubhai B. Desai's Vikram Charitra (1924), Harshadrai Sakerlal Mehta's Vikram Charitra (1933), Vikram Shashikala (1949), Vijay Bhatt's Vikramaditya (1945), Kemparaj Urs' Raja Vikrama (1950), Dhirubhai Desai's Raja Vikram (1957), Chandrasekhara Rao Jampana's Bhatti Vikramarka (1960), T. R. Raghunath's Vikramaadhithan (1962), Chakravarty Vikramaditya (1964), S. N. Tripathi's Maharaja Vikram (1965), G. Suryam's Vikramarka Vijayam (1971), Shantilal Soni's Vikram Vetal (1986), Krishna's Simhasanam and Singhasan (1986), Ravi Raja Pinisetty's Raja Vikramarka (1990), Rajiv Chilakalapudi's Vikram Betal (2004). [62]

Vikram Aur Betaal, which appeared on Doordarshan in the 1980s, was based on Baital Pachisi. Kahaniya Vikram aur Betaal Ki, a remake of the Doordarshan television show, aired on Colors TV in 2009. An adaptation of Singhasan Battisi was aired on Doordarshan during the late 1980s. In 2014, another adaptation was aired on Sony Pal. [63] Currently a series Vikram Betaal Ki Rahasya Gatha is running on &TV where popular actor Aham Sharma is playing the role of Vikramaditya.

The Indian Navy aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya was named in honour of Vikramaditya. [64] On 22 December 2016, a commemorative postage stamp honouring Samrat Vikramadittya was released by India Post. [65] Historical-fiction author Shatrujeet Nath retells the emperor's story in his Vikramaditya Veergatha Series. [66]


Song For Sushant Singh Rajput Is Winning Hearts Lyricist Aditya Chakravarty Says It Meant To Empathise With The Late Actor’s Family

Song for Sushant meant to empathise with his family: Lyricist (Photo Credit: Facebook/Sushant Singh Rajput)

A song dedicated to Sushant Singh Rajput and released recently is not surprisingly winning over his fans. The melodious track has been shared on social media by family members of the late actor.

Titled “Insaaf ye ek sawaal hai”, the song talks of justice. It has been written by Aditya Chakravarty and produced by Sushant’s family friend Nilotpal Mrinal, who took part in the late actor’s last rites. Varun Jain has lent his voice to the song composed by Shubham Sundaram.

Talking about the song, lyricist Aditya Chakravarty told IANS: “The song is a tribute to Sushant Singh Rajput. Sushant’s family friend Nilotpal Mrinal, who is also a friend of composer Shubham Sundaram, had approached us saying he wants to give a musical tribute to Sushant. That’s how the song was made.”

Tendendo

“Ek sitaara woh asmaan ka rehta ab behaal hai, kya milega uski rooh ko insaaf ye ek sawaal hai…” reads a couple of lines from the song.

On what inspired him to pen lyrics that talk of seeking justice, Aditya replied: “The inspiration behind the song was empathy. I could empathise with his father, his sisters and other family members. We all want the mystery behind his death to be solved. The loss is not as personal to us as it is to them. They are in deep pain. They wanted a star in their life, they got him but they lost him too soon.”

Now that the CBI has taken over the investigation, does he feel Sushant will get justice? “As a citizen of this country, I have total faith in the judicial system, now that the case has been taken over by the CBI. I am sure ‘insaaf’ (justice) will be delivered to his departed soul and to his family members. Justice should also be delivered to each and every person who is struggling for it in every part of this country,” shared the lyricist.


Chapter 12: Leaving China – XIV

In the penultimate part, Mitali shares the woes and wonders of leaving China – a weird local mover, strange rules for expats, her children who hated swanky hotels and more. An exclusive for Different Truths.

It is funny the way we pack our lives in boxes and suitcases and move on… all our memories in our hand phones or laptops. I always think of John Denver’s song Leaving on a Jet Plane 1 .

All my bags are packed, I’m ready to go, I’m standin’ here outside your door
I hate to wake you up to say goodbye…

The sentiment is similar, except the goodbye is to memories, places and friends.

The relocation agents helped us find movers who packed our home into boxes two weeks before our departure.

The relocation agents helped us find movers who packed our home into boxes two weeks before our departure. Earlier, the boxes could be packed on the day the expatriates were leaving. The rules concerning expat repatriation had changed a month before we were due to leave. Many rules had started to change. Xi Jinping had come to power the year before we left.

The boxes with our things and my husband’s passport had to be submitted together to the immigration for a fortnight. Earlier, instead of the passport, they were happy with a photocopy. We were asked to wait for two weeks without our essential household things. As a result, we had to move into a hotel. This was a learning that rules could change anytime in China or elsewhere. We just needed to accept the changes and adapt.

When the movers came, Surya spent all his time with Ali in his home or inside our car.

When the movers came, Surya spent all his time with Ali in his home or inside our car. The movers packed and transferred all our belongings out of the house in a huge, covered truck with their name emblazoned on the vehicle. Everything went, except for the suitcases that had our essentials for a couple of months and the children’s piano. The emptiness of the house felt strange. We wanted to hand over the keys to our landlord at the soonest.

The Pearl River piano, which was bound with happy memories for the children, had to be either abandoned or given away. Moving the piano overseas would cost more than buying a new one in Singapore. We wanted to give the piano to a child who would cherish it as much as our sons. So, we asked around and one of the expat families happily obliged. They had a lovely four-year-old daughter who was starting to learn to play the instrument. They were friends of ours – a Turkish American family with roots in California. Let us call the couple Sabrina and David for convenience. They organised the movers. Their house was about 500 metres from ours. But both the houses had staircases and the piano was delicate.

We decided to organise professional help so that the piano would not be damaged. Sabrina organised a local mover.

We decided to organise professional help so that the piano would not be damaged. Sabrina organised a local mover. He promised to come at 10.30 a.m. Sabrina and David came over at 10.15 in the morning. We waited. It was past 10.30. We waited. 11.00 O’clock. Sabrina telephoned David’s secretary to call the mover as he spoke only Mandarin. The secretary called back and said the mover had almost reached. We informed the security at the gate we were expecting a lorry. Não veio nada.

Then, Sabrina’s mother-in-law called up. The mover was in their house. Sabrina ran back to get him. She returned walking in some time. We were all surprised. We had thought she would come in the mover’s van. But she came walking!

We all looked at her in askance. “He has not got his lorry. He is coming here on his e-bike,” she explained. As she finished her sentence, an e-bike drew up in front of our house.

A tiny dwarf of a skinny man got off. He smiled, nodded and greeted us, “Ni hao (how are you)?” We all greeted him too. “Ni hao.”

He swaggered in as if on a social visit. He walked towards the piano. Aditya, our translator, told him we needed to move the piano from our home to Sabrina’s.

He swaggered in as if on a social visit. He walked towards the piano. Aditya, our translator, told him we needed to move the piano from our home to Sabrina’s. He responded by saying that he needed ten men to lift it. When Aditya asked him about his lorry, he responded by saying the vehicle would break under the piano’s weight!

We were astounded! He told us the piano could not be moved that day as he would have to get ten men and they were all busy. He stayed for fifteen minutes trying to explain how impossible and unreasonable it was to think of moving the piano that day itself. Such things took time was his final verdict. He stated this with aplomb, much like a local Julius Caesar – veni, vidi, vici…

However, we were not convinced. We needed to move the piano that day as the keys had to be handed over to the landlord the next day. So, the mover came, saw and left – much like the fishpond cleaners who had given us a taste of what to expect from ‘regular’ workers.

Aditya said, “This guy is bizarre. Only two of us moved the piano at school on a trolley.”

“But we don’t have a trolley. And we need to move it today,” I said.

“We could do it by sliding the piano on a rug or a carpet,” said my husband.

The movers had packed our rugs and carpets and taken them away. Sabrina got two rugs from her home. We roped in another friend’s husband, David’s father and our driver to help us. So, half a dozen men panted up and down and up the stairs of Sabrina’s home with the piano and rugs. It took quite some time and a lot of effort. It was a case of amazing teamwork which I thought was so nice to watch but I am not so sure that it was nice for the team to heave and shove so as not to damage the piano!

Sabrina organised huge jugs of lemonade for all the movers. Aditya inaugurated the piano in their home.

Sabrina organised huge jugs of lemonade for all the movers. Aditya inaugurated the piano in their home. Now, we were officially ready to hand over the keys the next day.

The landlord came with his wife this time. They told us they would have liked us to continue as long as we were in China. They were very kind. They loved what I had done to the garden. His wife was thrilled seeing I had planted a Chinese flowering plant, called the Yue Liang Hua (the moon flower). She said this flower was associated with Shanghai, where she grew up. I knew this flower had a heady perfume and my driver often used it inside the car instead of a car perfume. They were equally excited with the fishpond, where the koi had bred and now I had nearly two dozen fishes.

We had to stay in the hotel for almost a fortnight. That was a long time for us. Staying in a hotel has always been a trial for my trio.

We had to stay in the hotel for almost a fortnight. That was a long time for us. Staying in a hotel has always been a trial for my trio. I still recall the time Aditya first stayed in Sheraton in Hong Kong. He was four and did not like the hotel food. He asked me if I could cook for him. In Hawaii, when he was six, he threw up on an exclusive hotel meal in a six-star resort, where we were having an official gathering!

Surya was not much better. When he was one-and-a-half, we were staying for a long weekend in Johor, Malaysia. He shook his foot so much in delight while seated on a high-chair in the 24-hour coffee shop of the hotel that his shoes flew off and landed on somebody in the adjoining table. Seeing the ruckus, it created, Surya decided to fling his shoes every time he was put into a baby chair in the restaurant. It became a nightmare for us. The hotel staff were terrified whenever we entered the coffee shop. They would put us in a corner table emptied of all cutlery and napkins as they did not want Surya to exercise his skills on their wares or aim his shoes at their customers!

Two-year-old Surya discovered the joys of a rotating door in the hotel. The doormen were terrified again and requested we keep him away from the doors…

When we moved to China, we had to stay a week in a hotel while our home was readied for us. Two-year-old Surya discovered the joys of a rotating door in the hotel. The doormen were terrified again and requested we keep him away from the doors – not an easy task when we were in the lobby. Surya protested being cooped in a luxurious room where he had no freedom to practise his sporting skills. He also wanted to catch the fish in an indoor koi pond in the hotel and the staff had a tough time being polite about it. Staying with a toddler in a hotel is not exactly a relaxing affair.

This time the two of them were older. We had a beautiful view of the Jinji Lake from our rooms. The sunset on the lake against the silhouette of tall buildings was spectacular. Aditya had a separate room. Surya was ten and Aditya seventeen-and-a-half. They were a little better adjusted in the hotel than eight years ago… except Surya had the whole security on my tracks when I got a little delayed in the lift one day.

I had gone to get his swimming goggles when he discovered he had left them behind in our room. I told him to get changed and wait by the poolside while I fetched the goggles. The lift was a little delayed. The lifeguards and attendants stood around him when I returned to the poolside. It seems they could not reach me when they tried to call my mobile. I had been gone only about ten to fifteen minutes. It was a big hotel, and I had the walk between our room and the pool then I had to unlock the door and take the goggles.

Surya was singing a nonsensical song that day and doing weird walks along the corridor in a bid to dispense his extra energy.

As I was returning to the poolside, I was delayed as I was greeted by another guest, an American who lived in the hotel permanently. I had to tell him where Surya was in response to his query. We had got acquainted when he and his visiting teenage son, commented on Surya’s antics. Surya was singing a nonsensical song that day and doing weird walks along the corridor in a bid to dispense his extra energy. It was hazy with pollution outside, and we could not do our usual walk for the high PSI levels.

At home, Surya would have read, played a game, visited a friend or had one over. But in the hotel, he had to create his own sport. We had an amused audience of the American and his son… To me it was really strange that a person, even if he were living alone, would choose to stay in a hotel on a daily basis. It could be so restrictive. You could never satisfy your yearning to cook a gastronomic delight! You could never do up your room with your choice of colours and paintings. You could never invite your friends over for a meal cooked by you. You could never try out a new musical instrument in the later hours of the evening.

Trying out a musical instrument in an apartment is difficult too if you come to think of it. I remember, in Suzhou, a friend’s husband practiced his guitaring in their penthouse every night. The downstairs found it unacceptable and complained regularly.

When Aditya practiced his French horn, our Finnish neighbour upstairs was really delighted. He wanted to know if Aditya could play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn.

Aditya could you play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn, pretty please. PC: Anumita C Roy

We were luckier. When Aditya practiced his French horn, our Finnish neighbour upstairs was really delighted. He wanted to know if Aditya could play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn. In fact, in my first bungalow, I remember when Aditya started the French horn in school, he would practice exactly at the time we had dinner. And it was a painful experience for us to hear what sounded like an elephants’ snorting loudly in the next room. Then, a friend told us, their kid practising the violin resembled the sound of a pig being slaughtered and the father would run out of the house with cotton stuffed in his ears! So, by and large, we had never had issues with boys practising the piano, guitar, recorder or clarinet at home in a bungalow or in the apartments. And eventually, the results of being tolerant were fabulous. My heart swelled with pride when Aditya played a solo on his French horn on stage – Beethoven’s Ode to Joy. I remember Surya was four and he loved it too. He hummed it on the way to his kindergarten. I wanted him to hum it for his teacher, but he was silent. He would not do it.

One of the things I have discovered as a parent is if you want your children to excel at something, the best option is to give them plenty of space and not push them to be child prodigies. After all Mozart – the child prodigy – had a miserable life. I wanted my sons to be happy and not prodigies. Childhood is a time for fun, for learning to think, for learning from mistakes, for being able to make noise and run and play, for wild imaginings, for make believe, for moving towards realising their wonderful dreams and finding out who they are and not who their parents imagine they want them to be.

While we waited at the hotel to leave China, we spent our time doing last-minute visits to different places, going for walks along Jinji and eating out.

While we waited at the hotel to leave China, we spent our time doing last minute visits to different places, going for walks along Jinji and eating out. Most of our friends had left for their annual home leave. Only Ali’s family remained. They were also leaving Suzhou two weeks after us and were in the process of packing their home into boxes too. Our farewell parties had all been done earlier – only the official farewells remained. We had gifts starting from calligraphies to books to oodles of Chinese tea given to us. We came away feeling we would always have friends there, not just in the expat community but among locals.

We bid adieu to a number of our favourite spots. There were these elaborate gardens the Humble Administrator’s garden 2 which was glorious during spring with cherry blossoms and our favourite, the Lion Forest Garden 3 , built during the Yuan Dynasty in the fourteenth century, the Panmen Gate 4 and the canal around it. The Lion Forest Garden, other than plants, had concrete passages and mazes that my sons loved – much in the same tradition as the rocks that Surya and his friends liked to hack in our garden. The Panmen Gate belonged to the BCEs as did the buildings around it. We visited the 2,500year-old Tiger Hill 5 with a Pagoda which leans a bit and for that reason is often compared to the famous leaning tower of Pisa. Most of these were restorations as they had crumbled not just in time but also been wrecked by the Red Guards. They had to be reconstructed again in the twentieth century.

In India where I grew up, in many of the countries I had visited in Europe and Asia, I had seen so much of preserved history that I felt reconstructions were not authentic and were less valuable.

In India where I grew up, in many of the countries I had visited in Europe and Asia, I had seen so much of preserved history that I felt reconstructions were not authentic and were less valuable. But then, I saw Angkor Wat 6 which I visited after returning from China. It had to be restored brick by brick and also the temple where they shot the Lara Croft movie, Tomb Raiders, Ta Prohm. Ta Prohm was being restored by the Archaeological Survey of India. These made me feel that perhaps restorations were not such a bad thing after all – it generated jobs and preserved heritage.

One can see amazing restorations in Yogyakarta too – the Prambanan temple 7 , which houses a temple to Brahma and many other Hindu deities, has been restored, the guide told us, with efforts of the Muslim majority. Syncretic lore actually flourishes in Indonesia with artistes participating in the performance of Ramayana, irrespective of their religion, caste or creed. The temples we visited seemed to be populated with devout worshippers of all faiths and cultures. I do not know if breaking mosques 8 to build temples that might have been built on an older Buddhist site makes any sense. Old buildings have dignity, heritage and history, which wealth cannot buy.

Wrecking an old monument to avenge a six-hundred-year-old historic event – do you feel that is justified?

Imitation London Bridge, Suzhou

Wrecking an old monument to avenge a six-hundred-year-old historic event – do you feel that is justified? Or will vandalising the statues of Columbus 9 or Walt Whitman 10 erase the darkness of racism that is concealed in people’s hearts? Can history be changed with violence that is in itself reflective of hatred and angst?

Imitations were another thing we enjoyed in China. Suzhou proudly hosted an imitation London Bridge 11 . This had nothing to do with antiquity but was a downright imitation. Having visited the original, I do have some reservations about the one I saw in Suzhou. I remember a friend of mine and I visited it for the first time. The bright red and turquoise combination and a café in one of the towers seemed a trifle strange. When we visited it last just for fun, they were growing a whole township around it.

Leaving is always sad. But this time tinged with sadness was a sense of relief.

Leaving is always sad. But this time tinged with sadness was a sense of relief. The wonder and acceptance that was evident in the local attitude towards foreigners when we came in 2006 was being replaced with a feeling that did not seem so friendly. Many of our expatriate friends were being replaced by returning Chinese. Their government welcomed back these people with hefty salaries – no questions asked. And the amazing thing was many of the returning population had taken on different nationalities. I still remember that in a function celebrating the variety of races that added colour to the school community, the American team was the largest and made up mainly of Chinese. When I mentioned it laughingly to the American team lead, she retorted in good humour, “Why? Are you jealous? Do you want some of them in India too?” In context of the current virulence towards tolerating differences in the world, that seems like another world, another era, another age.

Too many changes were taking place. We found that the local populace had started finding their voices and there were occasional disturbances we heard. Rules were being tightened. The bubble could burst any minute.


Our Leadership

David Coleman guides the overall direction and strategic priorities of the organization, with the goal of ensuring all students in our care are prepared to successfully complete college and career training.

Jeremy Singer

Jeremy Singer helps set the strategic direction of College Board and leads the execution of efforts that drive successful outcomes for students.

Steve Bumbaugh

Senior Vice President, College and Career Access

Steve directs efforts that ensure all students can access and maximize college and career opportunities.

Auditi Chakravarty

Senior Vice President, Learning, Evaluation, and Research

Auditi leads our efforts to understand and improve student performance.

Todd Huston

Senior Vice President, State and District Partnerships

Todd Huston oversees our regional offices and state and district partnerships.

Elissa Kim

Senior Vice President, Global Strategy and Talent

As the head of global strategy and talent, Elissa helps design new approaches to the College Board mission. She is responsible for building a world-class team dedicated to creating opportunity for all students.

Tracie MacMahon

Senior Vice President, Operations

Tracie has oversight and accountability for all core assessment operations functions and provides the operational perspective in developing and implementing our growth strategy.

John McGrath

Chief Communications and Marketing Officer

John McGrath leads all communications and marketing efforts of the organization.

James Montoya

Chief of Membership, Governance, and Global Higher Education and Secretary of the Corporation

In partnership with our members, Jim leads our membership, governance, and global higher education teams, managing large-scale, high-impact initiatives that promote equity and access for all students.

Jeff Olson

Chief Information Officer

Jeff Olson is responsible for ensuring that data supports all our student-centered efforts.


Conteúdo

Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company was established in 1994 as a joint venture between the Aditya Birla Group and the Sun Life Financial of Canada where the former owns 51% and the rest by latter which is a leading international financial services organization providing a diverse range of wealth accumulation, protection products, and services to individuals and corporate customers. [6] [7]

Aditya Birla Financial Services Group (ABFSG) is the umbrella brand for all the financial services business of The Aditya Birla Group. ABFSG ranks among the top five fund managers in India (including LIC) with an AUM of around Rs 3 trillion by 2021 [6] . [ citação necessária ] The company provides life insurance, asset management, lending (excluding Housing), housing finance, equity & commodity broking, wealth management and distribution, online money management portal—Aditya Birla Money MyUniverse, general insurance advisory and private equity and health insurance businesses, for retail and corporate customers. In FY 2013–14, ABFSG reported consolidated revenue from these businesses at just under ₹ 70 billion (US$980 million) and profits of about ₹ 7.5 billion (US$110 million). [ citação necessária ] The company has 14,000 employees and over 6 million customers, with 1,500 points of presence and about 130,000 agents/channel partners. [ citação necessária ]

Sun Life Financial, Inc. operates in India through Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset Management. Established in 1994, Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Ltd. (BSLAMC), investment manager for Birla Sun Life mutual fund, has been a joint venture between the Aditya Birla Group and Sun Life Financial Inc. since 1999. Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund was the fourth largest Fund house in India based on domestic average assets under management as published by AMFI for the quarter ended March 31, 2014. [ citação necessária ]

On 20 April 2021, Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset management company filed Draft Red Herring Prospectus (DRHP) to the Securities and Exchange Board of India in order to raise funds through an initial public offering (IPO). [8]

It offers a various investment schemes including debt and treasury products, investment solutions including fund of fund schemes, Wealth Creation, Tax Savings, diversified and sector specific equity schemes and also introduced research-based investments, wealth management services, Regular Income Schemes, offshore funds, hybrid and monthly income funds, and Savings Schemes. Till year 2020, it had the largest team of research analysts in the Insurance industry with operations in major worldwide markets, including the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines, Ireland, China, Hong Kong, Bermuda, and India.


Some Lesser Known Facts About Rhea Chakraborty

A Childhood Picture of Rhea Chakraborty With Her Parents

  • She has worked as a host in various TV shows, including ‘Pepsi MTV Wassup’ (2009), ‘MTV Gone in 60 seconds’ (2010), and ‘TicTac College Beat’ (2012).
  • She has acted in various Bollywood films, including ‘Sonali Cable’ (2014), ‘Half Girlfriend’ (2017), ‘Bank Chor’ (2017), ‘Jalebi’ (2018), and ‘Chehre’ (2020).
  • She has featured in various TV commercials including Yepme, Stayfree, and Maruti Suzuki.

Rhea Chakraborty in O Heeriye

Rhea Chakraborty Featured on a Renowned Magazine

Rhea Chakraborty With Mahesh Bhatt

I use a lot of Coconut oil. I drink it, I apply it on my face. And I can’t emphasise it enough.”

Rhea Chakraborty’s Facebook Post on Salman Khan

  • Her looks are compared with the Bollywood actress, Genelia D’Souza.
  • In an interview, when asked about her relationship with Sushant Singh Rajput, she said,

We’ve been very good friends for many years. I am fond of working towards our shared goals, like starting our new NGO, and travelling. If there is anything else between us or not, this isn’t something that I want to disclose yet.”

  • Reportedly, before committing suicide on 14 June 2020, Sushant had made the last phone call to Rhea.

Rhea Chakraborty at the Hospital Where Sushant Singh Rajput’s Body was Kept


Assista o vídeo: YSL Presents Srishti-2018; Vocal Concert by Adithya Chakravarthy (Outubro 2021).