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Quão precisa é a representação de York / Jórvík no mangá Vinland Saga?

Quão precisa é a representação de York / Jórvík no mangá Vinland Saga?


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No mangá Vinland Saga, os heróis chegam a "York". Obviamente, deveria se chamar Jórvík, mas vamos perdoá-los por enquanto. Abaixo segue como o mangá mostra a cidade vista do céu. Comparando este mapa com um mapa atual de York, a semelhança é impressionante.

Contudo, quão preciso é para Jórvík?


No âmbito da licença artística, parece estar bastante próximo do que se acredita que Roman York teria. Dado que os vikings não tinham a reputação de serem engenheiros civis, é provavelmente razoável supor que Jorvik tinha quase o mesmo layout que as versões romana e anglo-saxões subsequentes.

Dito isso, a "precisão" dos mapas das cidades da Idade das Trevas será duvidosa na melhor das hipóteses ...


Biografia

Vida pregressa

Ragnar nasceu do rei sueco Sigurd Ring e de sua esposa Alfhild Gandolfsdottir. & # 911 & # 93 Durante sua vida adulta, ele se casou com sua primeira esposa Lagertha e foi pai de Halfdan, & # 912 & # 93 e com sua terceira esposa Aslaug ele gerou Ivarr, o Desossado, Björn Ironside, Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye e Ubba . & # 911 e # 93

Besieging Paris

Em março de 845, Ragnar e uma força de pelo menos 4.000 homens cercaram a capital de Paris, Francia Ocidental. Um de seus homens, Sten Stensson, lutou lado a lado com Ragnar durante a batalha. & # 913 & # 93 O cerco terminou com a vitória dos vikings, que saquearam e ocuparam Paris antes de partirem depois que o rei Carlos, o Calvo, pagou um resgate de 7.000 libras de prata e ouro. & # 914 e # 93

Morte

Vendo seus filhos crescerem e se tornarem heróis lendários, Ragnar desejou superá-los planejando invadir e conquistar a Inglaterra com apenas dois navios. & # 911 & # 93 Em 865, Ragnar e seu drengir chegou à Nortúmbria e os ataques que se seguiram foram cuidadosamente calculados. No entanto, Ragnar acabou sendo capturado por ealdorman Ælla da Nortúmbria & # 915 & # 93 e morto ao ser jogado em uma cova de cobras. & # 916 e # 93


Conteúdo

Vida pregressa

Nascida no Cairo, filha de Ashraf e Zeniab Hassan, Layla e sua família emigraram para os Estados Unidos em 1986 quando ela tinha dois anos, & # 911 & # 93, antes de finalmente se estabelecerem em Queens, Nova York. Foi lá que Layla cresceu ao lado de seus dois irmãos mais novos, Rami e Kaden. Ela obteve a cidadania americana por meio de um processo conhecido como naturalização. & # 912 e # 93

Em sua infância, Layla sempre deixava seus pais loucos, pois ela sempre desmontava seus brinquedos em vez de brincar com eles. Ela também não gostava de surpresas e objetos que pareciam funcionar com magia. Ao crescer, Layla começou a mostrar uma tendência para quebrar regras e ela não gostava da natureza disciplinada da educação formal, devido a ter uma experiência desagradável de ser punida por obedecer às regras. Isso cimentou sua tendência existente de resistir à autoridade. & # 911 e # 93

Em algum momento de sua juventude, Layla conheceu e se tornou fã da banda Rha Victoria. Ela até os conheceu nos bastidores após um show deles no Madison Square Garden em 2000. & # 912 & # 93

Depois do colegial, Layla foi pressionada por seu pai a matricular-se no ensino superior, apesar de seus planos de não continuar os estudos e de suas notas baixas. No entanto, ela se mostrou promissora em engenharia e isso levou seu pai a matriculá-la na Universidade da Califórnia em Berkeley no programa de engenharia elétrica. & # 911 e # 93

Trabalhando na Abstergo

No entanto, Layla permaneceu descompromissada com seus estudos e se viu prosperando na atmosfera altamente politizada do campus, rixando com a administração da escola. Foi nessa época que ela conheceu Sofia Rikkin, que fazia parte de uma delegação da Abstergo visitando o campus com o programa de recrutamento de "jovens inovadores" da empresa. & # 911 & # 93 & # 912 & # 93

Sofia ficou intrigada com o interesse de Layla por tecnologia e, como tal, ofereceu-lhe um emprego na Abstergo, onde ela poderia trabalhar para chegar ao laboratório do Animus. Em 2006, Layla saiu da universidade e se juntou à Abstergo, trabalhando primeiro na divisão I + D da Abstergo Fitness & # 913 & # 93 e depois na divisão de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. & # 911 e # 93

Com o passar dos anos, a Abstergo usou várias de suas ideias para fazer ajustes no Animus, embora ela nunca tenha sido informada das afiliações Templárias da empresa. Embora Layla trabalhasse para a Abstergo por onze anos, a única coisa que ela queria mais do que qualquer outra coisa era uma promoção para trabalhar no Projeto Animus. No entanto, ela teve esta oferta negada devido às suas inúmeras transgressões contra os protocolos da Abstergo. & # 912 e # 93

Ativismo da revolução egípcia

Em janeiro de 2011, protestos contra o então presidente Hosni Mubarak e seu regime eclodiram no Cairo e em outras cidades egípcias. Layla, sentindo a necessidade de uma revolução, pediu licença e voltou para seu país de origem. Ela esteve presente nas manifestações da Praça Tahir. Embora sua fluência em árabe fosse mínima, ela conseguiu se envolver fortemente na cultura jovem revolucionária do país. Ela ajudou seus novos amigos a se comunicarem através da mídia social e também hackeando dispositivos digitais, apesar da censura governamental generalizada. & # 911 e # 93

Em julho de 2013, após o golpe de estado que instalou Abdel Fattah el-Sisi como presidente, Layla decidiu relutantemente retornar à América para trabalhar para a Abstergo novamente. Ela recebeu seu próprio Animus portátil, mas sua satisfação com seu trabalho tornou-se obsoleta. A quase falta de contato com Sofia irritou Layla pela negada oportunidade profissional. & # 911 e # 93

Pelos próximos três anos, Layla continuou seu trabalho na Abstergo enquanto também modificava secretamente seu Animus para ser capaz de processar DNA de pessoas não relacionadas a ela e também DNA excessivamente danificado. Ela planejou apresentar seu novo design para Sofia e, finalmente, fazer parte da equipe Animus. No entanto, devido ao ataque de assassino ao Centro de Reabilitação da Fundação Abstergo em outubro de 2016, todo o contato com Sofia foi interrompido. & # 911 e # 93

Atribuição no Egito

Em 2017, como parte de uma Equipe Tática Histórica, Layla e sua colega de trabalho e melhor amiga, Deanna Geary, foram designadas por Simon Hathaway para encontrar e recuperar um importante artefato histórico da Depressão de Qattara no Egito. Durante esta expedição, Layla encontrou as múmias dos antigos Assassinos Bayek e Aya. Sem informar seus superiores, ela usou seu próprio Animus portátil para reviver suas memórias por volta do ano 48 aC, a fim de provar seu valor para o Projeto Animus. & # 912 & # 93 & # 914 & # 93

A recusa de Layla em checar a Abstergo levou a empresa a implantar uma Equipe Sigma para encontrá-la e Deanna. Enquanto Deanna era atacada em seu hotel, Layla fez uso das habilidades que obteve por meio do Efeito Sangramento para despachar seus agressores. & # 912 e # 93

Mais tarde, ela foi encontrada por William Miles, Mentor dos Assassinos, depois que ele soube de sua situação. Ele ofereceu a ela uma posição na Irmandade e sem outra opção, Layla concordou em trabalhar com ele, mas se recusou a realmente se juntar como membro. & # 912 e # 93

Trabalhando com os assassinos

No final de 2017, ela não apenas se tornou um membro dos Assassinos, mas fez amizade com vários membros, incluindo Charlotte de la Cruz, Arend Schut-Cunningham e Harlan Cunningham, e se tornou uma líder de sua própria célula de Assassinos. & # 915 e # 93

Como parte de sua primeira missão Assassina, ela e Kiyoshi Takakura partiram em uma missão para Quebec. Eles vasculharam a Catedral-Basílica de Notre-Dame de Québec em busca de uma relíquia que pertencera aos recoletos. As coisas foram para o lado quando foram confrontados pela Abstergo, mas o passado de Kiyoshi como yakuza o ajudou a salvar Layla do perigo. & # 915 & # 93 & # 916 & # 93

Herodotos ' Histórias Perdidas

Layla com a lança de Leônidas

Em outubro de 2018, durante sua busca por artefatos Isu, Layla descobriu o Histórias Perdidas de Heródotos, o primeiro historiador grego conhecido. Com este trabalho, ela aprendeu sobre o mercenário espartano Cassandra, que empunhou uma arma Isu, a Lança de Leônidas. Layla saiu em busca da lança quebrada e, depois de encontrá-la, pôde reviver as memórias de Kassandra com a ajuda de outra ex-funcionária da Abstergo, Dra. Victoria Bibeau. & # 915 e # 93

Depois de reviver a memória de Kassandra da descoberta da Atlântida pela primeira vez, Layla e sua tripulação navegaram de Londres para a costa de Santorini a bordo do Altair II, na esperança de encontrar a entrada subaquática secreta para a cidade antiga. Layla, tendo encontrado a entrada e a cidade, explorou ainda mais Atlantis, procurando uma maneira de abri-la. Não encontrando nada então, ela decidiu reviver ainda mais as memórias de Cassandra para descobrir como ela poderia abrir a cidade. & # 915 e # 93

Assim que Layla teve o conhecimento necessário para abrir a cidade, ela realinhou os espelhos que refletiam o feixe de luz e a cidade foi aberta. Foi então que ela se encontrou com a própria Cassandra, mantida viva pelo Cajado de Hermes Trismegistus. Cassandra advertiu que, como os Templários e Assassinos representam a ordem e o caos, a vitória de um lado sobre o outro resultaria na destruição do mundo. Declarando Layla como a profetizada que traria equilíbrio, Kassandra passou o bastão para Layla e imediatamente perdeu sua imortalidade e morreu - Layla a segurou nos braços enquanto ela morria. Layla então voltou ao Animus para se sincronizar com o restante das memórias de Cassandra. & # 915 e # 93

Destravando o Selo da Atlântida

Enquanto explorava as memórias de Kassandra, Layla encontrou um holograma do Isu Aletheia, que guiou Kassandra para segurar o Cajado até que ela pudesse entregá-lo a Layla, a quem Aletheia se referiu como o "Herdeiro das Memórias". Ao sair do Animus, Layla ouviu a voz de Aletheia vinda do Cajado, instruindo-a a identificar os três símbolos para destravar o Grande Selo para Atlântida. Layla, com a ajuda do Altair II, posteriormente localizou os símbolos nas tumbas de Agamenon, Orion e Eteokles. & # 917 e # 93

Durante todo o tempo, Bibeau expressou preocupação com o bem-estar de Layla, enquanto Aletheia avisava que alguém chamado de Interloper tentava detê-la. Percebendo que a associada de Cassandra, Fídias, conhecia o significado desses símbolos, Layla reviveu as memórias do irmão de Cassandra, Deimos, responsável pelo assassinato do escultor, apesar dos efeitos perigosos em sua mente, dos quais Bibeau foi forçada a retirá-la remotamente. & # 917 e # 93

Depois de ouvir de Aletheia que o intruso era homem, Layla logo perdeu contato com o Altair II como foi atacado pela equipe Sigma. Incerta sobre o status de sua equipe, Layla foi destravar o Selo, percebendo que as três palavras que Fídias havia repetido quando Alexios o atacou eram a senha. Posteriormente, ela ficou aliviada ao saber que sua equipe havia lutado contra a equipe Sigma. Além disso, Alannah Ryan alegou que alguém estava ouvindo suas comunicações, então o Altair II foi forçado a escurecer até que fosse seguro abrir Atlantis. & # 917 e # 93

Trials of Atlantis

Tendo desbloqueado Atlântida com sucesso, Layla entrou na sala, onde foi saudada por Aletheia e acompanhada por Victoria, que estava preocupada com o bem-estar de sua amiga. Aletheia encarregou Kassandra de entrar em simulações de reinos criados por ela para dominar o cajado. Isso era para que Layla não caísse na influência e corrupção da equipe. & # 918 e # 93

Layla com uma Victoria agonizante

Enquanto Layla continuava a reviver as memórias de Kassandra enquanto esta explorava as simulações, o comportamento de Layla tornou-se cada vez mais agressivo, o que fez Victoria puxar Layla com força para fora do Animus, citando que o Efeito de Sangramento a estava afetando. Isso culminou em Layla acidentalmente matando Victoria com o Cajado. Horrorizada com o que tinha feito, Layla foi abordada por Aletheia, que proclamou que Layla poderia não ser a verdadeira "Herdeira das Memórias", afinal, e que ela precisava de tempo para refletir. Layla refutou a declaração de Aletheia, culpando o Staff por suas ações, embora Aletheia a tenha lembrado de que ela ditou quem era o "Herdeiro" e não Layla. Layla mais tarde concordou em ir embora e refletir um pouco, pedindo a Aletheia que cuidasse de Victoria até que ela voltasse. & # 919 e # 93

Layla e Otso Berg se enfrentando

Layla posteriormente retornou à câmara, desejando terminar os julgamentos, apesar da apreensão de Aletheia. No entanto, Layla foi capaz de convencer o Isu a deixá-la voltar. Depois de reviver as memórias de Cassandra sobre o término de suas provações, Layla foi rapidamente acordada por Aletheia, que a informou que o Intruso, revelado ser Otso Berg, havia chegado. Layla foi informada pelo Templário sobre as coisas que aconteceram desde a descoberta de Heródoto por sua equipe Histórias Perdidas. Enquanto Layla tentava negociar com Berg usando o Cajado para ajudar sua filha Elina, Otso Berg a interrompeu e ameaçou entregar o Cajado. & # 9110 & # 93

Os dois se envolveram em uma luta na qual Layla derrotou Berg com o Cajado. Ela então começou a empalar as costas de Berg com o Cajado, deixando-o imóvel. Quando Berg desmaiou por causa dos ferimentos, Layla se aproximou do corpo de Victoria, tirando os fones de ouvido de sua orelha. Ao fazer isso, Layla recuperou a comunicação com Alannah e sua equipe, informando-a do que havia acontecido e solicitando que a equipe a pegasse no cofre. & # 9110 & # 93

Encontrando o Lobo Beijado

Após o incidente em Atlantis, os relacionamentos de Layla com Kiyoshi e Alannah ficaram tensos. Em maio de 2020, ela foi transferida para uma cela de assassinos com Shaun Hastings e Rebecca Crane por causa de sua experiência com Desmond Miles, quando ele teve dificuldade em controlar o efeito de sangramento. Meses depois, como o campo magnético da Terra continuou a aumentar em potência desde a ejeção de massa coronal de 2012, resultando em enormes distúrbios eletromagnéticos em todo o mundo criando uma aurora boreal em todo o mundo, a equipe recebeu uma mensagem estranha que prometia uma solução, que os levou a um túmulo viking da Nova Inglaterra na América do Norte, datado do século IX. Usando seu Animus, Layla foi capaz de reviver as memórias do guerreiro nórdico, Eivor Varinsdottir. Shaun também colocou um estabilizador de humor no pescoço de Layla, para garantir que ela não sucumbisse ao poder do Cajado novamente. & # 9111 & # 93

Depois de completar as memórias de Eivor, terminando com sua descoberta da Câmara Yggdrasil abaixo de Hordaland, Layla viajou para a Noruega. Layla se conectou ao dispositivo Yggdrasil e conseguiu desacelerar a máquina para retornar o planeta ao seu estado normal. Dentro da simulação, ela conheceu o Leitor e Basim Ibn Ishaq, sem saber liberando o último. Como resultado de estar conectada à máquina, ela deixou cair o Cajado de Hermes Trismegistus. Sem a equipe, ela foi informada pelo leitor que, se desconectasse, teria pouco mais de um minuto antes de sucumbir à radiação externa. Em parte para expiar as pessoas que havia ferido, Layla decidiu ficar com o Reader e continuar a busca por uma solução no Grey. & # 9111 & # 93


Jogabilidade

Situado em 873 CE, Valhalla os jogadores assumem o papel de Eivor, um Viking Raider e Clan Leader of the Norsemen, que pode ser jogado como homem ou mulher. O jogo retém a escolha do diálogo e os elementos de relacionamento do NPC de Assassin's Creed: Odyssey, com novos elementos, como forjar alianças políticas com clãs NPC. Cada escolha e decisão dos jogadores afeta o mundo do jogo em tempo real. Os jogadores podem viajar da costa fria da Noruega para a Inglaterra. & # 914 e # 93

Eivor é capaz de equipar uma variedade de armas, e dupla empunhar muitas delas. Eivor também pode usar uma Hidden Blade em combate, que não é usada desde Origins. & # 9116 & # 93

Eivor pode desenvolver seu próprio assentamento e construir e melhorar estruturas como lojas de tatuagem e quartéis, eles também podem recrutar novos membros para seu clã e podem treinar seu próprio exército para ataques ou outras missões. & # 914 e # 93

O jogador é capaz de construir um grupo de invasão recrutando personagens não-jogadores para ajudá-los. & # 9117 & # 93 Embora o uso de transporte naval tenha voltado, o combate naval foi desacelerado. O navio de Eivor agirá mais como um meio de transporte ao realizar incursões e para escapar após um combate terrestre, ao invés de ser usado em combate com outras embarcações navais. & # 917 & # 93 & # 9118 & # 93 Os jogadores podem participar de atividades como jogos de beber, caça ou jogos nórdicos tradicionais, como voar. & # 9119 & # 93 Um jogador é capaz de criar um mercenário Viking que pode ser recrutado por outros jogadores, agindo como um personagem não jogável nesses jogos, o jogador ganha recompensas adicionais no jogo por missões bem-sucedidas. & # 9117 & # 93


Guerreiros do passado

Uma imagem romantizada dos vikings como nobres selvagens germânicos surgiu no século 18 e se expandiu durante o renascimento viking da era vitoriana. Na Grã-Bretanha, assumiu a forma de septentrionalismo, na Alemanha, de pathos "wagneriano" ou mesmo de misticismo germânico, e nos países escandinavos, de nacionalismo romântico ou escandinavismo. Na cultura popular contemporânea, essas representações clichês costumam ser exageradas com o efeito de apresentar os vikings como caricaturas.
O navio Gokstad Viking em exibição em Oslo, Noruega. O período desde os primeiros ataques registrados na década de 790 até a Conquista Normanda da Inglaterra em 1066 é comumente conhecido como a Era Viking da história escandinava. Os normandos, no entanto, eram descendentes de vikings dinamarqueses que receberam o domínio feudal de áreas no norte da França & # 8212 o Ducado da Normandia & # 8212 no século X. Nesse aspecto, os descendentes dos vikings continuaram a ter influência no norte da Europa. Da mesma forma, o rei Harold Godwinson, o último rei anglo-saxão da Inglaterra morto durante a invasão normanda em 1066, tinha ancestrais dinamarqueses. Muitos dos reis medievais da Noruega e da Dinamarca se casaram com a realeza inglesa e escocesa e ocasionalmente se envolveram em disputas dinásticas. [Carece de fontes?]
Os motivos que impulsionam a expansão Viking são um tópico de muito debate na história nórdica. Uma teoria comum postula que a população nórdica havia superado o potencial agrícola de sua pátria escandinava. [Carece de fontes?] Para uma população costeira com tecnologias navais superiores, fazia sentido expandir para o exterior em face de um efeito de protuberância da juventude. No entanto, essa teoria pouco explica por que a expansão foi além-mar, em vez de nas vastas áreas de floresta não cultivada no interior da Península Escandinava. Deve-se notar que os ataques marítimos eram mais fáceis do que limpar grandes áreas de floresta para fazendas e pastagens em uma região com uma estação de crescimento limitada. Nenhum aumento populacional ou declínio na produção agrícola foi definitivamente comprovado.
Na Inglaterra, a Era Viking começou dramaticamente em 8 de junho de 793, quando os nórdicos destruíram a abadia na ilha de Lindisfarne. A devastação da Ilha Sagrada da Nortúmbria chocou e alertou as cortes reais da Europa sobre a presença viking. "Nunca antes tal atrocidade foi vista", declarou o estudioso da Nortúmbria, Alcuin de York. [Carece de fontes?] Mais do que qualquer outro evento isolado, o ataque a Lindisfarne demonizou a percepção dos vikings pelos próximos doze séculos. Foi só na década de 1890 que estudiosos de fora da Escandinávia começaram a reavaliar seriamente as conquistas dos vikings, reconhecendo sua arte, habilidades tecnológicas e habilidade náutica.


Um gigante viking dá as boas-vindas aos visitantes da cidade de Dannevirke, na Nova Zelândia, fundada por colonos escandinavos do século XIX. Liderada pelas óperas do compositor alemão Richard Wagner, como Der Ring des Nibelungen, Vikings e o Romantismo Viking Revival inspirou muitas obras criativas.


VÍDEO EVIDÊNCIA

NINJA

Um ninja ou shinobi era um agente secreto ou mercenário do Japão feudal especializado em artes de guerra não ortodoxas. As funções do ninja incluíam espionagem, sabotagem, infiltração e assassinato, bem como combate aberto em certas situações. O ninja, com suas táticas dissimuladas, foi contrastado com o samurai, que teve o cuidado de não manchar sua imagem respeitável.

Em seu Buke Myōmokushō, o historiador militar Hanawa Hokinoichi escreve sobre o ninja:

& # 8220 Eles viajavam disfarçados para outros territórios para julgar a situação do inimigo, eles se infiltravam no meio do inimigo para descobrir brechas, e entravam em castelos inimigos para colocá-los em chamas, e executavam assassinatos, chegando em segredo. & # 8221

A origem do ninja é obscura e difícil de determinar, mas pode-se supor que seja por volta do século XIV. Existem poucos registros escritos para detalhar as atividades do ninja. A palavra shinobi não existia para descrever um agente parecido com o ninja até o século 15, e é improvável que espiões e mercenários anteriores a essa época fossem vistos como um grupo especializado. Na agitação do período Sengoku (séculos 15 - 17), mercenários e espiões de aluguel surgiram das regiões Iga e Kōga do Japão, e é desses clãs que muito do conhecimento posterior sobre o ninja é inferido. Após a unificação do Japão sob o shogunato Tokugawa, o ninja desceu novamente para a obscuridade. No entanto, nos séculos 17 e 18, manuais como o Bansenshukai (1676) & # 8212 muitas vezes centrados na filosofia militar chinesa & # 8212 apareceram em números significativos. Esses escritos revelaram uma variedade de filosofias, crenças religiosas, sua aplicação na guerra, bem como as técnicas de espionagem que formam a base da arte do ninja. A palavra ninjutsu viria a descrever uma ampla variedade de práticas relacionadas ao ninja.

A natureza misteriosa do ninja há muito tempo cativou a imaginação popular no Japão e, posteriormente, no resto do mundo. Os ninjas têm uma figura proeminente no folclore e nas lendas e, como resultado, muitas vezes é difícil separar fatos históricos de mitos. Algumas habilidades lendárias incluem invisibilidade, andar sobre a água e controle sobre os elementos naturais. O ninja também prevalece na cultura popular, aparecendo em muitas formas de mídia de entretenimento.

Um ninja ou shinobi era um agente secreto ou mercenário do Japão feudal especializado em artes de guerra não ortodoxas. As funções do ninja incluíam espionagem, sabotagem, infiltração e assassinato, bem como combate aberto em certas situações. O ninja, com suas táticas dissimuladas, foi contrastado com o samurai, que teve o cuidado de não manchar sua imagem respeitável.

Em seu Buke Myōmokushō, o historiador militar Hanawa Hokinoichi escreve sobre o ninja:

& # 8220 Eles viajavam disfarçados para outros territórios para julgar a situação do inimigo, eles se infiltravam no meio do inimigo para descobrir brechas, e entravam em castelos inimigos para colocá-los em chamas, e executavam assassinatos, chegando em segredo. & # 8221

A origem do ninja é obscura e difícil de determinar, mas pode-se supor que seja por volta do século XIV. Existem poucos registros escritos para detalhar as atividades do ninja. A palavra shinobi não existia para descrever um agente parecido com o ninja até o século 15, e é improvável que espiões e mercenários anteriores a essa época fossem vistos como um grupo especializado. Na agitação do período Sengoku (séculos 15 - 17), mercenários e espiões de aluguel surgiram das regiões Iga e Kōga do Japão, e é desses clãs que muito do conhecimento posterior sobre o ninja é inferido. Após a unificação do Japão sob o shogunato Tokugawa, o ninja desceu novamente para a obscuridade. No entanto, nos séculos 17 e 18, manuais como o Bansenshukai (1676) & # 8212 muitas vezes centrados na filosofia militar chinesa & # 8212 apareceram em números significativos. Esses escritos revelaram uma variedade de filosofias, crenças religiosas, sua aplicação na guerra, bem como as técnicas de espionagem que formam a base da arte do ninja. A palavra ninjutsu viria a descrever uma ampla variedade de práticas relacionadas ao ninja.

A natureza misteriosa do ninja há muito tempo cativou a imaginação popular no Japão e, posteriormente, no resto do mundo. Os ninjas têm uma figura proeminente no folclore e nas lendas e, como resultado, muitas vezes é difícil separar fatos históricos de mitos. Algumas habilidades lendárias incluem invisibilidade, andar sobre a água e controle sobre os elementos naturais. O ninja também prevalece na cultura popular, aparecendo em muitas formas de mídia de entretenimento.

A palavra "ninja" em kanji scriptNinja é a leitura on'yomi dos dois kanji. Na leitura kun'yomi nativa, é lido shinobi, uma forma abreviada da transcrição mais longa shinobi-no-mono. O termo shinobi foi rastreado desde o final do século 8 a poemas no Man'yōshū. A conotação subjacente de shinobi significa "roubar" e & # 8212 por extensão & # 8212 "tolerar", daí sua associação com furtividade e invisibilidade. Mono significa "uma pessoa".

Historicamente, a palavra ninja não era de uso comum, e uma variedade de coloquialismos regionais evoluiu para descrever o que mais tarde seria apelidado de ninjas. Junto com shinobi, alguns exemplos incluem monomi ("aquele que vê"), nokizaru ("macaco no telhado"), rappa ("rufião"), kusa ("grama") e Iga-mono ("um de Iga") . Em documentos históricos, shinobi quase sempre é usado.

Kunoichi, que significa uma ninja feminina, supostamente veio dos personagens (pronuncia-se ku, no e ichi), que compõem os três traços que formam o kanji para "mulher".

No Ocidente, a palavra ninja se tornou mais prevalente do que shinobi na cultura pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial, possivelmente porque era mais confortável para falantes do Ocidente. Em inglês, o plural de ninja pode ser inalterado como ninja, refletindo a falta de número gramatical do idioma japonês, ou o plural regular de ninjas em inglês.

História
Apesar de muitos contos populares, relatos históricos sobre o ninja são escassos. O historiador Stephen Turnbull afirma que os ninjas foram recrutados principalmente na classe baixa e, portanto, pouco interesse literário foi despertado por eles. Em vez disso, épicos de guerra como o Conto de Hōgen (Hōgen Monogatari) e o Conto do Heike (Heike Monogatari) se concentram principalmente no samurai aristocrático, cujos feitos aparentemente eram mais atraentes para o público. O historiador Kiyoshi Watatani afirma que os ninjas foram treinados para serem particularmente reservados sobre suas ações e existência:

"As chamadas técnicas de ninjutsu, em suma, são as habilidades de shinobi-no-jutsu e shinobijutsu, que têm como objetivo garantir que o oponente não saiba de sua existência, e para as quais houve um treinamento especial."
Origens

Yamato Takeru se vestiu como uma serva, preparando-se para matar os líderes Kumaso. Impressão em xilogravura em papel. Yoshitoshi, 1886. A origem do ninja é baseada nos espiões e assassinos que existiram ao longo da história japonesa. O título de ninja foi algumas vezes atribuído ao semi-lendário príncipe Yamato Takeru do século IV. No Kojiki, o jovem Yamato Takeru se disfarçou como uma encantadora donzela e assassinou dois chefes do povo Kumaso. No entanto, esses registros ocorrem em um estágio muito inicial da história japonesa, e é improvável que estejam relacionados aos shinobi de relatos posteriores.

O primeiro uso registrado de espionagem foi sob o emprego do Príncipe Shōtoku no século 6. Essas táticas foram consideradas desagradáveis ​​mesmo nos primeiros tempos, quando, de acordo com o Shōmonki do século 10, o menino espião Koharumaru foi morto por espionar contra o insurgente Taira no Masakado. Mais tarde, a crônica de guerra do século 14, Taiheiki, continha muitas referências aos shinobi, e creditava a destruição de um castelo pelo fogo a um não identificado, mas "shinobi altamente habilidoso". [

No entanto, não foi até o século 15 que os espiões foram especialmente treinados para esse propósito. Foi nessa época que a palavra shinobi apareceu para definir e identificar claramente os ninjas como um grupo secreto de agentes. A evidência disso pode ser vista em documentos históricos, que começaram a se referir aos soldados furtivos como shinobi durante o período Sengoku. Manuais posteriores sobre espionagem são freqüentemente baseados na estratégia militar chinesa, citando obras como A Arte da Guerra (Sunzi Bingfa), de Sun Tzu.
Desenvolvimento
Os ninjas emergiram como mercenários no século 15, onde foram recrutados como espiões, invasores, incendiários e até terroristas. Entre os samurais, um senso de ritual e decoro era observado, onde se esperava que alguém lutasse ou duelasse abertamente. Combinados com a agitação da era Sengoku, esses fatores criaram uma demanda por homens dispostos a cometer atos considerados não respeitáveis ​​para guerreiros convencionais. No período Sengoku, o shinobi tinha vários papéis, incluindo espião (kanchō), batedor (teisatsu), atacante surpresa (kisho) e agitador (Corão). As famílias ninja foram organizadas em guildas maiores, cada uma com seus próprios territórios. Existia um sistema de classificação. Um jōnin ("homem superior") era o posto mais alto, representando o grupo e contratando mercenários. Isso é seguido pelo chūnin ("intermediário"), assistentes do jōnin. Na parte inferior estava o genin ("homem inferior"), agentes de campo retirados da classe inferior e designados para realizar missões reais.

As planícies de Iga, aninhadas em montanhas isoladas, deram origem a aldeias especializadas no treinamento de ninjas. Os clãs Iga e Kōga passaram a descrever famílias que viviam na província de Iga (atual província de Mie) e na região adjacente de Kōka (mais tarde escrito como Kōga), em homenagem a um vilarejo onde hoje é a província de Shiga. Destas regiões, aldeias dedicadas ao treinamento de ninjas apareceram pela primeira vez. O afastamento e a inacessibilidade das montanhas circundantes podem ter tido um papel no desenvolvimento secreto do ninja. Documentos históricos sobre as origens dos ninjas nessas regiões montanhosas são considerados geralmente corretos. A crônica Go Kagami Furoku escreve, sobre as origens dos dois clãs:

"Havia um retentor da família de Kawai Aki-no-kami de Iga, de habilidade proeminente em shinobi e, conseqüentemente, por gerações o nome de pessoas de Iga se estabeleceu. Outra tradição cresceu em Kōga".
Da mesma forma, um suplemento ao Nochi Kagami, um registro do shogunato Ashikaga, confirma a mesma origem Iga:

"Dentro do acampamento em Magari do Shogun [Ashikaga] Yoshihisa, havia shinobi cujos nomes eram famosos em todo o país. Quando Yoshihisa atacou Rokkaku Takayori, a família de Kawai Aki-no-kami de Iga, que o servia em Magari, ganhou considerável mérito como shinobi à frente do grande exército do Shogun. Desde então, sucessivas gerações de homens Iga foram admiradas. Esta é a origem da fama dos homens de Iga. "
Uma distinção deve ser feita entre o ninja dessas áreas e os plebeus ou samurais contratados como espiões ou mercenários. Ao contrário de seus colegas, os clãs Iga e Kōga produziram ninjas profissionais, especificamente treinados para seus papéis. Esses ninjas profissionais foram ativamente contratados por daimyos entre 1485 e 1581, até que Oda Nobunaga invadiu a província de Iga e exterminou os clãs organizados. Os sobreviventes foram forçados a fugir, alguns para as montanhas de Kii, mas outros chegaram antes de Tokugawa Ieyasu, onde foram bem tratados. Alguns ex-membros do clã Iga, incluindo Hattori Hanzō, serviriam mais tarde como guarda-costas de Tokugawa.

Após a Batalha de Okehazama em 1560, Tokugawa empregou um grupo de oitenta ninjas Kōga, liderados por Tomo Sukesada. Eles foram encarregados de invadir um posto avançado do clã Imagawa. The account of this assault is given in the Mikawa Go Fudoki, where it was written that Kōga ninja infiltrated the castle, set fire to its towers, and killed the castellan along with two hundred of the garrison. The Kōga ninjas are said to have played a role in the later Battle of Sekigahara (1600), where several hundred Kōga assisted soldiers under Torii Mototada in the defence of Fushimi Castle. After Tokugawa's victory at Sekigahara, the Iga acted as guards for the inner compounds of Edo Castle, while the Kōga acted as a police force and assisted in guarding the outer gate. In 1614, the initial "winter campaign" at the Siege of Osaka saw the ninja in use once again. Miura Yoemon, a ninja in Tokugawa's service, recruited shinobi from the Iga region, and sent ten ninjas into Osaka Castle in an effort to foster antagonism between enemy commanders. During the later "summer campaign", these hired ninjas fought alongside regular troops at the Battle of Tennōji.
Shimabara rebellion
A final but detailed record of ninjas employed in open warfare occurred during the Shimabara Rebellion (1637�). The Kōga ninja were recruited by shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu against Christian rebels led by Amakusa Shirō, who made a final stand at Hara Castle, in Hizen Province. A diary kept by a member of the Matsudaira clan, the Amakusa Gunki, relates: "Men from Kōga in Omi Province who concealed their appearance would steal up to the castle every night and go inside as they pleased."

The Ukai diary, written by a descendant of Ukai Kanemon, has several entries describing the reconnaissance actions taken by the Kōga.

"They [the Kōga] were ordered to reconnoitre the plan of construction of Hara Castle, and surveyed the distance from the defensive moat to the ni-no-maru (second bailey), the depth of the moat, the conditions of roads, the height of the wall, and the shape of the loopholes." — Entry: 6th day of the 1st month

The ruins of Hara castle.Suspecting that the castle's supplies may be running low, the siege commander Matsudaira Nobutsuna ordered a raid on the castle's provisions. Here, the Kōga captured bags of enemy provisions, and infiltrated the castle by night, obtaining secret passwords. Days later, Nobutsuna ordered an intelligence gathering mission to determine the castle's supplies. Several Kōga ninja — some apparently descended from those involved in the 1562 assault on an Imagawa clan castle — volunteered despite being warned that chances of survival were slim. A volley of shots were fired into the sky, causing the defenders to extinguish the castle lights in preparation. Under the cloak of darkness, ninja disguised as defenders infiltrated the castle, capturing a banner of the Christian cross. The Ukai diary writes,

"We dispersed spies who were prepared to die inside Hara castle. . those who went on the reconnaissance in force captured an enemy flag both Arakawa Shichirobei and Mochizuki Yo'emon met extreme resistance and suffered from their serious wounds for forty days." — Entry: 27th day of the 1st month
As the siege went on, the extreme shortage of food later reduced the defenders to eating moss and grass. This desperation would mount to futile charges by the rebels, where they were eventually defeated by the shogunate army. The Kōga would later take part in conquering the castle:

"More and more general raids were begun, the Kōga ninja band under the direct control of Matsudaira Nobutsuna captured the ni-no-maru and the san-no-maru (outer bailey). " — Entry: 24th day of the 2nd month
With the fall of Hara Castle, the Shimbara Rebellion came to an end, and Christianity in Japan was forced underground. These written accounts are the last mention of ninjas in war.

Oniwaban
In the early 18th century, shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune founded the oniwaban, an intelligence agency and secret service. Members of this office, the oniwabanshū ("garden keeper"), were agents involved in collecting information on daimyos and government officials. The secretive nature of the oniwaban — along with the earlier tradition of using Iga and Kōga clan members as palace guards — have lead some sources to define the oniwabanshū as "ninjas". This portrayal is also common in later novels and jidaigeki. However, there is no written link between the earlier shinobi and the later oniwabanshū.

A page from the Shōninki (1681), detailing a list of possible disguises.The ninja were stealth soldiers and mercenaries hired mostly by daimyos. Their primary roles were those of espionage and sabotage, although assassinations were also attributed to ninjas. In battle, the ninja could also be used to cause confusion amongst the enemy. A degree of psychological warfare in the capturing of enemy banners can be seen illustrated in the Ōu Eikei Gunki, composed between the 16th and 17th centuries:

"Within Hataya castle there was a glorious shinobi whose skill was renowned, and one night he entered the enemy camp secretly. He took the flag from Naoe Kanetsugu's guard . and returned and stood it on a high place on the front gate of the castle."
Espionage
Espionage was the chief role of the ninja. With the aid of disguises, the ninja gathered information on enemy terrain, building specifications, as well as obtaining passwords and communiques. The aforementioned supplement to the Nochi Kagami briefly describes the ninja's role in espionage:

"Concerning ninja, they were said to be from Iga and Kōga, and went freely into enemy castles in secret. They observed hidden things, and were taken as being friends"
Later in history, the Kōga ninja would become regarded as agents of the Tokugawa bakufu, at a time when the bakufu used the ninjas in an intelligence network to monitor regional daimyos as well as the Imperial court.

Sabotage
Arson was the primary form of sabotage practiced by the ninja, who targeted castles and camps.

The 16th century diary of abbot Eishun (Tamon-in Nikki) at Tamon-in monastery in Kōfuku-ji describes an arson attack on a castle by men of the Iga clans.

"This morning, the sixth day of the 11th month of Tembun 10, the Iga-shu entered Kasagi castle in secret and set fire to a few of the priests' quarters. They also set fire to outbuildings in various places inside the San-no-maru. They captured the Ichi-no-maru (inner bailey) and the Ni-no-maru."
—Entry: 26th day of the 11th month of the 10th Year of Tenbun (1541)
In 1558, Rokkaku Yoshitaka employed a team of ninja to set fire to Sawayama Castle. A chunin captain led a force of forty-eight ninja into the castle by means of deception. In a technique dubbed bakemono-jutsu ("ghost technique"), his men stole a lantern bearing the enemy's family crest (mon), and proceeded to make replicas with the same mon. By wielding these lanterns, they were allowed to enter the castle without a fight. Once inside, the ninjas set fire to the castle, and Yoshitaka's army would later emerge victorious. The mercenary nature of the shinobi is demonstrated in another arson attack soon after the burning of Sawayama Castle. In 1561, commanders acting under Kizawa Nagamasa hired three Iga ninja of genin rank to assist the conquest of a fortress in Maibara. Rokakku Yoshitaka, the same man who had hired Iga ninja just years earlier, was the fortress holder — and target of attack. The Asai Sandaiki writes of their plans: "We employed shinobi-no-mono of Iga. . They were contracted to set fire to the castle". However, the mercenary shinobi were unwilling to take commands. When the fire attack did not begin as scheduled, the Iga men told the commanders, who were not from the region, that they could not possibly understand the tactics of the shinobi. They then threatened to abandon the operation if they were not allowed to act on their own strategy. The fire was eventually set, allowing Nagamasa's army to capture the fortress in a chaotic rush.

Assassination
The most well-known cases of assassination attempts involve famous historical figures. Deaths of famous persons have sometimes been attributed to assassination by ninjas, but the secretive nature of these scenarios have been difficult to prove. Assassins were often identified as ninjas later on, but there is no evidence to prove whether some were specially trained for the task or simply a hired mercenary.


Portrait of Oda Nobunaga, by Jesuit painter Giovanni Niccolo, 1583-1590.The warlord Oda Nobunaga's notorious reputation led to several attempts on his life. In 1571, a Kōga ninja and sharpshooter by the name of Sugitani Zenjubō was hired to assassinate Nobunaga. Using two arquebuses, he fired two consecutive shots at Nobunaga, but was unable to inflict mortal injury through Nobunaga's armor. Sugitani managed to escape, but was caught four years later and put to death by torture. In 1573, Manabe Rokurō, a vassal of daimyo Hatano Hideharu, attempted to infiltrate Azuchi Castle and assassinate a sleeping Nobunaga. However, this also ended in failure, and Manabe was forced to commit suicide, after which his body was openly displayed in public. According to a document, the Iranki, when Nobunaga was inspecting Iga province — which his army had devastated — a group of three ninjas shot at him with large-caliber firearms. The shots flew wide of Nobunaga, however, and instead killed seven of his surrounding companions.

The ninja Hachisuka Tenzō was sent by Nobunaga to assassinate the powerful daimyo Takeda Shingen, but ultimately failed in his attempts. Hiding in the shadow of a tree, he avoided being seen under the moonlight, and later concealed himself in a hole he had prepared beforehand, thus escaping capture.

An assassination attempt on Toyotomi Hideyoshi was also thwarted. A ninja named Kirigakure Saizō (possibly Kirigakure Shikaemon) thrust a spear through the floorboards to kill Hideyoshi, but was unsuccessful. He was "smoked out" of his hiding place by another ninja working for Hideyoshi, who apparently used a sort of primitive "flamethrower". Unfortunately, the veracity of this account has been clouded by later fictional publications depicting Saizō as one of the legendary Sanada Ten Braves.

Uesugi Kenshin, the famous daimyo of Echigo province was rumored to have been killed by a ninja. The legend credits his death to an assassin, who is said to have hid in Kenshin's lavatory, and gravely injured Kenshin by thrusting a blade or spear into his anus. While historical records showed that Kenshin suffered abdominal problems, modern historians have usually attributed his death to stomach cancer, esophageal cancer or cerebrovascular disease.

Countermeasures
A variety of countermeasures were taken to prevent the activities of the ninja. Precautions were often taken against assassinations, such as weapons concealed in the lavatory, or under a removable floorboard. Buildings were constructed with traps and trip wires attached to alarm bells.

Japanese castles were designed to be difficult to navigate, with winding routes leading to the inner compound. Blind spots and holes in walls provided constant surveillance of these labyrinthine paths, as exemplified in Himeji Castle. Nijō Castle in Kyoto is constructed with long "nightingale" floors, which rested on metal hinges (uguisu-bari) specifically designed to squeak loudly when walked over.Grounds covered with gravel also provided early notice of unwanted intruders, and segregated buildings allowed fires to be better contained.

Training
See also: Ninjutsu
The skills required of the ninja has come to be known in modern times as ninjutsu, but it is unlikely they were previously named under a single discipline. Modern misconceptions have identified ninjutsu as a form of combat art, but historically, ninjutsu largely covered espionage and survival skills. Some lineage styles (ryūha) of ninjutsu such as Togakure-ryū were known in the past.


This diagram from the Bansenshukai uses divination and esoteric cosmology (onmyōdō) to instruct on the ideal time for taking certain actions.The first specialized training began in the mid-15th century, when certain samurai families started to focus on covert warfare, including espionage and assassination. Like the samurai, ninja were born into the profession, where traditions were kept in, and passed down through the family. According to Turnbull, the ninja was trained from childhood, as was also common in samurai families. Outside the expected martial art disciplines, a youth studied survival and scouting techniques, as well as information regarding poisons and explosives. Physical training was also important, which involved long distance runs, climbing, stealth methods of walking and swimming. A certain degree of knowledge regarding common professions was also required if one was expected to take their form in disguise. Some evidence of medical training can be derived from one account, where an Iga ninja provided first-aid to Ii Naomasa, who was injured by gunfire in the Battle of Sekigahara. Here the ninja reportedly gave Naomasa a "black medicine" meant to stop bleeding.

With the fall of the Iga and Kōga clans, daimyos could no longer recruit professional ninjas, and were forced to train their own shinobi. The shinobi was considered a real profession, as demonstrated in the bakufu's 1649 law on military service, which declared that only daimyos with an income of over 10,000 koku were allowed to retain shinobi. In the two centuries that followed, a number of ninjutsu manuals were written by descendants of Hattori Hanzō as well as members of the Fujibayashi clan, an offshoot of the Hattori. Major examples include the Ninpiden (1655), the Bansenshukai (1675), and the Shōninki (1681).

Some practitioners of modern ninjutsu include Stephen K. Hayes and Masaaki Hatsumi, who is the head (sōke) of Bujinkan, a martial arts organization based in Japan. However, the link between modern interpretations of ninjutsu and historical practices is a matter of debate.

Táticas
The ninja did not always work alone. Teamwork techniques exist: for example, in order to scale a wall, a group of ninja may carry each other on their backs, or provide a human platform to assist an individual in reaching greater heights. The Mikawa Go Fudoki gives an account where a coordinated team of attackers used passwords to communicate. The account also gives a case of deception, where the attackers dressed in the same clothes as the defenders, causing much confusion. When a retreat was needed during the Siege of Osaka, ninja were commanded to fire upon friendly troops from behind, causing the troops to charge backwards in order to attack a perceived enemy. This tactic was used again later on as a method of crowd dispersal.

Most ninjutsu techniques recorded in scrolls and manuals revolve around ways to avoid detection, and methods of escape.These techniques were loosely grouped under corresponding natural elements. Some examples are:

Hitsuke - The practice of distracting guards by starting a fire away from the ninja's planned point of entry. Falls under "fire techniques" (katon-no-jutsu).
Tanuki-gakure - The practice of climbing a tree and camouflaging oneself within the foliage. Falls under "wood techniques" (mokuton-no-jutsu).
Ukigusa-gakure - The practice of throwing duckweed over water in order to conceal underwater movement. Falls under "water techniques" (suiton-no-jutsu).Uzura-gakure - The practice of curling into a ball and remaining motionless in order to appear like a stone. Falls under "earth techniques" (doton-no-jutsu).
A komusō monk is one of many possible disguises.Disguises
The use of disguises is common and well documented. Disguises came in the form of priests, entertainers, fortune tellers, merchants, rōnin, and monks. The Buke Myōmokushō states,

Shinobi-monomi were people used in secret ways, and their duties were to go into the mountains and disguise themselves as firewood gatherers to discover and acquire the news about an enemy's territory . they were particularly expert at travelling in disguise.
mountain ascetic (yamabushi) attire facilitated travel, as they were common and could travel freely between political boundaries. The loose robes of Buddhist priests also allowed concealed weapons, such as the tantō. Minstrel or sarugaku outfits could have allowed the ninja to spy in enemy buildings without rousing suspicion. Disguises as a komusō, a mendicant monk known for playing the shakuhachi, were also effective, as the large "basket" hats traditionally worn by them concealed the head completely.


Equipamento
Ninjas utilized a large variety of tools and weaponry, some of which were commonly known, but others were more specialized. Most were tools used in the infiltration of castles. A wide range of specialized equipment is described and illustrated in the 17th century Bansenshukai, including climbing equipment, extending spears, rocket-propelled arrows, and small collapsible boats.

A suit of armor purportedly worn by ninjasWhile the image of a ninja clad in black garbs (shinobi shōzoku) is prevalent in popular media, there is no written evidence for such a costume. Instead, it was much more common for the ninja to be disguised as civilians. The popular notion of black clothing is likely rooted in artistic convention. Early drawings of ninjas were shown to be dressed in black in order to portray a sense of invisibility. This convention was an idea borrowed from the puppet handlers of bunraku theater, who dressed in total black in an effort to simulate props moving independently of their controls. Despite the lack of hard evidence, it has been put forward by some authorities that black robes, perhaps slightly tainted with red to hide bloodstains, was indeed the sensible garment of choice for infiltration.

Clothing used was similar to that of the samurai, but loose garments (such as leggings) were tucked into trousers or secured with belts. The tenugui, a piece of cloth also used in martial arts, had many functions. It could be used to cover the face, form a belt, or assist in climbing.

The historicity of armor specifically made for ninjas cannot be ascertained. While pieces of light armor purportedly worn by ninjas exist and date to the right time, there is no hard evidence of their use in ninja operations. Depictions of famous persons later deemed ninjas often show them in samurai armor. Existing examples of purported ninja armor feature lamellar or ring mail, and were designed to be worn under the regular garb. Shin and arm guards, along with metal-reinforced hoods are also speculated to make up the ninja's armor.

A page from the Ninpiden, showing a tool for breaking locks.Tools used for infiltration and espionage are some of the most abundant artifacts related to the ninja. Ropes and grappling hooks were common, and were tied to the belt. A collapsible ladder is illustrated in the Bansenshukai, featuring spikes at both ends to anchor the ladder. Spiked or hooked climbing gear worn on the hands and feet also doubled as weapons. Other implements include chisels, hammers, drills, picks and so forth.

The kunai was a heavy pointed tool, possibly derived from the Japanese masonry trowel, to which it closely resembles. Although it is often portrayed in popular culture as a weapon, the kunai was primarily used for gouging holes in walls. Knives and small saws (hamagari) were also used to create holes in buildings, where they served as a foothold or a passage of entry. A portable listening device (saoto hikigane) was used to eavesdrop on conversations and detect sounds.
The mizugumo was a set of wooden shoes supposedly allowing the ninja to walk on water. They were meant to work by distributing the wearer's weight over the shoes' wide bottom surface. The word mizugumo is derived from the native name for the Japanese water spider (Argyroneta aquatica japonica). The mizugumo was featured on the show Mythbusters, where it was demonstrated unfit for walking on water. The ukidari, a similar footwear for walking on water, also existed in the form of a round bucket, but was probably quite unstable. Inflatable skins and breathing tubes allowed the ninja stay underwater for longer periods of time.

Despite the large array of tools available to the ninja, the Bansenshukai warns one not to be overburdened with equipment, stating ". a successful ninja is one who uses but one tool for multiple tasks".

Weaponry
Although shorter swords and daggers were used, the katana was probably the ninja's weapon of choice, and was sometimes carried on the back. The katana had several uses beyond normal combat. In dark places, the scabbard could be extended out of the sword, and used as a long probing device. The sword could also be laid against the wall, where the ninja could use the sword guard (tsuba) to gain an higher foothold. While straightswords were used before the invention of the katana, the straight ninjatō has no historical precedent and is likely a modern invention.


A pair of kusarigama, on display in Iwakuni Castle.An array of darts, spikes, knives, and sharp, star-shaped discs were known collectively as shuriken. While not exclusive to the ninja, they were an important part of the arsenal, where they could be thrown in any direction. Bow were used for sharpshooting, and some ninjas bows were intentionally made smaller than the traditional yumi (longbow). The chain and sickle (kusarigama) was also used by the ninja. This weapon consisted of a weight on one end of a chain, and a sickle (kama) on the other. The weight was swung to injure or disable an opponent, and the sickle used to kill at close range.

Explosives introduced from China were known in Japan by the time of the Mongol Invasions (13th century). Later, explosives such as hand-held bombs and grenades were adopted by the ninja. Soft-cased bombs were designed to release smoke or poison gas, along with fragmentation explosives packed with iron or pottery shrapnel.

Along with common weapons, a large assortment of miscellaneous arms were associated with the ninja. Some examples include poison, caltrops,cane swords (shikomizue), land mines, blowguns, poisoned darts, acid-spurting tubes, and firearms. The happō, a small eggshell filled with blinding powder (metsubushi), was also used to facilitate escape.

Legendary abilities
Superhuman or supernatural powers were often associated with the ninja. Some legends include flight, invisibility, shapeshifting, the ability to "split" into multiple bodies, the summoning of animals, and control over the five classical elements. These fabulous notions have stemmed from popular imagination regarding the ninja's mysterious status, as well as romantic ideas found in later Japanese arts of the Edo period. Magical powers were sometimes rooted in the ninja's own efforts to disseminate fanciful information. For example, Nakagawa Shoshujin, the 17th century founder of Nakagawa-ryū, claimed in his own writings (Okufuji Monogatari) that he had the ability to transform into birds and animals.

Perceived control over the elements may be grounded in real tactics, which were categorized by association with forces of nature. For example, the practice of starting fires in order to cover a ninja's trail falls under katon-no-jutsu ("fire techniques").


Actor portraying Nikki Danjō, a villain from the kabuki play Sendai Hagi. Shown with hands in a kuji-in seal, which allows him to transform into a giant rat. Woodblock print on paper. Kunisada, 1857.The ninja's adaption of kites in espionage and warfare is another subject of legends. Accounts exist of ninjas being lifted into the air by kites, where they flew over hostile terrain and descended into, or dropped bombs on enemy territory. Kites were indeed used in Japanese warfare, but mostly for the purpose of sending messages and relaying signals. Turnbull suggests that kites lifting a man into midair might have been technically feasible, but states that the use of kites to form a human "hang glider" falls squarely in the realm of fantasy.

Kuji-kiri
Kuji-kiri is an esoteric practice which, when performed with an array of hand "seals" (kuji-in), was meant to allow the ninja to enact superhuman feats.

The kuji ("nine characters") is a concept originating from Taoism, where it was a string of nine words used in charms and incantations.In China, this tradition mixed with Buddhist beliefs, assigning each of the nine words to a Buddhist deity. The kuji may have arrived in Japan via Buddhism, where it flourished within Shugendō. Here too, each word in the kuji was associated with Buddhist deities, animals from Taoist mythology, and later, Shinto kami. The mudrā, a series of hand symbols representing different Buddhas, was applied to the kuji by Buddhists, possibly through the esoteric Mikkyō teachings. The yamabushi ascetics of Shugendō adopted this practice, using the hand gestures in spiritual, healing, and exorcism rituals. Later, the use of kuji passed onto certain bujutsu (martial arts) and ninjutsu schools, where it was said to have many purposes. The application of kuji to produce a desired effect was called "cutting" (kiri) the kuji. Intended effects range from physical and mental concentration, to more incredible claims about rendering an opponent immobile, or even the casting of magical spells. These legends were captured in popular culture, which interpreted the kuji-kiri as a precursor to magical acts.

Famous people
Many famous people in Japanese history have been associated or identified as ninjas, but their status as ninja are difficult to prove and may be the product of later imagination. Rumors surrounding famous warriors, such as Kusunoki Masashige or Minamoto no Yoshitsune sometimes describe them as ninjas, but there is little evidence for these claims. Some well known examples include:


Kumawakamaru escapes his pursuers by swinging across the moat on a bamboo. Woodblock print on paper. Kuniyoshi, 1842-1843.Mochizuki Chiyome (16th cent.) - The wife of Mochizuke Moritoki. Chiyome created a school for girls, which taught skills required of geisha, as well as espionage skills.
Fujibayashi Nagato (16th cent.) - Considered to be one of three "greatest" Iga jōnin, the other two being Hattori Hanzō and Momochi Sandayū. Fujibayashi's descendents wrote and edited the Bansenshukai.
Fūma Kotarō (d. 1603) - A ninja rumored to have killed Hattori Hanzō, with whom he was supposedly rivals. The fictional weapon Fūma shuriken is named after him.
Hattori Hanzō (1542-1596) - A samurai serving under Tokugawa Ieyasu. His ancestry in Iga province, along with ninjutsu manuals published by his descendants have led some sources to define him as a ninja. This depiction is also common in popular culture.
Ishikawa Goemon (1558-1594) - Goemon reputedly tried to drip poison from a thread into Oda Nobunaga's mouth through a hiding spot in the ceiling, but many fanciful tales exist about Goemon, and this story cannot be confirmed.
Kumawakamaru (13th-14th cent.) - A youth whose exiled father was ordered to death by the monk Homma Saburō. Kumakawa took his revenge by sneaking into Homma's room while he was asleep, and assassinating Homma with his own sword.
Momochi Sandayū (16th cent.) - A leader of the Iga ninja clans, who supposedly perished during Oda Nobunaga's attack on Iga province. There is some belief that he escaped death and lived as a farmer in Kii Province. Momochi is also a branch of the Hattori clan.
Yagyū Muneyoshi (1529-1606) - A renown swordsman of the Shinkage-ryū school. Muneyoshi's grandson, Jubei Muneyoshi, told tales of his grandfather's status as a ninja.
In popular culture

Jiraiya battles a giant snake with the help of his summoned toad. Woodblock print on paper. Kuniyoshi, c. 1843.Main article: Ninja in popular culture
The image of the ninja entered popular culture in the Edo period, when folktales and plays about ninjas were conceived. Stories about the ninja are usually based around historical figures. For instance, many similar tales exist about a daimyo challenging a ninja to prove his worth, usually by stealing his pillow or weapon while he slept. Novels were written about the ninja, such as Jiraiya Gōketsu Monogatari, which was also made into a kabuki play. Fictional figures such as Sarutobi Sasuke would eventually make way into comics and television, where they have come to enjoy a culture hero status outside of their original mediums.

Ninja appear in many forms of Japanese and Western popular media, including books (Kōga Ninpōchō), television (Ninja Warrior), movies (Ninja Assassin), Satire (REAL Ultimate Power: The Official Ninja Book) video games (Tenchu), anime (Naruto), manga (Basilisk) and Western comic books (Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles). Depictions range from realistic to the fantastically exaggerated, both fundamentally and aesthetically, and often portray ninja in non-factual ways for humor or entertainment.


Ships

Leif Ericson Viking Ship The Leif Ericson Viking Ship site is run by a group whose main purpose is to educate the world that Leif Ericson was the first European to set foot upon and explore the North American Continent. The site also has a useful Viking FAQ, and much information about Viking ships. They even build and sail their own longships. Nice.

Stigombord A Danish site (also in English) on the reconstruction of Viking ships, with videos, animations, and 3D models.

Viking Ship Museum Part of a larger site on a Viking ship museum in Denmark. This section is about a reconstructed ship, the Sea Stallion, and its voyages in 2008 and 2007, including logbook details and diaries. The site also contains a clear, accurate history and top-notch geographical details about the Vikings and their expansion.

The Viking Sunstone A small ugly Viking page that gives two sides to the discussion on whether or not Vikings used what is called a Sun-Stone. Supposedly the Vikings used polarization of skylight to direct themselves, since magnetic compasses didn’t yet exist. Offers fair arguments for both sides.

The Oseberg Ship Museum site for the famed Oseberg ship.

Viking Ships and Norse Wooden Boats Learn about Viking ships that have been discovered through archaeology. Site provides links to different ships and what they looked like when they were discovered and what they may have looked like in ancient times. Most of the site is not in English but it is still an interesting site to look at pictures and read the information that is translated. However, site is poorly organized and some of the links are not interconnected to the page being viewed.


Historical Viking Sites:

Of course we need BBC! Part historical articles, part building longships, part games. Talks about the role of women, various raids throughout Britian, etc.

Ancient Warriors: The Vikings

Ancient Warriors: The Vikings is another documentary that can be viewed in full on Youtube. This is much shorter than the Lost Worlds and is primarily a military history of the Vikings.

This page is probably the best of the of a re-enactment group pages! The site has some really useful articles about the daily life of the Norse, the Society of the Viking age, warfare, shipbuilding, language, and literature.

Lost World of the Vikings is a documentary that can be viewed in full on Youtube. The History Channel shows us the Lost World of the Vikings and the advances and technology of the Nordic culture.

This site is okay, but as nice as others. This site contains a very short history of the Vikings, the Netherlands, Rorik, Leif Eriksson, Erik the Red, Vinland, L’Anse aux Meadows, and Dorestad. The most basic mythology is shown. There is a tiny, tiny blurb about female s, but it is the same as anywhere else.

Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland.

This is a search engine for archaeological finds in Scotland. One has to look through the lot of Viking search results, but it gives a good insight into the burial practices of the Vikings in Scotland. Also many of the documents list everyday items that were buried with the Viking settlers and raiders.

Os Vikings was an action/adventure film directed by Richard Fleischer in 1958, produced by and starring Kirk Douglas, and based on the novel The Viking by Edison Marshall. The following link is a short excerpt from the movie on Youtube.

Os Vikings is a web site that gives a lot of good information on the Vikings as they actually were. It is a good place to start to get some generalized information on them if you are unfamiliar with their culture.

The following web site is a collection of artwork throughout history that has been inspired by the Vikings. It also contains some illustrations from Snorri’s Sagas.

This website has a wealth of information on the “Norse Vikings and all things Scandinavian.” This is another excellent site to introduce one to the Vikings.

This web site, although a tad gimmicky and cheesy, does give the basic definitions of the Viking Runes. It is on the PBS web page, so I figure that it must be somewhat historically accurate.

Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga

The website talks about the Viking exhibit in the Smithsonian museum. It also gives a guided tour of the exhibit, showing pictures and telling about artifacts used by the Vikings, accompanied by pictures and paintings of Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Denmark. There is a “Viking voyage” feature where one can go through the voyages of the Vikings. Seeing how far and where they traveled.

A kind of plain and dull site, but provides some decent information on Viking life. There are descriptions and pictures of their ships, descriptions of how they were built and how they were used. Also talks about Vikings abroad, trading, and even Viking law.

A plain site, but full of good information. The site goes through the different Norse Gods and their roles in mythology. Also discusses the etymology of the word Viking, which I haven’t yet seen in a Viking site. Provides historical records and maps of Viking journeys.

Not a great site, but provides a description of Vikings and some links to some more Viking sites. It does offer some Viking activities like cook a Viking meal, make Viking clothes, or make a Viking ship model.

Vikings During the Medieval Warm Period

This website offers some interesting insight into the effect of the climate on Viking traveling. Like a lot of other sites it shows routes Vikings took when traveling, but presents the idea that such routes and traveling only took place due to the warm climate.

A small ugly Viking page that gives two sides to the discussion on whether or not Vikings used what is called a Sun-Stone. Supposedly the Vikings would use polarization of skylight to direct themselves, since magnetic compasses didn’t yet exist. Offers fair arguments for both sides.

The Fate of Greenland’s Vikings

A rather wordy article from Archaeology Magazine about the fate of Vikings in Greenland. There are interesting pictures to go along with the interesting text. One of the better articles on Vikings that I found.

51 Headless Vikings Found In English Execution Pit

Super cool article from Geografia nacional about 51 headless Viking bodies found in an execution pit. A picture is included. I wish the article were longer and provided more pictures, but the story is cool nonetheless.

A short page with some information on Thor The God of Thunder. It is short, but concise, and gives a decent understanding of who Thor was and why he was important without wasting anytime.

This site looks similar to what our site is trying to achieve. A collection of links to the Sagas. Links to articles about Vikings. Links to videos about Vikings. This site really provides one with access to a lot of cool things. Worth one’s while.

A BBC site about Vikings for elementary-age children. It addresses the very basics of historical Viking life, covering basic facts about who they were, what everyday life was like, their beliefs, and what happened to them. A good overview that includes a timeline and glossary.

While it has fairly good categories and information, the layout is headache inducing has too many sub-categories on the main page for them to really be useful

Mostly focues on runes from different countries, but also has good information about the social structure of the Vikings, addressing family hierarchy and social order as well as political structures and raiding.

Viking Reenactment Society

As a site intended to be a resource for re-enactors, it provides information about ancient Viking life in specific ways—how big were their tents, how did they dye their clothes—useful for specifics like that.

A site promoting an historical Viking town which has been recreated, it also provides information about everyday Viking life based on their research and excavations. The notes about Viking clothing and even the origins of the word “Viking” are clear and specific.

Focuses on what the Vikings ate as well as providing a context for their food. How they obtained their food, what they ate when, and how it was prepared. Provides links to more information and a glossary—a nice overview.

Basically a list of what food items from the Viking period that archeologists have found and where and was created to aid in organizing historically accurate feasts. Very basic information, but still useful with more links provided for more information.

Not very useful at all. While easy to navigate, it barely provides any information and the information it does provide is very basic. It would be useful to elementary teachers, however, because it provides a couple of quiz templates and activities that would teach research skills as well as information about the Vikings.

The Vikings on Thinkquest

Detailed and easy to navigate. The site discusses the culture, lifestyle, religion, weaponry, and ships of Medieval Vikings in an easy to follow manner that also discusses how these things changed throughout the Viking period.

Vikings in the Netherlands

Useful and easy to navigate. Addresses general Viking history, settlements, mythology, the role of women, and some recent discoveries of Viking jewelry. It provides a good overview of history and the historical context of the Vikings.

This web page is a cooperative of Alaska, The Pacific Northwest and Western Canada. The goal is to help students and teachers to communicate about Vikings and share their knowledge.

Old Norse Name Formations

Just as the title says this is an attempt to give a comprehensive list of prefixes and suffixes for names. It also attempts to explain the reasoning behind the names as well as the way names were constructed.

Learning Old Norse: Some suggestions

This sight is a simple listing of resources with brief annotations. Only listing a few print materials as well as a small number of web based resources available for self-directed research.

This is the story of how Odin got his horse. A story told by a drunk man. A hilarious retelling of the story told almost as if told by a real Viking over a fire to his children. It has a number of amusing, if poorly drawn, pictures interspaced within the narrative. Warning: Foul Language.

Encyclopedia Mythica is an astounding resource for mythic information. It has entire sections built specifically for various different cultures. This includes the Norse cosmology as well as basic mythos. There is a full alphabetic listing of almost every Norse mythological figure included.

This is a interesting Wiki article from the New World Encyclopedia. Like most other wiki style articles it contains an abundance of information. This specific article is wholly about Midgard and its link to the other realms.

This is an interesting sight with a massive list of Viking mythology, all alphabetically listed in an easy to use sidebar. This sight also has a small number of different Sagas and legends available as resources. Beyond the basic this sight has a listing of the Viking Runes as well as what they supposedly mean.

A short and simple webpage attempting to cover what most others haven’t covered. How well it accomplishes this is up to you to decide. It does cover basics of Viking literature as well as some basics on Runes and where they fit in.

Vikings invade pop culture with style!

While at first you may think that this article is about how Vikings have infiltrated the modern world it is more about where in the modern world you can find things about Vikings.

Swedish Viking History and Mythology

This site by a university in Sweden gives a fairly basic summary of Viking history and mythology, particularly related to Sweden. The section on mythology is essentially a summary of Snorri Sturluson’s Prose Edda. The site is simple, easy to read and navigate, but also contains frequent spelling errors.

A paper written about the construction of Viking shoes. Several good pictures of authentic shoes are shown, as well as patterns and instructions so that you can make your very own pair!

A site with depictions of a carved door in Norway that depicts the story of Sigurd slaying the dragon Fafnir. The site is basic, but gives a good short outline of the story with the accompanying carvings from the door.

This is a site of links to other websites that provide information on countries that speak Germanic languages. While the list is not annotated, many of the links are good places to start when looking for information on a certain country’s Viking history.

This is a nice website that gives an introduction to the historical Vikings. It contains information on their history and culture, the gods, the sagas and portrayals of Vikings in later ages. While fairly basic, the site gives a solid jumping-off point for studying Norse culture.

The official website for the country of Denmark contains this section about the history of Denmark during the Viking age. It gives a good depiction about what life in Denmark during the Viking age would have looked like.

A massive index of links to Norse texts, scholarly articles and websites on Norse history. While much of the information is useful and quite detailed, it takes a lot of time and determined effort to find the information you are looking for.

The website of the American-Scandinavian Foundation. This site focuses on the historical accuracy of the stories of Viking travels to America. It provides some good background for what are the current misconceptions about Vikings in America.

Two hours of NOVA programming on Vikings that aired in 2000. The site includes video clips on Viking ships, villages, runes, the Viking diaspora, and an analysis of who the Vikings were.

Essay on Historical Vikings

This essay is a researched look at the historical Vikings. The author quotes several primary sources to back up her points and also includes some maps of the Viking territory. It’s easy to follow and quite


Assista o vídeo: Vinland saga edit (Julho 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Durand

    Que frase necessária... super, ideia magnífica

  2. Mason

    Com puro humor.

  3. Sabino

    Transcrição do MS Internet Explorer: [Microsoft Internet corrompido] Os erros são a natureza humana e usam essa propriedade com frequência e com prazer. O rinoceronte não vê bem, mas, com seu peso, não é o problema dele ... o mofo se multiplica por esporos. Não discuta com mofo! Uma gota de nicotina mata o cavalo e rasga o hamster em pedaços.



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