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Perón deposto na Argentina

Perón deposto na Argentina

Após uma década de governo, o presidente argentino Juan Domingo Perón é deposto por um golpe militar. Perón, um demagogo que chegou ao poder em 1946 com o apoio das classes trabalhadoras, tornou-se cada vez mais autoritário com o declínio da economia argentina no início dos anos 1950. Seu maior recurso político era sua esposa carismática, Eva “Evita” Perón, mas ela morreu em 1952, sinalizando o colapso da coalizão nacional que o apoiava. Tendo antagonizado a igreja, os estudantes e outros, ele foi forçado ao exílio pelos militares em setembro de 1955. Ele se estabeleceu na Espanha, onde serviu como líder no exílio para os “peronistas” - uma poderosa facção de argentinos que permaneceram leais para ele e seu sistema.

Nascido em uma família de classe média baixa em 1895, Juan Domingo Perón fez carreira no exército, chegando ao posto de coronel. Em 1943, ele era o líder de um grupo de conspiradores militares que derrubou o governo civil ineficaz da Argentina. Solicitando para si mesmo o cargo aparentemente menor de secretário do Trabalho e Bem-Estar Social, ele começou a construir um império político baseado nos sindicatos. Em 1945, ele também foi vice-presidente e ministro da Guerra no regime militar.

Em 1945, Perón supervisionou o retorno das liberdades políticas ao país, mas isso gerou inquietação e manifestações em massa de grupos de oposição. Os inimigos de Perón na Marinha aproveitaram a oportunidade e o prenderam em 9 de outubro. Os sindicatos organizaram greves e comícios em protesto contra sua prisão, e a bela amante de Perón, a atriz de rádio Eva Duarte, foi muito eficaz em alistar o público para a causa. Em 17 de outubro, Perón foi libertado e, naquela noite, dirigiu-se a uma multidão de cerca de 300.000 pessoas da varanda do palácio presidencial. Ele prometeu liderar o povo à vitória na próxima eleição presidencial. Quatro dias depois, Perón, viúvo, casou-se com Eva Duarte, ou Evita, como ficou carinhosamente conhecida.

Na campanha presidencial subsequente, Perón suprimiu a oposição liberal e seu Partido Trabalhista obteve uma vitória eleitoral estreita, mas completa. O presidente Perón removeu opositores políticos de seus cargos no governo, tribunais e escolas, nacionalizou os serviços públicos e melhorou os salários e as condições de trabalho. Embora tenha restringido as liberdades constitucionais, ele ganhou o apoio esmagador das massas de trabalhadores pobres, a quem Evita Perón chamou los descamisados, ou os "sem camisa". Evita desempenhou um papel importante no governo, liderando não oficialmente o Departamento de Bem-Estar Social e assumindo o papel de seu marido como zelador das classes trabalhadoras. Ela foi chamada de “Primeira Operária da Argentina” e “Senhora da Esperança” e foi fundamental para garantir a aprovação de uma lei de sufrágio feminino.

Em 1950, o boom de exportação da Argentina no pós-guerra diminuiu e a inflação e a corrupção aumentaram. Após ser reeleito em 1951, Perón tornou-se mais conservador e repressor e assumiu o controle da imprensa para controlar as críticas ao seu regime. Em julho de 1952, Evita morreu de câncer e o apoio ao presidente Perón entre as classes trabalhadoras tornou-se decididamente menos pronunciado. Sua tentativa de forçar a separação entre Igreja e Estado foi recebida com considerável controvérsia. Em junho de 1955, os líderes da Igreja o excomungaram, encorajando uma camarilha de oficiais militares a planejar sua derrubada. Em 19 de setembro de 1955, o exército e a marinha se revoltaram e Perón foi forçado a fugir para o Paraguai. Em 1960, ele se estabeleceu na Espanha.

Enquanto isso, uma série de governos civis e militares não conseguiram resolver os problemas econômicos da Argentina. A memória do regime de Perón melhorou com o tempo, e Peronismo tornou-se a força política mais poderosa do país. Em 1971, o regime militar do general Alejandro Lanusse anunciou sua intenção de restaurar a democracia constitucional em 1973, e Perón foi autorizado a visitar a Argentina em 1972. Em março de 1973, os peronistas conquistaram o controle do governo nas eleições nacionais e Perón voltou em junho grande agitação pública e luta entre as facções peronistas.

Em outubro de 1973, Perón foi eleito presidente em uma eleição especial. Sua esposa, Isabel Perón, dançarina argentina com quem se casou em 1961, foi eleita vice-presidente. Ela era muito ressentida por milhões ainda devotados à memória de Evita Perón.

Os problemas econômicos continuaram na segunda presidência de Perón e foram agravados pelo embargo do petróleo árabe de 1973 e um surto de febre aftosa que devastou a indústria de carne bovina da Argentina. Quando Perón morreu em 1º de julho de 1974, sua esposa se tornou presidente de uma nação que sofria de inflação, violência política e agitação trabalhista. Em março de 1976, ela foi deposta em um golpe liderado pela Força Aérea, e uma junta militar de direita assumiu o poder que governou brutalmente a Argentina até 1982.


História argentina

Científico Descoberta

1832-09-22 Durante sua viagem HMS Beagle Charles Darwin descobre um grande número de fósseis em Punta Alta, na Argentina

    HMS Beagle chega a Bahia Blanca, Argentina Charles Darwin chega a Buenos Aires depois de viajar pelo interior argentino com guachos Camila O'Gorman e Ladislao Gutierrez são executados por ordem do ditador argentino Juan Manuel de Rosas

Batalha do Cerro Corá

1870-03-01 A Guerra da Tríplice Aliança finalmente termina com a Batalha de Cerro Corá e a morte do ditador paraguaio Francisco Solano López após mais de 5 anos de derramamento de sangue entre Paraguai e Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai

    Primeira conexão telegráfica na Argentina. Índios Toba matam 20 integrantes da expedição francesa na Argentina Morte do político argentino Domingo Sarmiento, que escolheu o Dia do Professor Latino-americano.

Evento de Interesse

1893-03-11 Carlos Gardel e sua mãe, Berthe Gardès, chegam a Buenos Aires, Argentina

    6.960 m (22.834 pés) Cerro Aconcágua (Argentina) 1º escalado pela expedição europeia liderada pelo montanhista britânico Edward FitzGerald Racing Club de Avellaneda, um dos cinco grandes da Argentina, é fundado. O Reino Unido vende uma estação meteorológica nas Ilhas Orkney do Sul para a Argentina. As ilhas são posteriormente reivindicadas pelo Reino Unido em 1908. A estátua de bronze de Cristo na fronteira argentino-chilena dedicada a 120 ° F (49 ° C), Rivadavia, Argentina (sul Recorde americano) -27 ° F (-33 ° C), Sarmiento, Argentina (recorde da América do Sul) A Argentina vence o MCC em seu jogo inaugural de críquete de 1ª classe no Buenos Aires Cricket Club, perdendo o segundo e o terceiro jogos da série

Evento de Interesse

25/04/1914 O presidente dos Estados Unidos, Woodrow Wilson, é persuadido pela Argentina, Brasil e Chile a aceitar a mediação no conflito com o México

Golpe de Estado

06/09/1930 O presidente argentino eleito democraticamente, Hipólito Yrigoyen, é deposto por um golpe militar.

    Golfe masculino do British Open, Carnoustie: O escocês Tommy Armor, que vive nos Estados Unidos, supera José Jurado, da Argentina, por 1 tacada, conquistando seu único título no Open e seu terceiro e último campeonato importante. Olimpíadas de Berlim última vez em que o esporte é disputado nas Olimpíadas Rie Mastenbroek da Holanda nada um recorde olímpico de 1: 05,9 para vencer os 100m livres femininos nas Olimpíadas de Berlim, derrotando Jeannette Campbell da Argentina por 0:05

Evento de Interesse

04/06/1943 Argentina assumida pelo General Rawson e pelo Coronel Juan Perón

    O ministro da Guerra, Juan Perón, lidera um golpe no Dia da Lealdade na Argentina, manifestações em massa realizadas para libertar Juan Perón General Juan Perón eleito pela primeira vez presidente da Argentina Delfo Cabrera da Argentina vence maratona dramática em 2: 34: 51,6 nos Jogos Olímpicos de Londres no Aberto da Grã-Bretanha Golfe, Royal Troon: Bobby Locke da África do Sul mantém o título por 2 tacadas de Roberto De Vicenzo da Argentina. Abertura dos primeiros Jogos Pan-americanos (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Evento de Interesse

04/04/1951 O príncipe holandês Bernhard visita o presidente argentino Juan e Eva Perón em Buenos Aires

    Golfe masculino do British Open, Royal Portrush GC: O inglês Max Faulkner vence por 2 tacadas de Antonio Cerdá da Argentina Juan Manuel Fangio da Argentina vence o Campeonato Mundial de Pilotos de Fórmula 1 ao vencer o Grande Prêmio da Espanha em Pedralbes em um Alpha Romeo vence por 6 pontos de Alberto Ascari da Itália Juan Manuel Fangio da Argentina conquista seu segundo Campeonato Mundial de Pilotos de Fórmula 1 ao vencer o Grande Prêmio da Suíça em Bremgarten em uma Maserati. Campeonato por 17 pontos do compatriota José Froilán González Minas Gerais Argentina túnel cavernas em 30 o parlamento argentino aceita separação entre Igreja e Estado

'A Banalidade do Mal'

23/05/1960 Israel anuncia captura do nazista Adolf Eichmann na Argentina

Evento de Interesse

08/06/1960 Governo argentino exige libertação de Adolf Eichmann

    Argentina reclama à ONU sobre transferência ilícita israelense de Eichmann Antonio Albertondo (Argentina) completa a primeira travessia & quotdouble & quot do Canal da Mancha em 43 h 10 min a 42. Bola de Ouro: O atacante argentino da Juventus, Omar Sívori, ganha prêmio de melhor jogador de futebol da Europa à frente do meio-campista espanhol Luis Suárez e do atacante inglês Johnny Haynes

Golfe britânico Abrir

1967-07-15 Golfe masculino do British Open, Royal Liverpool GC: O argentino Robert De Vicenzo, de 44 anos, vence seu único campeonato importante, 2 tacadas à frente do atual campeão Jack Nicklaus

    O porta-aviões holandês Karel Doorman (ex-britânico HMS Venerable) foi vendido à Argentina Agitação civil em Rosário, Argentina, também conhecido como Rosariazo, após a morte de um estudante de 15 anos. Greve geral em Córdoba, Argentina, levando à agitação civil de Córdoba Trem de passageiros paralisado atropelado por expresso na Argentina, 139 a junta militar argentina sob Juan Carlos Lanusse destitui o presidente Juan Carlos Onganía O boxeador argentino Carlos Monzon derruba o atual campeão Nino Benvenuti da Itália na 12ª rodada KO em Roma para ganhar WBC, WBA títulos dos médios Grã-Bretanha e Argentina assinam acordo sobre as Ilhas Malvinas O peronista Hector Campora instalado como presidente da Argentina Juan Perón retorna do exílio para a Argentina após 18 anos do massacre de Ezeiza em Buenos Aires, Argentina. Atiradores de elite atiram contra peronistas de esquerda. Pelo menos 13 mortos e mais de 300 feridos Hector de Campora renuncia como presidente das Eleições Gerais da Argentina - o ex-presidente argentino Juan Perón retorna ao poder Héctor José Cámpora é eleito presidente da Argentina O pior incêndio da história da Argentina destrói 1,2 milhão de acres Isabel Perón sucede o marido Juan como presidente da Argentina

Evento de Interesse

15-12-1974 Guillermo Vilas, da Argentina, derrotou o atual campeão Lie Năstase por 7–6, 6–2, 3–6, 3–6, 6–4 para ganhar sua primeira e única final de tênis do ATP Masters Grand Prix de final de temporada em Melbourne , Australia

Aberto da França Tênis Masculino

15/06/1975 Aberto da França no tênis masculino: Björn Borg da Suécia mantém o título derrotando Guillermo Vilas da Argentina por 6-2, 6-3, 6-4


A Década Infame

A década de 1930 na Argentina é conhecida como a Década Infame devido à fraude eleitoral desenfreada, perseguição aos partidos políticos da oposição e corrupção governamental generalizada.

Objetivos de aprendizado

Explique por que os anos 1930 foram chamados de a Década Infame

Principais vantagens

Pontos chave

  • A Década Infame da Argentina se refere ao período que começou em 1930 com o golpe de Estado de Jose Felix Uriburu contra a candidatura do Presidente Hipolito Yrigoyen e terminou com a ascensão de Juan Perón & # 8217 ao poder após o golpe militar de 1943.
  • O regime do tenente-general Uriburu foi fortemente apoiado por intelectuais de direita e seu governo adotou medidas severas para evitar represálias e táticas contra-revolucionárias por parte de amigos do regime deposto.
  • A administração de Agustín Pedro Justo Rolon foi maculada por constantes rumores de corrupção e é mais lembrada pelo notável trabalho diplomático de seu ministro das Relações Exteriores.
  • Um dos sucessos mais polêmicos da presidência de Justo é a assinatura do Tratado de Roca-Runciman em 1933.
  • O primeiro ministro do Tesouro de Justo, Alberto Hueyo, tomou medidas muito restritivas contra a economia. Hueyo acabou sendo substituído por Frederico Pinedo, cujo plano de intervenção do governo na economia era ainda mais significativo.
  • Pinedo iniciou o desenvolvimento industrial argentino por meio de uma política de substituição de importações e criou o Banco Central da Argentina.
  • Roberto Marcelino Ortiz foi eleito presidente de forma fraudulenta e assumiu o cargo em fevereiro de 1938. Ele tentou resolver o problema de corrupção do país e cancelou eleições fraudulentas vencidas pelo conservador Alberto Barcelo.
  • Em junho de 1942, Ortiz renunciou à presidência por doença e morreu um mês depois. Ele foi substituído pelo vice-presidente Ramon S. Castillo.
  • Em 4 de junho de 1943, uma sociedade secreta nacionalista dentro do exército chamada Grupo de Oficiales Unidos (GOU) derrubou Castillo em um golpe.

Termos chave

  • Década Infame: Período de tempo na Argentina iniciado em 1930 caracterizado por fraude eleitoral, perseguição da oposição política e corrupção governamental generalizada.
  • substituição de importação: Uma política comercial e econômica que defende a substituição das importações estrangeiras pela produção nacional.

A Década Infame da Argentina refere-se ao período que começou em 1930 com o golpe de Estado de José Félix Uriburu contra o presidente Hipólito Yrigoyen e terminou com a ascensão de Juan Perón & # 8217 ao poder após o golpe militar de 1943. A década é marcada por um golpe significativo êxodo rural na medida em que muitos pequenos proprietários rurais foram arruinados pela depressão global, que acabou empurrando a Argentina para uma política de industrialização por substituição de importações. Os fracos resultados econômicos dessa política e o descontentamento popular que gerou levaram diretamente ao golpe de 1943. O período foi caracterizado por fraude eleitoral, perseguição à oposição política e corrupção governamental generalizada.

Presidência de Uriburu (1930-1932)

O Tenente General José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu alcançou o cargo de Presidente da Argentina por meio de um golpe militar, e seu mandato durou de 6 de setembro de 1930 até 20 de fevereiro de 1932. Conhecido como o “pai dos pobres”, o atual presidente Hipólito Yrigoyen foi esmagadoramente eleito para seu segundo mandato não consecutivo em 1928, mas viu-se cada vez mais cercado por assessores que escondiam dele os verdadeiros efeitos da Grande Depressão no país. Como resultado, setores fascistas e conservadores do exército conspiraram abertamente para uma mudança de regime, assim como a Standard Oil de New Jersey, uma empresa americana que se opôs aos esforços do presidente para conter o contrabando de petróleo da província de Salta para a Bolívia e ao domínio que a YPF exercia sobre o Mercado de petróleo argentino. Esses fatores tornaram o momento perfeito para Uriburu encenar o primeiro golpe militar da Argentina desde a adoção da constituição argentina contra a administração democraticamente eleita de Yrigoyen com a ajuda da Liga Patriótica Argentina de extrema direita.

Jose Felix Uriburu: José Felix Uriburu foi o 22º presidente da Argentina.

O próprio regime de Uriburu foi fortemente apoiado por intelectuais de direita como Rodolofo e Julio Irazusta e Juan Carulla, e o novo governo adotou medidas severas para evitar represálias e táticas contra-revolucionárias de amigos do regime deposto. Anarquistas em particular eram considerados inimigos públicos pela ditadura de Uriburu. Durante o regime de Uriburu, três anarquistas foram condenados à prisão perpétua por supostamente assassinar membros da família do político conservador Jose M. Blanch durante um julgamento-espetáculo em que os anarquistas foram abertamente torturados. O julgamento-espetáculo veio na esteira do caso Sacco e Vanzetti nos Estados Unidos, no qual dois anarquistas americanos nascidos na Itália foram condenados à pena de morte após serem considerados culpados de assassinato no que foi amplamente considerado uma sentença de motivação política. O caso argentino atraiu muitos paralelos com Sacco e Vanzetti e levantou indignação pública internacional.

O presidente Uriburu foi diagnosticado com câncer de estômago no início de 1932 e morreu em Paris após uma cirurgia em 29 de abril de 1932.

Presidência de Justo (1932-1938)

Agustín Pedro Justo Rolon foi presidente da Argentina de 20 de fevereiro de 1932 a 20 de fevereiro de 1938. Foi militar, diplomata e político. Justo recebeu a nomeação da Concordância para a campanha presidencial de 1931 e venceu com o apoio de uma aliança criada entre o Partido Nacional Democrata, a União Cívica Radical e o Partido Socialista Independente. No entanto, abundaram as acusações de fraude eleitoral e a administração de Justo foi manchada por constantes rumores de corrupção. Sua administração é mais lembrada pelo notável trabalho diplomático de seu ministro das Relações Exteriores, Carlos Saavedra Lamas.

Agustin P. Justo: Agustin P. Justo foi o 23º presidente da Argentina.

O Tratado Roca-Runciman

Um dos sucessos mais polêmicos da presidência de Justo é a assinatura do Tratado de Roca-Runciman em 1933. Devido à adoção pelo Reino Unido de medidas favorecendo as importações de suas próprias colônias e domínios, Justo enviou seu vice-presidente, Julio A. Roca Jr, como chefe de delegação de tecnologia para negociar um acordo comercial que possa beneficiar a Argentina. Anteriormente, os britânicos eram os principais compradores de grãos e carne argentinos, tornando suas medidas de protecionismo de produção uma ameaça aos proprietários argentinos que comercializavam esses produtos agrícolas. O Tratado Roca-Runciman garantiu ao Reino Unido o fornecimento de carne fresca em troca de um importante investimento no transporte da Argentina, exigindo certas concessões, como a entrega do transporte público de Buenos Aires a uma empresa britânica. O tratado criou um escândalo porque embora o Reino Unido tenha concordado em continuar importando carne argentina, eles atribuíram à Argentina uma cota de importação menor do que qualquer um de seus domínios: 390.000 toneladas de carne por ano, com 85% das exportações argentinas feitas por transportadores refrigerados britânicos. Havia outras concessões de longo alcance também, por exemplo, as ferrovias operadas pelo Reino Unido não tinham tarifas reguladas, as taxas alfandegárias sobre o carvão permaneceram não estabelecidas e as empresas britânicas com investimentos na Argentina receberam uma série de dispensas especiais, como redução preços de exportação. Embora o Tratado de Roca-Runciman tenha salvado o comércio argentino-britânico de produtos agrícolas, exasperou os que já criticavam o envolvimento britânico em seu país.

Políticas econômicas de Hueyo e Pinedo

O primeiro ministro do Tesouro de Justo, Alberto Hueyo, tomou medidas muito restritivas contra a economia. Hueyo reduziu os gastos públicos e restringiu a circulação de moeda, além de aplicar outras medidas fiscais severas. Um emprestito patriotico, ou empréstimo patriótico, foi feito na tentativa de fortalecer o orçamento do país. No final, porém, Justo procurou substituir Hueyo pelo socialista Frederico Pinedo, cujo plano de intervenção do governo na economia era ainda mais significativo.

Pinedo iniciou o desenvolvimento industrial argentino por meio de uma política de substituição de importações. A Juntas Reguladores Nacionales foi criada sob a orientação de Pinedo para ajudar a desenvolver a atividade industrial privada e estatal. As Juntas também supervisionavam a qualidade e o controle de preços para consumo interno e exportação. Por exemplo, para evitar a superprodução, as Juntas destruíram cargas inteiras de milho e milhões de pesos por ano em derivados do vinho.

Pinedo também criou o Banco Central (BCRA), assessorado por Sir Otto Niemeyer, diretor do Banco da Inglaterra. O envolvimento de Niemeyer atraiu fortes críticas daqueles que repudiaram o envolvimento britânico na Argentina. Foi lançado um projeto nacional de construção de estradas que competia com o sistema ferroviário, que permaneceu nas mãos de empresas majoritariamente britânicas. Com rodovias nacionais atingindo 30.000 quilômetros em 1938, as empresas automotivas dos EUA conseguiram penetrar no mercado argentino e aumentar as vendas. O investimento estrangeiro direto dos EUA cresceu sob as políticas de Pinedo, com empresas têxteis como Sudamtex, Ducilo e Anderson Clayton se estabelecendo na Argentina. Fabricantes de pneus, eletrônicos e químicos também começaram a migrar para a Argentina nessa época.

Administrações Ortiz e Castillo (1938-1943)

As candidaturas de Roberto Marcelino Ortiz e Ramon S. Castillo para as eleições de 1938, para presidente e vice-presidente, respectivamente, foram lançadas na Câmara de Comércio Britânica e apoiadas por seu presidente, William McCallum. Ortiz foi eleito presidente de forma fraudulenta e assumiu seu novo cargo em fevereiro de 1938. Ele tentou sanar o problema de corrupção do país, ordenando a intervenção federal na província de Buenos Aires, que era governada por Manuel Fresco. Ele também cancelou eleições fraudulentas vencidas pelo conservador Alberto Barcelo.

Pinedo permaneceu como Ministro da Economia durante a administração de Ortiz. Em 18 de novembro de 1940, apresentou um Plano de Reativação Econômica, que teria implementado medidas fortemente protecionistas e defendido a construção de moradias públicas para fazer frente ao afluxo de pessoas aos centros urbanos. Pinedo também propôs a nacionalização das ferrovias operadas pelos britânicos e até concordou em termos vantajosos com os proprietários das ferrovias antes de apresentar sua política publicamente. No entanto, as facções conservadoras votaram contra essas medidas e Pinedo renunciou ao cargo logo em seguida.

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a Argentina manteve a mesma neutralidade que adotou durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial, o que foi vantajoso para a Grã-Bretanha. Embora os EUA tenham tentado empurrar a Argentina para a guerra, o país conseguiu resistir com o apoio dos britânicos. Em junho de 1942, Ortiz renunciou à presidência por doença e morreu um mês depois. Ele foi substituído pelo vice-presidente Castillo. No mesmo ano, a coalizão política da União Democrática, que incluía a União Cívica Radical, o Partido Democrático Progressivo e os partidos Socialista e Comunista, foi formada. Sua plataforma eleitoral visava combater a corrupção endêmica, garantir a liberdade de pensamento e reunião e assegurar os direitos sindicais. A coalizão também reivindicou solidariedade ativa com as pessoas que lutam contra a agressão nazi-fascista.

Em 4 de junho de 1943, a sociedade secreta nacionalista dentro do exército, chamada Grupo de Oficiales Unidos (GOU), derrubou Castillo em um golpe. O GOU foi organizado pelo Coronel Miguel A. Montes e Urbano de la Vega e incluiu membros como o Coronel Juan Domingo Peron e Enrique P. Gonzalez. O golpe de Estado deles encerrou a Década Infame e estabeleceu uma junta militar que durou até 1945. O grupo simpatizava com as causas da Alemanha nazista e da Itália fascista. O general Arturo Rawson foi nomeado presidente, mas só ocupou o cargo por alguns dias antes que o GOU o substituísse pelo general Pedro Ramirez.


Peron como presidente

Retrato de Juan Domingo e Eva Perón em 1947. Crédito da foto: Wikipedia

Quando Perón foi eleito presidente da Argentina em 1946, ele estava pronto para fazer algumas mudanças sérias na administração de seu país. Ele introduziu reformas sociais radicais, nacionalizou ferrovias e bancos, aumentou os salários e limitou as horas de trabalho, introduzindo dias livres obrigatórios para a maioria dos empregos. Ele assumiu uma quantidade colossal de edifícios públicos, construindo escolas e hospitais, e consolidando sua (e sua esposa) contínua adoração pela classe trabalhadora.

A morte de Evita sinalizou, em retrospectiva, uma mudança dramática na liderança e popularidade de Perón. Coincidindo com a estagnação da economia do país e aumentando a desconfiança de Perón por parte dos conservadores, seu apoio começou a diminuir. Rumores de comportamento impróprio com jovens seguidoras peronistas mancharam sua reputação e viraram mulheres que antes o adoravam contra ele. Ele caiu em conflito com a Igreja Católica na Argentina, então (e ainda agora) uma força formidável no país. Ele foi excomungado após tentar legalizar a prostituição e o divórcio, e seus opositores militares aproveitaram a situação para lançar um violento golpe, que incluiu o bombardeio da Plaza de Mayo pela Força Aérea, resultando na morte de mais de 400 pessoas. Em setembro de 1955, Perón foi evacuado por pouco de seu escritório quando os militares tomaram conta de Córdoba. Perón passaria os próximos 18 anos no exílio, primeiro na Venezuela e no Panamá, antes de se estabelecer na Espanha.

A La Casa Rosada está localizada em frente à Plaza de Mayo. Crédito da foto: shutterstock


Perón deposto na Argentina - HISTÓRIA

O peronismo na Argentina é um fenômeno como nenhum outro. Nenhum outro país subscreve esta indefinível ideologia política, e também é a ideia mais importante da política argentina. Sem o peronismo, não há política argentina moderna. Três dos sete candidatos à eleição presidencial anterior se autodenominavam peronistas, mas com opiniões políticas distintas. Para entender isso, é necessário olhar para as raízes históricas do movimento político mais importante do século 20 na Argentina, cuja influência não pode ser subestimada. Então, como isso começou? De onde veio essa ideia? E como a maioria das pessoas está familiarizada, tudo começou com um homem, Juan Domingo Perón.

O homem que deu o nome ao movimento, Juan Domingo Perón (1895-1974) foi um general e diplomata eleito à presidência três vezes, 1946, 1951 e 1973. Ele foi um político incrivelmente hábil que reuniu milhões de partidários, de diferentes visões políticas e teve a capacidade de atrair grandes setores da população argentina.

Suas políticas eram geralmente sobre uma maior inclusão entre todas as classes e os modos de produção. Foi uma barganha social firmada entre sindicatos, corporações, trabalhadores e o Estado para desenvolver indústrias com insumos de todas as partes.

 Argentina antes de Perón 

Antes da ascensão de Perón, a Argentina era aliada internacionalmente do oeste, mais fortemente da Grã-Bretanha. Era um país de imigrantes cuja economia se baseava nas exportações agrícolas, especialmente após o boom da carne e da lã durante e após a Primeira Guerra Mundial. O país era dominado por uma pequena e muito rica oligarquia de latifundiários que estava essencialmente no controle do governo que governava em favor de seus interesses, excluindo grandes faixas da população.

Após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, a “Década Infame”, na verdade 13 anos entre 1930 e 1943, a Argentina estava sob o governo de uma coalizão conservadora e pró-aristocrática conhecida como Concordancia. Tecnicamente, as instituições democráticas existiam, mas, na prática, as classes mais baixas foram excluídas da política e o movimento operário, que era tradicionalmente forte, foi enfraquecido.
Uma junta militar assumiu o poder em 1943 e um jovem general Juan Perón foi nomeado responsável pelo Departamento Nacional do Trabalho. Perón notou a situação difícil da classe trabalhadora argentina e, embora a maioria dos outros líderes políticos não se interessasse pelas classes mais baixas, Perón reconheceu e capitalizou isso. Em sua função, ele introduziu uma série de reformas, incluindo seguro nacional, férias pagas e um sistema de pensões.

Enquanto isso, a principal federação sindical, a CGT, havia se dividido em 1942 entre uma facção, liderada pelos comunistas e alguns socialistas, e outra liderada pelos anarco-sindicalistas, estes últimos incluindo os ferroviários. Ambas as seções estavam frustradas e desiludidas com o governo conservador anterior, que as havia ignorado completamente, e ficaram lisonjeadas com a atenção dispensada por Perón. Jogando um contra o outro, ele conseguiu marginalizar os comunistas e subordinar seus oponentes ao mesmo tempo em que apelava para a massa dos trabalhadores sobre as cabeças da burocracia sindical. Ao mesmo tempo, ele defendeu dentro dos militares um Estado forte para resistir à desordem social e abordou os grandes negócios com a necessidade de incorporar a classe trabalhadora.

Em março de 1945, os líderes da nação juntaram-se às Nações Unidas e declararam guerra à Alemanha, voltando atrás no motivo do golpe. Em setembro, houve uma maciça "Marcha pela Liberdade e pela Constituição" da classe média esmagadora. O Exército tentou acomodar essa oposição e demitiu, então prendeu, Perón no dia 8 de outubro.

A classe trabalhadora e os principais sindicatos viram isso como um ataque à sua influência política e aos seus padrões de vida, e uma onda de greves varreu o país e uma enorme manifestação da classe trabalhadora na Plaza de Mayo no centro de Buenos Aires deu força e confiança suficientes aos apoiadores de Perón no Exército para forçar sua libertação. Este foi o real surgimento da classe trabalhadora na cena política argentina, ao invés de uma força independente sob o controle de Perón.

Apoiado pelo Exército, pela Igreja e pela CGT, Perón tornou-se o candidato oficial na eleição presidencial. Ele foi devidamente eleito presidente, com uma maioria de 10 por cento e 56 por cento dos votos em 24 de fevereiro de 1946.

Primeira Presidência de Perón

O período 1946-1955 marcou uma virada no desenvolvimento econômico do país. Antes, o país era dominado por grandes latifundiários e exportadores agrícolas, fortemente influenciados pelo capital estrangeiro. Mas esse modelo começou a enfraquecer durante a década de 1930, mas só em meados da década de 1940 foi substituído pelo que ficou conhecido como "industrialização por substituição de importações" (ISI).

O novo paradigma econômico de Perón baseava-se no desenvolvimento de uma indústria leve e intensiva em mão-de-obra para criar empregos e produzir bens domésticos para o mercado interno. O Estado desempenhou um papel importante na canalização de receitas das exportações agrícolas para a indústria, aumentando as tarifas de importação e nacionalizando empresas estrangeiras, como ferrovias, gás, telefone e eletricidade.

Esse modelo seria baseado em alianças de classe e também em alianças entre as Forças Armadas e a Igreja Católica sob a forma de “terceira via” do próprio Perón, nem esquerda nem direita. No entanto, essa aliança excluiu os antigos proprietários de terras - “a oligarquia” - que se tornariam o inimigo número um do novo governo.

O novo papel do Estado e os direitos adquiridos nesse período foram articulados em uma nova Constituição, aprovada em 1949, que colocou a justiça social e o “interesse geral” no centro de todas as atividades políticas e econômicas. O novo texto constitucional incluía uma série de “direitos sociais” (os chamados direitos de segunda geração), relacionados aos trabalhadores, famílias, idosos, educação e cultura.

Durante sua primeira presidência, a carismática esposa de Perón, Eva Perón (ou "Evita" como seus seguidores a chamavam) desempenhou um papel de destaque, e é amplamente reconhecido que ela era o principal elo entre o presidente e o movimento operário. Evita also had an active role in the development of women's rights, such as the right to vote (1947) and the equality of men and women in marriage and in the care of children -even fighting internal opposition to achieve these goals.

Second Government (1951-1955)

Perón was re-elected in 1951, obtaining a massive 62% of the vote (which, for the first time, included the female voters). But this term was much more problematic for the president. His wife, Evita, died of cancer a month after his reelection, and the economic situation worsened after a drop in the international price of agricultural products and severe droughts.

Perón was forced to introduce some austerity measures and improve poor relations with foreign companies. All these measures contradicted the model that Perón himself had implemented, and divided opinion among his followers.

This was in addition to Perón beginning to lose support with some unions, and his relationship with the Church was essentially an open conflict in 1954.

On June 16th, 1955, the political opposition (conservative, radicals and socialists) together with the Navy and with the support of the Church, carried out a botched coup d’etat against Perón. Navy planes bombed the Plaza de Mayo, where a rally was taking place, killing more than 300 people. Perón's attempt to appease the crowd failed and that very night groups of Peronist activists took to the streets of Buenos Aires and burnt several churches.

After the failed coup, Perón tried to keep the situation under control and called for a truce with the opposition. However on 31st August, after talks with the opposition failed, the president hardened his position when, during a public speech, he pronounced the now famous phrase: “for each one of us who fall, five of them will follow”. Seventeen days later, on the 16th September, a new military uprising -led again by the Navy- succeeded in deposing Perón, who asked for political refuge in Paraguay and left the country on the 20th of September. It would be 17 years until he stepped on Argentine soil again.

While Perón was in exile, the disparate groups that made up the Peronist movement fractured without his leadership. The new government also dissolved the Peronist party, and banned all of its members from running for office. Even mentioning the names of Perón or Evita was prohibited. The subsequent weakening of the Peronist unions left many workers once again unprotected and exposed to the abuses of some employers.

Perón's Brief Return

In 1972 Perón was finally able to return to Argentina, where he chose Héctor Cámpora to be the presidential candidate. The plan was for Campora to win the election, and lift the ban on Perón running so he could run the following year, the plan worked.
On June 20, 1973 Perón made his final return to Argentina, where a huge welcome was planned at the airport. But as he was due to land, the contradictions within his movement were exposed.

At the airport, the right wing groups, including the CGT union and the left including the militant Montoneros groups showed up, but a battle soon developed and the unionist right opened fire on the leftist tendencies killing at least 13 and wounding hundreds.
The next month, in July Cámpora resigned from the presidency and Perón, who was now 78 years old won the election with 62 percent of the vote. He called for both the right and left wing factions to unite in his speech, but after the killing of the CGT leader Jose Igancio Rucci, Perón gave more support to the right wing factions.

Perón died on the 1st of July 1974, and his second wife and vice-president Isabel Martínez de Perón (photo below) took office. In March 1976, she was deposed in an air-force-led coup, and a right-wing military junta took power and brutally ruled Argentina until 1982.

Legado
Peron's legacy is the most important in ArgentinaPeronism is still Argentina's most potent political force, and survives as a legitimate political philosophy which among others incorporates nationalism, political independence and a strong government supporting the working classes. The current president of Argentina Cristina Fernandez is a member of the Justicialist Party, a Peronist party and considers herself following in the footsteps of Peron and Evita.

The Peronist movement has managed to survive the twists and turns of Argentine history, much of it owed to the fact that from its very origin under Peron it had broad support, not just from the social sectors that benefited from Peron's pro-working class policies. This support continued to expand as the benefited sectors lost much of their original political and social clout.

Peron had established a brand of labor orientated populism that became a model for many politicians and followers of him. He was the first to attack the once powerful agricultural sector, and prioritize the industrial sector in Argentina. Although his personal brand of politics eventually broke down, the policies and institutions he created have paved the way for the economic boom Argentina has experienced since the early years of the 21st century.


Meeting Juan Perón

On January 15, 1944, a massive earthquake struck western Argentina, killing 6,000 people. Argentines across the country wanted to help their fellow countrymen. In Buenos Aires, the effort was led by 48-year-old Army Colonel Juan Domingo Perón, the head of the nation's labor department.

Perón asked Argentina's performers to use their fame to promote his cause. Actors, singers, and others (including Eva Duarte) walked the streets of Buenos Aires to collect money for earthquake victims. The fundraising effort culminated in a benefit held at a local stadium. There, on January 22, 1944, Eva met Colonel Juan Perón.

Perón, a widower whose wife had died of cancer in 1938, was immediately drawn to her. The two became inseparable and very soon Eva proved herself Perón's most ardent supporter. She used her position at the radio station to feature broadcasts that praised Perón as a benevolent government figure.


Argentina: History

Little is known of the earliest inhabitants of the region. Only in NW Argentina was there a native population with a material culture. They were an agricultural people (recalled today by ruins N of Jujuy), but their importance was eclipsed later by the Araucanians from Chile. Europeans probably first arrived in the region in 1502 in the voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The southern inhabitants at that time primarily hunted and fished, while the northwestern Incas were agricultural and quite advanced, having built a highway before the arrival of the Spanish. The search for a Southwest Passage to Asia and the East Indies brought Juan Díaz de Solís to the Río de la Plata in 1516. Ferdinand Magellan entered (1520) the estuary, and Sebastian Cabot ascended (1536) the Paraná and Paraguay rivers. His delight in native ornaments may be responsible for the names Río de la Plata [silver river] and Argentina [of silver].

Pedro de Mendoza in 1536 founded the first settlement of the present Buenos Aires, but native attacks forced abandonment of the settlement, and Asunción became the unquestioned leading city of the Río de la Plata region. Buenos Aires was refounded in 1580 by Juan de Garay. His son-in-law, Hernando Arias de Saavedra (Hernandarias), secured the division of the Río de la Plata territories, and Buenos Aires achieved (1617) a sort of semi-independence under the viceroyalty of Peru.

The mercantilist system, however, severely hampered the commerce of Buenos Aires, and smuggling, especially with Portuguese traders in Brazil, became an accepted profession. While the cities of present W and NW Argentina grew by supplying the mining towns of the Andes, Buenos Aires was threatened by Portuguese competition. By the 18th cent., cattle (which were introduced to the Pampas in the 1550s) roamed wild throughout the Pampas in large herds and were hunted by gauchos for their skins and fat.

In 1776 the Spanish government made Buenos Aires a free port and the capital of a viceroyalty that included present Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and (briefly) Bolivia. From this combination grew the idea of a Greater Argentina to include all the Río de la Plata countries, a dream that was to haunt many Argentine politicians after independence was won.

A prelude to independence was the British attack on Buenos Aires. Admiral Sir Home Popham and Gen. William Carr Beresford took the city in 1806 after the Spanish viceroy fled. An Argentine militia force under Jacques de Liniers ended the British occupation and beat off a renewed attack under Gen. John Whitelocke in 1807.

On May 25, 1810 (May 25 is the Argentine national holiday), revolutionists, acting nominally in favor of the Bourbons dethroned by Napoleon (see Spain), deposed the viceroy, and the government was controlled by a junta. The result was war against the royalists. The patriots under Manuel Belgrano won (1812) a victory at Tucumán. On July 9, 1816, a congress in Tucumán proclaimed the independence of the United Provinces of the Río de La Plata. Other patriot generals were Mariano Moreno, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, and José de San Martín.

Uruguay and Paraguay went their own ways despite hopes of reunion. In Argentina, a struggle ensued between those who wanted to unify the country and those who did not want to be dominated by Buenos Aires. Independence was followed by virtually permanent civil war, with many coups by regional, social, or political factions. Rule by the strong man, the caudillo, alternated with periods of democratic rule, too often beset by disorder.

Anarchy was not ended by the election of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1826. The unitarians, who favored a centralized government dominated by Buenos Aires, were opposed to the federalists, who resented the oligarchy of Buenos Aires and were backed by autocratic caudillos with gaucho troops. The unitarians triumphed temporarily when Argentines combined to help the Uruguayans repel Brazilian conquerors in the battle of Ituzaingó (1827), which led to the independence of Uruguay. The internal conflict was, however, soon resumed and was not even quelled when Gen. Juan Manuel de Rosas, the most notorious caudillo, established a dictatorship that lasted from 1835 to 1852. Ironically, this federalist leader, who was nominally only the governor of Buenos Aires, did more than the unitarians to unify the country. Ironically, too, this enemy of intellectuals stimulated his political opponents to write in exile some of the finest works of the Spanish-American romantic period among the writers were Domingo F. Sarmiento, Bartolomé Mitre, José Mármol, and Esteban Echeverría.

Rosas was overthrown (1852) by Gen. Justo José de Urquiza, who called a constituent assembly at Santa Fe. A constitution was adopted (1853) based on the principles enunciated by Juan Bautista Alberdi. Mitre, denouncing Urquiza as a caudillo, brought about the temporary secession of Buenos Aires prov. (1861) and the downfall of the Urquiza plans. Under the administrations of Mitre (1862–68), Sarmiento (1868–74), and Nicolás Avellaneda (1874–80), schools were built, public works started, and liberal reforms instituted. The War of the Triple Alliance (see Triple Alliance, War of the), 1865–70, brought little advantage to Argentina.

In 1880 federalism triumphed, and Gen. Julio A. Roca became president (1880–1886) Buenos Aires remained the capital, but the federal district was set up, and Buenos Aires prov. was given La Plata as its capital. Argentina flourished during Roca's administration. The conquest of the indigenous peoples by General Roca (1878–79) had made colonization of the region in the south and the southwest possible. Already the Pampa had begun to undergo its agricultural transformation. The immigration of Europeans helped to fill the land and to make Argentina one of the world's granaries.

Establishment of refrigerating plants for meat made expansion of commerce possible. The British not only became the prime consumers of Argentine products but also invested substantially in the construction of factories, public utilities, and railroads (which were nationalized in 1948). Efforts to end the power of the great landowners, however, were not genuinely successful, and the military tradition continued to play a part in politics, the army frequently combining with the conservatives and later with the growing ranks of labor to alter the government by coup.

The second administration of Roca (1898–1904) was marked by recovery from the crises of the intervening years a serious boundary dispute with Chile was settled (1902), and perpetual peace between the two nations was symbolized in the Christ of the Andes. Even before World War I, in which Argentina maintained neutrality, the wealthy nation had begun to act as an advocate for the rights and interests of Latin America as a whole, notably through Carlos Calvo, Luis M. Drago, and later Carlos Saavedra Lamas.

Internal problems, however, remained vexing. Electoral reforms introduced by Roque Sáenz Peña (1910–14) led to the victory of the Radical party under Hipólito Irigoyen (1916–22). He introduced social legislation, but when, after the presidency of Marcelo T. de Alvear, Irigoyen returned to power in 1928, his policies aroused much dissatisfaction even in his own party. In 1930 he was ousted by Gen. José F. Uriburu, and the conservative oligarchy—now with Fascist leanings—was again in power.

The administration (1932–38) of Agustín P. Justo was opposed by revolutionary movements, and a coalition of liberals and conservatives won an election victory. Radical leader Roberto M. Ortiz became president (1938), but serious illness caused him to resign (1942), and the conservative Ramón S. Castillo succeeded him. In 1943, Castillo was overthrown by a military coup. After two provisional presidents a palace revolt in 1944 brought to power a group of army colonels, chief among them Juan Perón. After four years of pro-Axis neutrality, Argentina belatedly (Mar., 1945) entered World War II on the side of the Allies and became a member of the United Nations. A return to liberal government momentarily seemed probable, but Perón was overwhelmingly victorious in the election of Feb., 1946.

Perón, an admirer of Mussolini, established a type of popular dictatorship new to Latin America, based initially on support from the army, reactionaries, nationalists, and some clerical groups. His regime was marked by curtailment of freedom of speech, confiscation of liberal newspapers such as La Prensa, imprisonment of political opponents, and transition to a one-party state. His second wife, the popular Eva Duarte de Perón, helped him gain the support of the trade unions, thereafter the main foundation of Perón's political power. In 1949 the constitution of 1853 was replaced by one that permitted Perón to succeed himself as president the Peronista political party was established the same year.

To cure Argentina's serious economic ills, Perón inaugurated a program of industrial development—which advanced rapidly in the 1940s and early 50s, although hampered by the lack of power resources and machine tools—supplemented by social welfare programs. Perón also placed the sale and export of wheat and beef under government control, thus undermining the political and economic power of the rural oligarchs. In the early 1950s, with recurring economic problems and with the death (1952) of his wife, Perón's popular support began to diminish. Agricultural production, long the chief source of revenue, dropped sharply and the economy faltered. The Roman Catholic church, alienated by the reversal of close church-state relations, excommunicated Perón and, finally, the armed forces became disillusioned with him. In 1955, Perón was ousted by a military coup, and the interim military government of Gen. Pedro Aramburu attempted to rid the country of Justicialismo (Peronism). Perón fled to Paraguay and in 1960 went into exile in Spain.

In 1957, Argentina reverted to the constitution of 1853 as modified up to 1898. In 1958, Dr. Arturo Frondizi was elected president. Faced with the economic and fiscal crisis inherited from Perón, Frondizi, with U.S. advice and the promise of financial aid, initiated a program of austerity to stabilize the economy and check inflation. Leftists, as well as Peronistas, who still commanded strong popular support, criticized the plan because the burden lay most heavily on the working and lower middle classes.

Frondizi later fell into disfavor with the military because of his leniency toward the regime of Fidel Castro in Cuba and toward Peronistas at home, who, in the congressional elections of 1962, scored a resounding victory. Frondizi was arrested and José María Guido assumed the presidency, but the military was in control. The Peronista and Communist parties were banned before presidential elections were held in 1963. Following the election of the moderate liberal Dr. Arturo Illia, many political prisoners were released and relative political stability returned. The new president was faced, however, with serious economic depression and with the difficult problem of reintegrating the Peronist forces into Argentine political life.

In 1964 an attempt by Perón to return from Spain and lead his followers was thwarted when he was turned back at Rio de Janeiro by Brazilian authorities. The Peronists, however, remained the strongest political force in the country unwilling to tolerate another resurgence of Peronism, a junta of military leaders, supported by business interests, seized power (1966) and placed Gen. Juan Carlos Onganía, a long-time right-wing opponent of Illía, in the presidency. Under Onganía, the new government dissolved the legislature, banned all political parties, and exercised unofficial press censorship Onganía also placed the national universities under government control.

Widespread opposition to the rigid rule of the Onganía regime grew, and the military deposed him (1970), naming Gen. Roberto M. Levingston president. Economic problems and increased terrorist activities caused Gen. Alejandro Lanusse, the leader of the coup against Onganía, to dismiss (1971) Levingston and initiate an active program for economic growth, distribution of wealth, and political stability. His direct negotiations with Juan Perón and his call for national elections and a civilian government led to the return of Perón to Argentina in 1972.

After failing to achieve unity among the various Peronist groups, Perón declined the nomination from his supporters to run for president in the Mar., 1973, elections, which were won by Dr. Hector Cámpora, the Peronist candidate, who subsequently resigned from office to make way for Perón's return. When new elections were held in Sept., 1973, Perón was elected president and his third wife, Isabel Martínez Perón, vice president. Perón died in July, 1974, and was succeeded by his widow. Her government faced economic troubles, labor unrest, political violence, and deep divisions within the Peronista party.

In 1976, Isabel Perón was deposed by a military junta under the leadership of Jorge Rafael Videla, who served as president until 1981. The government suspended political and trade union activity, dissolved the congress, made alterations to the constitution, and removed most government officals. During the military rule thousands of citizens suspected of undermining the government disappeared in what became known as the dirty war. In 1981 Argentina petitioned the United Nations for possession of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), which had been occupied and claimed by the British since 1832. Tensions escalated until, on Apr. 2, 1982, Argentina, now under the rule of Lt.-Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri, invaded and occupied the islands. British forces responded quickly, forcing a surrender by Argentine forces within 6 weeks. The Argentine defeat led to Galtieri's resignation and subsequently to the end of military rule. Retired Gen. Reynaldo Bignone succeeded Galtieri as president and oversaw the return to democracy.

In 1983, Raúl Alfonsín won the presidency, but persistent economic problems plagued his tenure in office. Carlos Saúl Menem was elected president in 1988, bringing the Peronist Justicialist party back into power. A reform-minded leader, he stimulated economic growth and subdued hyperinflation in the early 1990s by instituting a major program of privatization, encouraging foreign investment, and tying the Argentine peso to the U.S. dollar. Constitutional amendments approved in 1994 placed curbs on presidential power and increased opposition power in the senate, while clearing the way for Menem to seek a second successive term as president. He was reelected in 1995. The Justicialists lost legislative elections to the opposition Alianza coalition in 1997, as the country struggled with recession and continuing high unemployment. Argentina's relations with Paraguay soured in 1999 when Menem's government sheltered Paraguayan Gen. Lino Oviedo for eight months Oviedo was wanted for the murder of Paraguay's vice president.

In Oct., 1999, Fernando de la Rúa of Alianza was elected president, soundly defeating the Peronist candidate. De la Rúa's victory was in part a rejection of Menem's perceived flamboyance and tolerance of corruption during his last term. The new president moved quickly to institute austerity measures and reforms to improve the economy taxes were increased to reduce the deficit, the government bureaucracy was trimmed, and legal restrictions on union negotiations were eased. De la Rúa also purged (2000) the army and state intelligence agency of the last suspected participants in the dirty war of the 1970s and 80s.

By late 2000, however, de la Rúa's presidency was under siege on two fronts. Several senators, mainly from the Justicialist party, were accused of taking bribes to vote for the government's labor-code revisions, and two cabinet members were also implicated. When the cabinet members were retained after a reorganization, Vice President Carlos Álvarez resigned in protest. The Argentine economy had slipped into recession in late 1999, and Argentina was forced in to seek help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and private banks to reduce its debt. In Dec., 2000, an aid package of nearly $40 billion was arranged, and the government announced a $20 billion public works program that was designed to help revive the economy.

Further economic measures designed to revived the ailing economy were adopted in 2001, including the pegging of the peso for imports and exports to the average value of the dollar and the euro combined, additional government austerity measures, and additional billions in IMF aid. The economy remained in recession, however, aggravating the problems posed by the debt and by the restrictions that the IMF imposed in return for aid, and unemployment rose to around 20% at the end of 2001. In legislative elections in Oct., 2001, the opposition Justicialist party became the largest party in both houses of the national congress. In November the government began restructuring the debt, putting it essentially in default. Ongoing economic problems led to a crisis of confidence as depositors began a run on the banks, resulting in limits on withdrawals (largely lifted a year later), and the IMF took a hard line, insisting on a 10% cut in the budget before making further payments.

Nationwide food riots and demonstrations erupted in late December, leading the president to resign. A series of interim presidents and renewed demonstrations ended with the appointment of Justicialist senator Eduardo Alberto Duhalde as president in Jan., 2002. Duhalde, who had been a free-spending provincial governor and the Peronists' 1999 presidential candidate, devalued the peso, which lost more than two thirds of its value. The depressed economy, meanwhile, remained in disarray until early 2003, when it showed some signs of slow improvement.

Néstor Carlos Kirchner, the governor of Santa Cruz prov. in Patagonia, won the spring 2003 presidential race when former president Menem withdrew from the runoff election polls indicated that Kirchner would win by a landslide. Congress subsequently repealed two amnesty laws, passed in the 1980s, that had protected military officers accused of human rights offenses, and in 2005 the supreme court upheld the move, overturning the amnesty laws as unconstitutional. Pardons given to several military government leaders were subsequently also overturned by the court, and arrest warrants were issued for Isabel Perón, who was in exile in Spain, and others. A number of former military officers and others were later convicted of human-rights crimes, including former Presidents Bignone and Videla.

Kirchner won favorable terms from from the IMF in Sept., 2003, refusing to make concessions in exchange for refinancing Argentina's debt. Kirchner's government continued into 2004 its policy of aggressively seeking more favorable terms, but was not successful in negotiating new terms for repaying private creditors until 2005, when some three quarters of its bondholders agreed to accept partial repayment. The economy grew strongly in 2003–5, reducing the unemployment rate, but the effects of the 2001–2 economic collapse continued to hurt many Argentines.

In Oct., 2005, the popular Kirchner benefited from the improved economy when his Peronists won control of the senate and a plurality in the lower house. With a strengthened political hand, Kirchner replaced his respected but more conservative economy minister with an ally. Argentina paid off its IMF debt in Jan., 2006, in an effort to regain greater flexibility in its economic policy. Kirchner also used the influence of his office to fight inflation by pressuring Argentinian companies into holding down price increases. His presidency also saw a trend toward renationalization of certain Argentinian businesses, including railroads and telecommunications companies.

In 2006 there were tensions with Uruguay over plans there to build pulp mills along the Argentina border on the Uruguay River. Argentinians fearing possible pollution from the mills blockaded several bridges into Uruguay, and Argentina accused Uruguay of contravening the treaty on joint use of the river. Argentina took the issue to the International Court of Justice, which accepted it but allowed construction of the one mill that Uruguay ended up building to proceed while the court decided the case. The court also refused to order Argentina to halt the protests, which continued until June, 2010. In 2010 the court largely ruled in favor of Uruguay, determining that it had met its environmental obligations under the treat, and it refused to order the mill to close.

Kirchner chose not to run in 2007 for a second term, but his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who had served as a provincial and national deputy and national senator, mounted her own candidacy. Running strongly and promising to continue her husband's policies, she was elected in Oct., 2007, becoming the first woman to be elected president. In a court case in Florida, U.S. prosecutors later (Dec., 2007) alleged that $800,000 found (Aug., 2007) by Argentinian customs officers on a private flight from Venezuela was intended to be a secret Venezuelan government contribution to Fernández de Kirchner's campaign. The Argentinian government denounced the allegation, but two Venezuelans and a Uruguayan arrested in the United States in connection with the money pleaded guilty to acting as unregistered foreign government agents and revealed details of the payment and its coverup and a third Venezuelan was convicted on similar charges in Nov., 2008.

Beginning in Mar., 2008, farmers protested increased export taxes on farm products by striking and blockading roads, leading to some food shortages in major cities at times. The government abandoned the tax increases in July after the Senate narrowly failed to approve them. Tensions between the government and farmers continued, however, into 2009, aggravated by drought and falling demand. In Mar., 2009, both sides reached accords on compensation for several clases of farm products.

In Oct, 2008, the government moved to nationalize 10 private pension plans. The government asserted it was acting to protect them from the global financial crisis, but many viewed it as a repudiation of the privatizations of the 1990s and also possibly as an attempt to secure funds in the face of a looming budget shortfall. The move caused stocks and the Argentinian peso to fall sharply the national airline was also nationalized. The government subsequently used some of the pension assets as part of an economic stimulus package. Congressional elections in June, 2009, resulted in losses for the governing party, which failed to secure majorities in both houses.

In Jan., 2010, a move by the government to use foreign currency reserves to repay some of Argentina's international debt sparked a conflict between the president and the head of the central bank, Martín Redrado, who refused to transfer the reserves. The president sought to remove Redrado by emergency decree, but a court ruled that she could neither remove him nor use the reserves. Redrado, however, subsequently resigned. In Mar., 2010, the president issued new decrees transferring $6.6. billion of the reserves, and an appeals court upheld the decrees when the opposition challenged them. Debt swaps agreed to by June by most of the holders of the remaining bonds that Argentina had defaulted on in 2001 left about 8% of the original bonds outstanding.

The start of oil exploration in the waters surrounding the Falkland Islands in Feb., 2010, led the Argentinian government to impose restrictions on vessels traveling through its waters to the islands. The islands' status became an increasingly contentious issue in Argentina's international relations in subsequent months, leading to strained relations with Great Britain by the time of the 30th anniversary of the Falklands War in Apr., 2012. In Oct., 2011, President Fernández de Kirchner, bouyed by significant economic growth, easily won reelection and her Front for Victory won control of Congress, but high inflation associated with the growth was an increasing concern and led to government regulations designed to control capital flight. Discontent over the economy and other issues led to demonstrations and strikes beginning in 2012. In May, 2012, the Congress approved the nationalization of the former national oil company, which had been privatized in 1999. The Front for Victory retained control of Congress after the Oct., 2013, elections. In December, police strikes over pay in many of the country's provinces led to outbreaks of looting across Argentina.

In Jan., 2014, after the government's long-standing efforts to support the peso had depleted its currency reserves, it abandoned those efforts, which led to a drop in the peso's value, and then relaxed foreign exchange controls. In June, 2014, Argentina lost its appeal against a U.S. court decision that required it to pay the owners of the outstanding bonds that it defaulted on in 2001 if the country paid bond owners who had exchanged their defaulted bonds in the debt swaps of 2005 and 2010. Argentina subsequently refused, and in September the country was declared in contempt of court the case restricted Argentina's access to international credit markets. Also that month, Vice President Amado Boudou was charged with corruption in connection with government aid received by a printing company he was accused of secretly owning he was convicted in 2018.

In early 2015 the president was accused by a prosecutor of shielding Iranians involved in a 1994 terrorist bombing of a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires in order to secure a trade deal. The prosecutor's death by a gunshot wound sparked a public crisis. A second prosecutor sought to pursue the charges, but they were dismissed. The president denounced the affair as a plot by Intelligence Secretariat agents to undermine her government, and had the congress vote to reorganize the agency.

Fernández de Kirchner was barred from running in the 2015 presidential election. Although the first round in October was won by the Front for Victory candidate, Daniel Scioli, he did not win by a large enough margin to avoid a runoff. In the November runoff, the candidate of the Let's Change coalition, Mauricio Macri, the center-right mayor of Buenos Aires, won 51% of the vote. In office Macri ended most currency controls and devalued the peso, resolved (2016) the outstanding bond claims that remained from the 2001 default, and moved to reduce government spending that subsidized the price of utilities and other items. In the Oct., 2017, legislative elections Macri's coalition won a plurality of the seats.

The withdrawal of international investments in the first half of 2018, due to changing international conditions and concerns about the Argentinian economy, created a liquidity crisis and led Macri to seek IMF aid, and the IMF approved a $50 billion credit line (later increased to more than $57 billion). Argentina's economy, however continued to be plagued by inflation (which approached 50% in 2018), devaluation, and a contracting economy. Late in 2018 the government adopted an austerity budget.

In Aug., 2019, President Macri placed a distant second in the country's open presidential primary to Alberto Fernández, the candidate of the main opposition coalition, the Peronist Frente do Todos Fernández's running mate was former president Fernández de Kirchner. Macri subsequently announced a number of economic relief measures. In October, Fernández won the presidential election in the first round. In December, the new government's economic emergency package, including tax and spending increases and emergency government powers, was enacted. The subsequent COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 worsened the economic crisis, and the government sought to restructure its foreign debt.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6ª ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. Todos os direitos reservados.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: South American Political Geography


Buenos Aires History Facts and Timeline

Around a third of Argentina's population lives in the 'greater' area of this South American nation's capital and most populated city, Buenos Aires. In fact, only Sao Paulo in Brazil boasts a bigger metropolitan population among Latin American cities than Buenos Aires.

The city from where the Tango dance originated has overcome a tumultuous past history filled with wars, coups d'état and dramatically fluctuating economies, to become one of Latin America's most peaceful, prosperous and exciting cities.

Pre-European Peoples

Prior to European arrival, the Guarani and the Diaguita were the area's most prominent inhabitants. Both tribes helped develop maize cultivation, while the Diaguita stopped the Inca from conquering Argentina long before Europeans first set foot on its soil in the early 16th century.

History of European Settlement

In 1516, indigenous tribes killed Spanish explorer Juan Diaz de Solis, the first European to sail into present-day Argentina. The same tribes forced the Europeans to flee their first attempt at a permanent colony and head for Asunción, Paraguay in 1539. The Europeans did not succeed in establishing a permanent settlement in Buenos Aires until 1580, after many indigenous tribes perished from European diseases.

Spanish Colony

By the early 17th century, pirates replaced indigenous tribes as the biggest threats to Buenos Aires. However, smuggling and illicit trade also formed a large part of the overall economy, as the city was prohibited from foreign trade. At this time, Spain paid far more attention to Peru than Argentina, since it was rich in gold and silver.

Buenos Aires finally found a prosperous and legal industry in its surrounding grasslands, where cattle provided beef and treated leather hides, which Europeans used to make clothes, shoes and accessories. Of note, in 1776, Buenos Aires became the base of the new Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata.

British Invasions

When Spain came under Napoleonic French control, the British staged two Buenos Aires invasions, in 1806 and again in the following year. After the city successfully fended off the British without Spanish assistance, it gained in confidence and pride. Shortly after Napoleon Bonaparte's French troops invaded Spain, Argentina declared its independence in 1816.

Independence History

Bloody conflicts between Unitarians wanting a strong national government, and Federalists who desired more provincial power, broke out in Buenos Aires. The much-hated Mazorca secret police persecuted the Unitarians, who formed the majority of the city's population, during the rule of Federalist Juan Manuel de Rosas. The year of 1852 saw Rosas ousted, while Argentina ratified its first constitution just a year later.

Immigration and Prosperity

Following two failed mid-1800s British and French invasions, Buenos Aires entered the most prosperous period in its history, especially after the railroad connected its port with its surrounding cattle ranches.

European immigrants flocked to Buenos Aires during the early 20th century. Although most of these immigrants came from Italy and Spain, Buenos Aires also welcomed many Germans, British, and in more recent years, Asians. Infamy was heaped on the country, however, during and after WWII, when many high-ranking Nazi officers escaped Europe and managed to set up new lives in Argentina.

Perón and Plaza de Mayo Bombing

Argentina's most famous leader, Juan Domingo Perón, first came to power as the Argentinian president in 1946. He was especially popular among the working class, due to his education reforms and pro-union stance.

In June of 1955, Argentina's navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo in a failed coup d'état, but Peron was eventually deposed during another military revolt just three months later. Perón died a year after his 1973 re-election and his wife, Maria Eva Duarte de Perón (often known as simply 'Evita'), succeeded him until another military coup overthrew her in 1976.

The Dirty War

When the military governed Argentina between 1976 and 1983, they cracked down hard on suspected dissidents, many of whom mysteriously disappeared altogether and remain missing to this day. About 30,000 people were believed to have been executed during this 'Dirty War,' which served as part of a larger alliance between South American right wing governments. After the 1983 end of the military dictatorship, many of its leaders received lifetime prison sentences. This was a dark period in Buenos Aires history, as was the bombing of the Israeli Embassy the following decade.

Recession and Recovery

Argentina's economy completely collapsed in 2001, after two years of recession, preceded by many more years of inflation. Numerous businesses went bankrupt and up-to a quarter of Argentina's total population became unemployed before the economy finally stabilised. Buenos Aires, and the rest of Argentina, has once again become a calm and prosperous city.


Peron coming into power in Argentina

It seems to me that Peron came to power as a result of the mixture of the Latin American political/economic culture in existence in Argentina with the European immigrants (particularly Italian) coming to the country and the Great Depression with all its effects. In other words, when the Italian (and other) immigrants came to Argentina, they tended to be anarchist or syndicalist or what have you, and wanted to integrate themselves there and get full rights, etc. They were put down for a long time by the old conservative elites (representative of at least part of Latin American political culture) that engineered the coup of 1930 in the midst of the Depression, and that paved the way for Peron's popularity among the descendants of European immigrants. Is that a fair way of portraying the lead-on to Peronism, and why Argentina's political development was different than with many other Latin American countries (given that not nearly as many immigrants - particularly Italian - proportionally came to those other countries)?

If that's so, then even a scenario where Yrigoyen is dead sooner or where Ortiz is president for longer may merely buy some time in terms of avoiding a coup or what not - by a few to several years. Then, Argentina would have perhaps developed much like in real life anyway - who knows?


History of Argentina - Revolution of '43 (1943-1946)

The civilian government appeared to be close to joining the allies, but many officers of the Argentine armed forces (and ordinary Argentine citizens) objected due to fear of the spread of communism. There was a wide support to stay neutral in the conflict, as during WWI. The government was also questioned by domestic policy reasons, namely, the electoral fraud, the poor labour rights and the selection of Patrón Costas to run for the presidency.

On June 4, 1943, the G.O.U. (Grupo de Oficiales Unidos), which was a secret alliance between military leaders led by Pedro Pablo Ramírez, Arturo Rawson, Edelmiro Farrell and Farrell's protégé Juan Domingo Perón marched to the Casa Rosada and demanded the resignation of president Castillo. After hours of threats their goal was achieved and the president resigned. This event is considered by historians as the official end of the Infamous Decade.

After the coup, Ramírez took power. Although he did not declare war, he broke relations with the Axis powers. Argentina's largest neighbor, Brazil, had already entered the war on the allied side in 1942.

In 1944 Ramirez was replaced by Farrell, an army officer of Irish-Argentine origin who had spent two years attached to Mussolini's army in the twenties. Initially his government continued to maintain a neutral policy. Towards the end of the war, Farrell decided it was in the interests of Argentina to be attached to the winning side. Like several Latin American states, Argentina made a late declaration of war against Germany with no intention of providing any military forces.

Juan Domingo Perón managed the relations with labourers and unions, and become highly popular. He was deposed and detained at the Martín García island, but a massive demonstration on October 17, 1945, forced the government to free Perón and restore him to office. Perón would win the elections shortly afterwards by a landslide. The US ambassador, Spruille Braden, took direct action in Argentine politics supporting the antiperonist parties.


Assista o vídeo: Perón e o Peronismo na Argentina - Resumo (Janeiro 2022).