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Dumbarton - História

Dumbarton - História

Dumbarton

Um condado e uma cidade na Escócia.

(SwStr: t. 636; 1. 204 '; b. 29'; dr. 10 '; s. 10 k .; a. 2 32
pdr., 2 12-pdr. Como as.)

Thistle, um navio a vapor lateral, foi capturado pelo Fort Jackson em 1º de junho de 1864 enquanto executava o bloqueio ao largo da costa da Carolina do Norte; enviado a Boston para condenação, comprado na corte de prêmios em 20 de julho de 1864, renomeado Dumbarton; e comissionado em 13 de agosto de 1864, tenente voluntário em exercício H. Brown no comando.

A primeira tarefa de Dumbarton foi procurar o invasor CSS Tallahassee ao longo da costa do Atlântico. Ela então se juntou ao Esquadrão de Bloqueio do Atlântico Norte em Beaufort, N.C. e serviu no bloqueio de Wilmington N.C., até 6 de dezembro de 1864.

Depois de estar no Norfolk Navy Yard, Dumbarton serviu como navio almirante do Contra-almirante W. Radford em James River, VA., De 17 de fevereiro a 27 de março de 1865. Ela ficou fora de serviço no Washington Navy Yard até 11 de novembro de 1865, quando foi levada para New York Navy Yard e colocado em comum. Ela foi vendida lá em 15 de outubro de 1867.


História dos Jardins

Em 1921, Mildred Bliss começou a trabalhar com a paisagista Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872–1959) para projetar o jardim em Dumbarton Oaks. As duas mulheres trabalharam em estreita colaboração por quase trinta anos para alcançar sua visão de jardins e vistas panorâmicas, pomares e hortas, e uma vasta região selvagem de prados e caminhos arborizados. Eles também trabalharam juntos no projeto e na escolha de enfeites de jardim - bancos, portões, remates e esculturas.

A transferência de Dumbarton Oaks para a Universidade de Harvard em 1940 incluiu aproximadamente dezesseis acres de terra, incluindo os jardins superiores mais formais. Vinte e sete acres, incluindo a natureza mais naturalística, foram doados ao governo dos Estados Unidos para criar o Parque Dumbarton Oaks. Outros dez acres foram vendidos para construir a embaixada dinamarquesa.

Em 1941, antecipando as mudanças inevitáveis ​​que acompanhariam as diferentes funções do jardim, Farrand começou a escrever um Livro de Plantas para definir suas intenções de projeto e sugerir práticas de manutenção adequadas. Suas sugestões para mordomia ainda são úteis hoje.

Após a aposentadoria gradual de Beatrix Farrand na década de 1940 e sua morte em 1959, outros arquitetos paisagistas trabalharam nas mudanças no jardim Dumbarton Oaks. Entre eles estavam Ruth Havey (1899–1980), Ralph E. Griswold (1894–1981) e Alden Hopkins (1905–1960). O jardim foi mantido sob a orientação dos superintendentes: William Gray de 1922 a 1937, James Bryce de 1937 a 1948, Matthew Kearney de 1948 a 1973, Donald Smith de 1973 a 1992, Philip Page de 1992 a 1996 e Gail Griffin de 1997 a 2018 e Jonathan Kavalier de 2018 até o presente.


O que Dumbarton registros de família você vai encontrar?

Existem 793 registros de censo disponíveis para o sobrenome Dumbarton. Como uma janela para sua vida cotidiana, os registros do censo de Dumbarton podem dizer onde e como seus antepassados ​​trabalharam, seu nível de educação, status de veterano e muito mais.

Existem 105 registros de imigração disponíveis para o sobrenome Dumbarton. As listas de passageiros são o seu bilhete para saber quando seus ancestrais chegaram aos EUA e como eles fizeram a viagem - do nome do navio aos portos de chegada e partida.

Existem 61 registros militares disponíveis para o sobrenome Dumbarton. Para os veteranos entre seus ancestrais Dumbarton, coleções militares fornecem insights sobre onde e quando serviram, e até mesmo descrições físicas.

Existem 793 registros de censo disponíveis para o sobrenome Dumbarton. Como uma janela para sua vida cotidiana, os registros do censo de Dumbarton podem dizer onde e como seus antepassados ​​trabalharam, seu nível de educação, status de veterano e muito mais.

Existem 105 registros de imigração disponíveis para o sobrenome Dumbarton. As listas de passageiros são o seu bilhete para saber quando seus ancestrais chegaram aos EUA e como eles fizeram a viagem - do nome do navio aos portos de chegada e partida.

Existem 61 registros militares disponíveis para o sobrenome Dumbarton. Para os veteranos entre seus ancestrais Dumbarton, coleções militares fornecem insights sobre onde e quando serviram, e até mesmo descrições físicas.


À mercê de invasores estrangeiros - a rocha dominada

Os bretões e pictos eram inquietos e nunca se submeteram totalmente ao domínio romano. Quando a era romana na Grã-Bretanha chegou ao fim, por volta de 400 DC, Alcluith mais uma vez caiu nas mãos dos britânicos. Anteriormente, este local foi a sede de uma longa linhagem de reis dos britânicos de Strathclyde. Essas sucessivas gerações de britânicos sempre chamaram o local de “Dunbritton”, que significa “Forte dos Britânicos”.

Por volta de 756 DC, o castelo mais uma vez se tornou o cenário de ação acalorada quando o Rei Eadgbert de Northumberland, acompanhado pelo Rei Uengust dos pictos, sitiou o Castelo de Dumbarton, conquistou-o e o perdeu novamente vários dias depois. O castelo aparece mais uma vez nos arquivos históricos em 782 DC, quando foi queimado e saqueado no dia 1 de janeiro, embora os relatos não mencionem por quem.

As décadas seguintes viram o restabelecimento do assentamento Alcluith, que continuou a ser o centro do reino Alclud. Mas em 872, uma nova página negra em sua história foi escrita. Naquele ano, uma força de vikings dinamarqueses e noruegueses, com base na Irlanda, sitiou o castelo liderado por seus pequenos reis vikings Ivar Beinlaus, o Aleijado (Ímar) ​​e Óláfr, o Branco (Amlaíb). O cerco durou quatro meses. Quando o suprimento de água do castelo finalmente acabou, o castelo caiu nas mãos dos Viking. Os vikings saquearam e destruíram completamente, levando com eles uma legião de cativos. Após este saque, o Castelo de Dumbarton não é mencionado nos arquivos novamente até o século 13.

A maioria das estruturas que existem hoje foram adicionadas mais tarde, enquanto as defesas originais da Idade do Ferro quase não sobreviveram. O Arco Portcullis do século 14 (à esquerda) é a estrutura mais antiga sobrevivente na Pedra do Dumbarton. (Esquerda: Lairich Rig / CC BY-2.0 Certo: Tom Parnell / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

O Castelo Dumbarton que podemos ver hoje é quase totalmente de construção medieval. As defesas originais da Idade do Ferro foram escavadas e documentadas arqueologicamente. As fortificações medievais foram simplesmente construídas, ou melhoradas, em cima das fortificações originais. Além disso, alguns dos primeiros elementos medievais do complexo do castelo foram destruídos ao longo dos tempos. Os segmentos sobreviventes mais antigos são o Arco Portcullis e a casa da guarda. A maioria dos outros edifícios, como as posições de defesa de artilharia, a casa do governador, a prisão e os depósitos de pólvora, foram adicionados mais tarde e podem ser rastreados por volta do século 17. A Pedra do Dumbarton, em cuja base está o castelo, tem dois picos notáveis. São conhecidos como Bico e Penhasco da Torre Branca.


Dumbarton - História

INVASÃO ROMANA. & # 8212Quando os romanos com seus exércitos vitoriosos entraram na Caledônia, a terra dos pictos, encontramos seus historiadores, ao descreverem os limites setentrionais de suas conquistas, frequentemente aludindo a esta antiga cidade, em um período muito antigo, sob o nome de Alcluith ou Alcluyd. Os Atticotti, uma tribo muito poderosa e formidável, que vivia ao longo das margens norte do rio Clyde, eram seus então possuidores. Atticotti é um nome que importa moradores ao longo da extremidade das florestas da Caledônia. Os descendentes deste povo nunca foram totalmente suprimidos ou banidos de seus campos de caça pelos invasores romanos. Ptolomeu, um escritor romano, diz que os Gadeni, outra tribo dos habitantes originais, moravam na margem sul do Clyde. Pinkerton, em sua investigação sobre as Antiguidades Históricas da Escócia, mantém sem dúvida que a tribo Atticotti eram os antigos habitantes de Dumbartonshire, e ele cita Richard de Cirencester, um antigo historiador, que corrobora isso. (Ver livro I. cap. 6.) A tradução da passagem, do latim original de Richard, é a seguinte: & # 8212 & quot A tribo Atticotti ainda & # 8226 habitava um pouco mais abaixo nas margens do Clotto (ou Clyde), uma nação então e depois formidável para toda a Grã-Bretanha. Aqui foi visto um grande lago (Lochlomond), cujo nome antigamente era Lyncalidor perto da foz do qual a cidade de Aicluith, fundada pelos romanos, tinha um nome que lhe foi dado pouco tempo antes pelo general romano Teodósio, que tinha retomar a província ocupada pelos bárbaros. Com isso nenhuma cidade poderia ser comparada, porque tinha sustentado até o fim os assaltos do inimigo romano depois que as outras províncias vizinhas foram totalmente subjugadas. & Quot

A cidade de Alcluith ficava assim situada nas imediações e formava o agradável e encantador subúrbio ocidental da extensa muralha romana erguida entre o Clyde e o Forth. Embora uma província bárbara, parece que a princípio ela se recusou nobremente a se submeter à cruel escravidão de um inimigo estrangeiro, mas foi finalmente conquistada. No entanto, desprezou tornar-se tributário de seus inimigos e novamente se revoltou contra o jugo romano. Pouco depois, foi novamente recuperado pelos soldados romanos vitoriosos, liderados por seu intrépido general Teodósio. Parece, pelos romanos antigos e outros autores, que esta & quotCidade de Alcluith & quot (porque assim foi chamada) foi fundada e construída por este general romano.

No ano 367, o imperador romano Valentiniano, o Primeiro, enviou novamente Teodósio, seu general à Grã-Bretanha, contra os pictos e escoceses, que não apenas os repeliram, mas tomaram suas terras entre as paredes e as ergueram em uma província chamada após o nome de o imperador Valência. Ele fortificou fortemente suas fronteiras norte e oeste, entre o Clyde e o Forth e no ano 368 construiu Theodosia ou Alcluith como uma fortaleza e cidade de fronteira. Portanto, este lugar foi posteriormente considerado por Bede e outros historiadores como o grande limite entre os britânicos e os pictos. (Ver Richard, livro I. cap. 7.)

Os descendentes da tribo Atticotti habitaram por muito tempo as fronteiras e margens do norte do Clyde. Depois de muitas eras de guerra e numerosos conflitos com outras tribos, que invejavam muito seu atraente país, eles foram muito saqueados, mas ainda permaneceram em seus antigos domínios com o falecimento de Beda, que era um historiador monge, e que morreu no ano 734. Eles ainda foram reconhecidos como um povo distinto e separado mesmo por algumas eras depois.

Os romanos abandonaram voluntariamente a Grã-Bretanha por volta do ano 409 após a era cristã. Os britânicos, porém, por volta do ano 421, solicitaram sua ajuda contra os pictos e escoceses. O exército romano chegou e repeliu o inimigo, e fez com que os bretões construíssem um muro de turfa ou baluarte na marcha entre o Clyde e o Forth, já que o primeiro lamento havia sido derrubado por completo. Bode dá um relato muito distinto e minucioso desta parede (Sec livro I. cap. 12), que alcança, ele diz, & quotdesde as vizinhanças da cidade de Alcluith para um lugar cerca de duas milhas a oeste de Abercorn, situado na margem sul do Forth, chamado Cairn-in. ”A parede de Antoninus foi construída de turfa sobre um alicerce de pedra e tinha cerca de quatro metros ou doze pés de espessura. As legiões romanas empregadas para erguê-lo foram a segunda, a sexta e a vigésima, e três legiões, quando completas, totalizariam 36 mil homens & # 8212 cada legião romana construiu quatro milhas e seiscentos e sessenta e seis passos desta parede .

Os únicos vestígios desta parede cruzam as paróquias de Kilsyth e New Kilpatrick, e podem ser vistos em Dunglass, na orla do Clyde. Há também uma ponte de dois arcos na vila de Duntocher. Essas relíquias antigas têm agora mais de 1400 anos. Esta ponte ficou muito dilapidada, mas foi melhorada e reparada sob a direção e às custas do falecido Lorde Blantyre, que restaurou a inscrição original, que está esculpida em uma grande pedra colocada no edifício & # 8212 seu Senhorio anexando um anexo a ele, comemorativo de seu gosto louvável e zelo pelas antiguidades clássicas. A inscrição é em latim. A tradução em inglês é a seguinte: - & quot Esta ponte foi construída sob os auspícios do Imperador Titus Elius Antoninus Hadrianus Augustus, pai de seu país, por Quintus Lollius Urbicus, seu tenente: sendo quase ruinosa, foi restaurada por Lord Blantyre, no ano de nosso Senhor 1772. & quot

A seguinte descrição dos antigos caledônios é dada por Dio, um historiador romano no período em que Severo, o imperador romano, invadiu seu país no ano 183: ela será considerada muito impressionante e interessante.

Ele diz & # 8212 & quotDos bárbaros bretões, há duas grandes nações, chamadas de Caledoni e de M

comerse para o resto são geralmente compreendidos nestes. Os Maatte moram perto da grande muralha que divide a ilha em duas partes que os Caledônios habitam além deles. Ambos possuem montanhas escarpadas e secas e planícies desérticas cheias de pântanos. Eles não têm castelos nem cidades, nem cultivam a terra, mas vivem principalmente de seus rebanhos e da caça, e dos frutos de algumas árvores. Eles não comem peixe, embora sejam muito abundantes. Eles vivem em tendas rústicas, completamente nus e sem buskins. Eles têm esposas em comum e criam todos os filhos em comum. Sua forma geral de governo é democrática. Eles são viciados em roubos, lutam em carros e têm cavalos muito pequenos e velozes. Sua infantaria é notavelmente rápida na corrida, e também notável pela ousadia e firmeza em enfrentar um inimigo. Sua armadura consiste em um escudo e uma lança curta, na extremidade inferior da qual está uma grande maçã de bronze, cujo som, ao ser golpeada, freqüentemente apavora o inimigo: eles também têm adagas. Eles podem suportar fome, frio e todo tipo de trabalho, pois até mesmo ficarão em seus pântanos por muitos dias até o pescoço na água, e na floresta viverão da casca e das raízes das árvores. Em muitas ocasiões preparam determinado tipo de comida, das quais, comendo apenas um pedacinho do tamanho de um feijão, não sentem fome nem sede por muito tempo. Tal é a Grã-Bretanha e tais são os habitantes daquela terra que tão corajosamente se destacou contra os romanos. Que é uma ilha já foi mostrado antes. Seu comprimento é de sete mil cento e trinta e dois estádios (oito estádios são cerca de uma milha inglesa). Sua largura máxima é de dois mil trezentos e dez estádios; sua largura máxima é de trezentos estádios. Desta ilha, não muito menos da metade é conquistada por Severo, e ele, querendo reduzir o todo sob seu próprio poder, entrou na Caledônia. Em sua marcha, ele encontrou dificuldades indescritíveis, em derrubar bosques, nivelar eminências, erguer bancos em pântanos e construir pontes sobre rios, ele não lutou em batalhas, o inimigo nunca apareceu em formação de batalha, mas eles deliberadamente colocaram ovelhas e bois no caminho de nossas tropas, que, embora nossos soldados tentassem apreendê-los, e pela fraude fossem arrastados para desfiladeiros, eles poderiam ser mais facilmente eliminados. Os lagos foram igualmente destrutivos para os nossos homens, ao dividi-los, de modo que caíram em emboscadas e, embora não pudessem ser retirados, foram mortos pelo nosso próprio exército, para não caírem nas mãos do inimigo. Devido a essas causas, morreram nada menos que cinquenta mil de nossas tropas. Severo, entretanto, não desistiu até que alcançou a parte extrema da ilha, quando diligentemente observou a diversidade do curso solar e a duração do dia e da noite no verão e no inverno. Por fim, depois de ter sido carregado pela maior parte da terra hostil (pois devido à sua fraqueza ele geralmente era carregado em uma liteira aberta), ele retornou às partes amigáveis ​​da ilha, os bárbaros bretões do norte sendo forçados a concluir uma espécie de aliança, com a condição de que lhes cedam uma pequena parte de seu país. & quot

Dio então relata que Severo, em uma conferência com os Caledônios, quase foi morto por seu filho Antoninus Caracalla. Ele então adiciona & # 8212 & quot. Depois disso, os ferozes bretões novamente se revoltaram contra o que Severo, reunindo todo o seu exército, ordenou-lhes que invadissem o país e não cedessem trégua: repetindo esses versos exterminadores de poesia & # 8212

& quotDeixe ninguém escapar de suas mãos e da matança cruel
Nem mesmo o bebê ainda sem culpa no útero. & Quot

Herodian, outro historiador, acrescenta & # 8212 & quot Em primeiro lugar, Severus teve o cuidado de cobrir o pântano de forma segura com pontes, 80 para que seus soldados ficassem e lutassem em solo sólido & # 8212 porque muitos lugares na Grã-Bretanha ficaram pantanosos pelas freqüentes inundações de o oceano e através desses pântanos os próprios bárbaros muitas vezes nadam ou vadiam, afundam até a barriga na lama e frequentemente nus, independentemente do limo & # 8212, pois eles desconhecem o uso de roupas. Eles circundam a barriga e o pescoço com ferro, pensando que isso é um ornamento e uma prova de riqueza, da mesma forma que o ouro é feito com outros bárbaros. Além disso, eles marcam seus corpos com várias imagens e as formas de uma variedade de animais, por isso não se vestem, pelo menos deveriam cobrir as pinturas de seus corpos, mas são um povo guerreiro e se alegram com o massacre. Seus braços consistem em um escudo estreito e uma lança, com uma espada golpeando seus corpos nus. Eles desconhecem quase inteiramente o uso de uma cota de malha ou de um capacete, pensando nesses impedimentos de passagem. através de seus pântanos, geralmente cobertos de vapores e escuros de exalações. & quot

Solinus, outro historiador romano, (cap. 25) diz & # 8212. & quotOs caledônios e bretões são selvagens e guerreiros. Após a batalha, os vencedores mancham seus rostos com o sangue de seus inimigos massacrados. Se uma mulher dá à luz um filho varão, seu primeiro alimento é colocado sobre a espada de seu marido, e gentilmente colocado em sua boquinha com a ponta da arma, enquanto a mãe afetuosa sinceramente oferece seus votos de que seu filho pode não encontrar a morte, mas no campo de batalha e nas armas. & quot

Tendo dado a você uma descrição autêntica, por autores romanos, de nossos ancestrais remotos, em seu estado selvagem e sua aparência rude de guerreiro, permita-me agora adicionar um extrato muito curto sobre sua idolatria grosseira e modo cruel de adoração.

Sammes, um historiador antigo, em suas antiguidades da Grã-Bretanha, observa & # 8212 & quotOs nativos homenagearam o ídolo Rugyvith, que tinha sete faces ao ídolo Porevith, que tinha cinco cabeças, e a Porenuth, que tinha quatro faces pertencentes a sua cabeça, e um rosto no peito ”. (Página 454.) Este autor, ao tratar dos deuses dos antigos bretões, menciona, entre outras coisas, que eles sacrificavam seres humanos aos seus ídolos. & quotFizeram & quot, diz ele, & cota a estátua ou imagem de um homem de vastas dimensões, cujos membros consistiam em ramos entrelaçados à maneira de cestaria, encheram-nos de homens vivos e, em seguida, atearam fogo e consumiram-nos nas chamas . & quot (Página 104.)

Os caledônios, escoceses e pictos pareciam ter se parecido em maneiras e ferocidade, e exercer essa última qualidade sem escrúpulos sobre os colonos romanos. Essas nações frequentemente convertiam seus cabelos desgrenhados e emaranhados em uma espécie de adorno natural para a cabeça, que servia como capacete ou máscara, conforme fosse considerado necessário. Em geral, suas casas eram construídas com barbatanas ou, em épocas mais perigosas, cavavam o solo em escavações compridas e tortuosas, algumas das quais ainda existem, e cuja idéia parece ter sido sugerida por uma coelheira. Mesmo sobre essas pessoas selvagens, habitando um país tão selvagem quanto eles, & quotthe sol da Justiça surgiu com cura sob suas asas. & Quot

Bons homens, como Columba e seus seguidores, a quem o nome de & quotsaint & quot (não usado então em um sentido supersticioso) foi justamente concedido, e para quem a vida e os prazeres deste mundo eram como nada, então eles só podiam chamar de perecer pecadores a abraçarem o evangelho, & # 8212sais homens devotados empreenderam nobremente, sob a graça divina, e felizmente tiveram sucesso, na perigosa tarefa de iluminar esses selvagens ignorantes nas verdades sublimes do Cristianismo.

Apresentamos agora aos nossos leitores um breve esboço do que foi nossa terra natal originalmente em eras passadas, preparando assim suas mentes já bem informadas para o início da história de nosso próprio local favorito, onde nossos rudes antepassados ​​Atticotti percorriam as florestas e desertos em todos os selvageria de seus hábitos incivilizados.

Como devemos agora saudar com sincera gratidão as mudanças maravilhosas e surpreendentes que ocorreram em nosso feliz país desde o primeiro alvorecer da civilização, e especialmente desde que o sol forte do Cristianismo surgiu e brilhou sobre as Ilhas Britânicas. Vamos, portanto, nos unir na entrega do bendito evangelho a outras nações selvagens e idólatras, como foi feito aos nossos ancestrais logo após o alvorecer da era cristã.

DUMBARTON. & # 8212O nome desta cidade parece ter sofrido várias mudanças ao longo do tempo. Parece ter estado intimamente ligado ao de sua romântica rocha e castelo, que fica nas imediações. Muitos autores antigos supõem que tenha sido o Baiclutha de Ossian, que escreveu no século IV, cuja queda é lindamente descrita por Carthon, seu então proprietário. “Eu vi as paredes de Balclutha, mas elas estavam desoladas. O fogo ressoou nos corredores, e a voz do povo não é mais ouvida. O riacho de Clutha foi removido de seu lugar pela queda das paredes. O cardo balança ali sua cabeça solitária. A raposa olha pela janela a grama rançosa das paredes ondulando em torno de sua cabeça. Desolada é a morada de Moina, o silêncio está na casa de seus pais. Eu vou, disse o grande Classamor, em meu navio saltitante, às muralhas das torres de Balclutha. O vento rugiu atrás de minhas velas, e os riachos de Clutla receberam minha embarcação de peito escuro. ”(Poemas de Ossian, vol. I. Pp. 78-80.)

A distinta fortaleza sob cuja proteção a cidade permaneceu por muito tempo segura, parece originalmente ter dado o nome a ela .__ Alcluyd ou Alcluith Al, em galês, significa Rocha. Petracloethe significa o Rochedo de Clyde. Foi, desde uma época muito remota, a residência real ou residência de uma longa sucessão de antigos reis dos bretões de Strathclyde, que anteriormente reinavam dentro das muralhas do castelo ou nos arredores da cidade. Chalmers, em seu Gazetteer, diz: & quot Que nos primeiros tempos havia uma igreja aqui, que era a antiga residência dos Reguli dos britânicos de Strathclyde. & Quot É mais do que provável que esta Igreja fosse aquela que deveria ter sido fundada por Columba, e ao qual será feita referência imediata.

Adomnan, eleito Abade de Íons, ou Icolumbkill, no ano de 679, escreveu a Vida de São Columba, em três livros. No primeiro livro dos volumes do manuscrito & # 8212 presente na Advocates 'Library, Edimburgo & # 8212, o décimo quarto capítulo é assim: & quotA profecia do homem santo (significando São Columba) a respeito do rei Roderick, filho de Totail, que reinou em Petracloethe , ou a Rocha do Clyde. ”Diz-se que este rei foi um monarca muito generoso e foi muito elogiado por seus contemporâneos. Ele é designado por alguns autores como & quotRhyd-derech-hael ,, o generoso Rei dos bretões no Cluyd. & Quot

& quotAs gerações seguintes dos britânicos originais, & quot diz Camden, um dos primeiros escritores, & quotchamaram esta cidade de Dunbritton, ou Forte dos Britânicos. & quot . (Conforme citado em Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. Iii. P. 856.)

O ano 756 é dito por iloveden e Camden, que escreveram depois dele, ter sido a época da conquista de Alcluith ou Dunbritton por Eadgbert, rei de Northumberland, e Uengust, rei dos pictos, que com suas forças conjuntas sitiaram o castelo , e levou-o a um extremo desespero que foi apresentado a eles por composição. Os termos da rendição parecem ser os de um tributo.

Em 782, Alcluyd foi reduzido a cinzas, a 1 de Janeiro, mas por quem não aparece, pois a história não regista os nomes dos destruidores invasores.

Foi sitiado novamente noventa anos depois, viz. no ano de 872, pelos dinamarqueses e noruegueses, sob Olive e Ivar, seus reis mesquinhos que, depois de assediá-la por quatro meses, por fim a destruíram. Havia uma tradição nesta época, que durante este período as nuvens choveram sangue por sete. dias em toda a Grã-Bretanha, e até mesmo leite, queijo e manteiga foram convertidos em sangue.

Esta antiga cidade parece ter sido em um período muito antigo a residência real e a residência dos reis dos bretões de Strathclyde, e o teatro de suas guerras sangrentas e conflitos com outras tribos e nações rudes. Rhyd-derech-hael, o Abundante, travou uma batalha com dois de seus príncipes mesquinhos vizinhos & # 8212Guendolaw e Aedan, ambos os quais se rebelaram contra sua fidelidade ao trono. Guendolaw, que caiu nesta batalha, foi um patrono caloroso de "Merlin, o Selvagem", poeta nativo de Alcluith e que geralmente vivia em Alcluith, de quem o leitor ouvirá logo. Roderick, como foi observado antes, era um monarca tão generoso que tinha o epíteto & quotHael & quot anexado ao seu nome, que significa liberal, generoso e ele o era em todas as suas palavras e ações, pelas quais foi muito exaltado e elogiado. (Veja Antiguidades da Escócia, de Pinkerton.)

Na Vida de Gildas, publicada por Mabilon, um escritor francês, o autor afirma que Gildas nasceu em Aleluith no início do século V e que seu pai era um rei daquele país, sendo sucedido por seu filho mais velho Hoel. Ele supõe que o reino dos britânicos de Strathclyde incluiu Dumbartonshire, Renfrewshire e a parte superior de Lanarkshire e se estendeu por toda a Valentia dos romanos & # 8212, sendo cerca de oitenta milhas de comprimento e quarenta de largura. Teodosia ou Aicluith era geralmente considerada a principal cidade da província e sua forte fortaleza, naturalmente inexpugnável, era vista de longe, como a Acrópole de Corinto, no topo de uma rocha alta que se erguia de uma planície. Assim, tornou-se, naturalmente, a capital do reino. A seguir está uma lista cronológica dos antigos reis que reinaram em Alcluith sobre os bretões de Strathclyde, de acordo com os anais do Ulster, conforme citado por Pinkerton em seu Antiquities of Scotland: -

1. Caunus, Rei de Aicluith, reinou por volta de 390 d.C.
2. Inwald reinou como Rei de Strathclyde, em Alcluith, na época de São Ninnian, ou por volta do ano 412.
3. Morti Arthur reinou por volta do ano 460.
4. Constantino reinou por volta do ano 510.
5. Guendolaw reinou por volta do ano 540.
6. Rodericus, Roderick ou Rhyd-derech-hael reinou em 560. [Jocelyn, um monge papista de Furness, em Lancashire, que escreveu em 1180, afirma que & quotLangueth & quot era o nome da rainha de Roderick.]
7. Urien reinou em 575.
8. Hoel, filho de Roderick, reinou por volta de 585.
9. Morkin reinou no ano 590.
10. Guiret, rei de Aiclyde, morreu no ano de 660.
11. Donal, filho de Owen, Rei de Aicluith, morreu no ano 693.
12. Bile, rei dos bretões de Strathcluyd, morreu no ano 724.
13. Artga, rei dos bretões de Strathcluyd, foi morto por Constantino, segundo rei dos pictos, em 874.
14. Dunwallon, o último rei dos bretões de Strathcluyd, em 972, foi para Roma e morreu ali logo depois.

Acredito que alguns de meus leitores nem mesmo imaginaram até agora que nosso pequeno burgo confortável e seus arredores são um solo régio e consagrado, no qual uma longa lista de reis antigos reinou e onde guerreiros selvagens lutaram e caíram. Sim, naquela rocha singular, muitas estranhas cenas sanguinárias ocorreram, e se as pedras e a rocha fossem vocais, eles poderiam contar muitas histórias trágicas de crueldade bárbara e desgraça, perpetrada em dias de escuridão há muito tempo atrás, bem como no período mais refinado de uma idade posterior. Mas, sem moralizar mais no momento, passamos agora a enumerar uma lista de historiadores que geraram nossa antiga cidade e seus subúrbios.

Diz-se que os seguintes escritores e historiadores antigos tiveram seu local de nascimento em Alcluith ou em suas imediações: -

1ª São Patrício nasceu em Nemthur, perto de Aicluith ou Dunbritton. (Nemthur é o nome romano de Old Kilpatrick, um vilarejo na margem norte do Clyde, perto do término da antiga muralha romana.) De seu próprio nome, Patricius, parece ter sido originalmente de extração romana. Ele nasceu por volta do ano 400, quando o exército romano possuía Valentia. Alguns historiadores, entretanto, afirmam vigorosamente que ele nasceu na cidade de Alcluith. (Ver História da Escócia de Aikman, vol. I. p. 220 & # 8212 nota.)

2d. Gildas Albanius, ou o britânico Gildas, nasceu em Aicluith por volta do ano 426. Seu pai Caunus era o rei daquele país, que também era pai de Anuerin. Este Gildas era um monge e historiador piedoso.

3d. Anuerin, irmão do último nomeado, era poeta. Seus poemas foram traduzidos e publicados no final do século XVII.

4º. Merlin Caledonius, ou & quotMerlin the Wild & quot, era um nativo de Aicluith. Este personagem extraordinário floresceu na época de Roderick Hail, o generoso Rei dos bretões, e foi, portanto, um co-temporário de Kentigern ou Saint Mungo, que ergueu a Catedral de Glasgow, quase 1300 anos atrás, e que viveu por volta do ano 670 Uma curiosa vida de Merlin, o Selvagem, em verso latino, de Geofrey de Monmouth, ainda existe. Pelos seus hábitos e maneiras singulares, ao andar descoberto tanto na cabeça como nos pés, apenas com um pedaço solto de pano grosso ou pele felpuda de animal enrolada sobre o corpo nu e por viver geralmente em bosques e cavernas, com outras singularidades, adquiriu em aqueles rudes envelhecem a reputação de um profeta. O habitante moderno de Dumbarton, na imaginação, pode pensar que o vê vagarosamente andando de um lado para o outro pelas ruas e vielas agora inundadas da antiga Aicluith, enfeitado com trajes rudes de vida selvagem, expressando sentimentos religiosos e notas de poesia nativa, o que provavelmente impressionou os ouvintes com reverência e temor. John Fordun, que escreveu sua história da Escócia no ano de 1420, tem uma longa história sobre Merlin, o Selvagem. (Livro 3, p. 31, 32.) Várias páginas dos poemas de Merlin evidenciam claramente que seu local de nascimento foi Aicluith, e que seu país natal foi a Caledônia, a terra dos pictos. Guendolaw, um rei mencionado anteriormente, era um protetor caloroso de Merlin, o Selvagem.

A poesia foi muito cultivada em um período inicial pelos antigos escoceses e britânicos. O que se segue é um espécime e a tradução de duas estrofes: -

& quotVirgem de rosto bonito, aprenda meus versos:
Você se lembra deles, eles enganarão suas horas lânguidas,
Quando o seu amante está muito distante, e quando a juventude do seu coração
Irá aparecer na sua memória.

& quotEstamos juntos na grama verde quando
A donzela com lindos cachos e fisionomia doce,
Abraçando-me com os braços, chorou amargamente
E com o linho mais branco que a neve, ela
Enxugou as lágrimas grossas de seus olhos radiantes. & Quot

No ano 575, e durante o reinado do rei Urien, floresceram em suas cortes esses três famosos bardos, Taliesin, Anuerin, que já foi mencionado, e Lynarch-Ken. Espécimes de sua poesia rude foram publicados pelo historiador Evans. These are a few of our native ancient poets and writers who arose, flourished, and faded on our own soil, and whose names have been thus collected from the rubbish of antiquity, and snatched from the grave of oblivion, to which they were quickly descending.

As a proof that learning was much cultivated at a very early period in Scotland, the abbots, priors, and monks of Iona, and other seminaries, excelled much in literature. Mackinnon and Mackenzie, two of the famed Ionian abbots, have their names inscribed on their tomb-stones on that island. An abbess, whose remains are said to moulder side by side, is designed, "Ann, the daughter of Donald, the son of Charles." The inscription is in Latin and Gaelic, and is still quite legible, although executed with the rude chisel more than a thousand years ago.

The public was greatly interested in the preservation of Ions, as it was at one period the repository of most of the Scottish records. The Ionian library—if we can depend on the testimony of Boethius, who was first principal of Aberdeen college must have been invaluable. From that author we learn that Fergus Second, who assisted Alaric the Goth in the sacking of Rome, brought away a chest full of books, which he presented to the monastery of Ions. A small parcel of them was, in 1525, carried to Aberdeen, and great pains were taken to unfold and decipher them, but through great age very little of them could be read. The register and records of the island, however, were all written on parchment, and it is probable that they, along with more antique and valuable records, were all destroyed by the violent changes which took place at the Reformation, which, in many instances, was a war against history and science, as it was against idolatry and superstition. (See Pennant's Second Tour, page 167.) Genuine religion, science, and literature, were beyond a doubt nourished and cultivated in the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries, by Saint Columba and his Ionian disciples, even to a considerable extent yet in the succeeding centuries there followed a dark historical night, when scarcely a glimmering star appeared. But even amidst the darkness of the middle ages there was always a faint twilight, like that auspicious gleam which in a summer's night fills up the interval between the setting and the rising sun. In Scotland not a native writer arose from the eighth till nearly the commencement of the thirteenth century. From 843 till 106 is the most obscure period of Scottish history, and is often denominated "the leaden age." Thus there was a long dark night previous to the dawn of a clearer day. Indeed, over all Europe, as is well known, the ninth and tenth centuries form the deepest gloom between ancient and modern day. In the eighth century obscure night closes in upon us but, in the twelfth and thirteenth, a new morning arises and shines onward to the bright effulgence of meridian day.

The terrors of war, during even the fifth and sixth centuries, drove the Christian Scots and Britons to seek refuge in the extremities of the island. From this period genuine religion began to decline in the country, and was fast approaching to a complete exit, when two circumstances, concomitant with the labours of Columba, contributed to its revival and establishment. Ethelbert, King of Kent, had married a Christian princess of the house of Clovis: in her marriage stipulations she had secured her right to maintain inviolate her religion. This event was a happy preparative to the mission which Gregory was induced to set on foot, from a circumstance which transpired some time before his elevation to the Pontificate. Walking in the market-place at Rome one day, he observed a number of youths exposed to sale: struck with their fine ruddy appearance, he asked their country being told they were Angles, he replied, "They might with propriety be called angels. It is a pity (added he) that the Prince of Darkness should hold so fair a prey." Inquiring further into their province, he was informed that they came from Dclii (that is, Northumberland): "Deiri! (replied he) that is happy they shall be snatched from God's wrath, and made heirs of mercy." Asking the name of their king, he was informed it was Ella: "Alleluia! (cried he) God's praises shall be sung in that country."

This association of ideas, however fanciful, produced considerable impression upon the mind of Gregory, and he offered himself as a missionary to Britain but the Roman Church at that time opposing his wishes, he declined to insist on the experiment. But it seems that Gregory lost not the impulse for soon after his consecration, he looked out some agents whom he thought fit to carry forward the grand design.

In the year 597, Gregory matured his plan, and sent over forty monks or missionaries, with one at their head named Austin, a man of very singular qualifications. After combating many difficulties and many fears, these holy men arrived in the dominions of Ethelbert, and laid before him the design of their embassy. The prince received them courteously, and appointed them a suitable place of abode in the isle of Thanet. After a little time they were admitted to an audience, and suffered to open more fully the great object of their mission. Austin proceeded to lay before the king the principal doctrines of the Christian faith, and zealously urged the monarch to embrace that glorious dispensation which revealed a kingdom eternal in the heavens. "Your speech and promises," said Ethelbert, "are fair but as they are novel and untried, I cannot yield my assent, and give up the principles so long embraced by my ancestors. You are at liberty, however, to continue here, without fear of molestation and as you have performed so great a journey, entirely, as it seems, for what you believe to be for our advantage, I will that you be furnished with every necessary supply, and permit you to hold forth the faith of your religion to my subjects." Ethelbert accordingly appointed them a mansion in the royal city Dorobernium, now called Canterbury. Thus settled, Austin and his colleagues, attended with the auspices of the queen, proceeded to discharge the great duties of Christian missionaries, and the effect was that many were prevailed on to renounce idolatry and to be baptised into the faith of Christ. Among these converts was the king himself, which acquisition contributed greatly to forward the Christian cause. Thus, after toiling through a long dismal night of superstitious and heathen darkness, and regions of the shadow of death, a beam of gospel day, as the morning spread upon the mountains, revives the fainting spirit. (See Sabines' Church History.)

The Dalriads, a colony of the ancient Scoti, from Ireland, settled in Argyllshire at an early period, and thus became next neighbours to the early Britons in Strathclyde. They latterly formed a mutual alliance, and protected each other for a long period although, in very early ages, their petty kings, with their respective navies, had many a deadly and sanguinary battle on the Firth of Clyde. The ancient Sooti were continually passing and repassing the firth in their rude shaped "shallops, curracha, and crearies," to annoy and molest the courageous Britons on their own shores. The promontory and lands of Argyll, as possessed by this early tribe, was anciently called Dalriada. It is a singular fact, that Jocelyn, a monkish historian, mentioned already, who wrote in the eleventh century, says, "that the city of Glasgow, in the early ages of antiquity, was called Cathures "—probably this was its Roman name-.– and it was then only a small village: it is now supposed to be the largest city of the Empire. During the Roman period, and long after their departure, the original inhabitants, viz. the Atticotti and Dairiad tribes, inhabited the whole country from Lochflne the Lilamonius of Richard, on the west to the eastward, beyond the river Leven, and bounded by the Longcraig and Dumbuck, which were the southern termination of the range of the Grampian Mountains, in the vicinity of the Roman wall. These two races, however, were latterly immerged into, and incorporated with, and, in the course of ages, became undistinguished from, the Picts and Britons.

ACCOUNT OF THE BRITONS.—Their boats were usually made of osiers interwoven and covered with skins of wild beasts, being about five feet long and three broad, as appears from the historians Solinus, Gildas, and Ninius. Their Dress.—Gildas mentions (chap. 15) the Picts and Britons as being partly clothed, or at least generally girt about the middle with a kind of cloth: this was in the fifth century. In the sixth century, when Saint Columba lived, Adomnan his biographer drops no hint whatever of dress. It appears that the Caledonians, like the ancient Germans, went almost naked. Roman writers sometimes mention them as being naked and, indeed, if we saw a savage with only a wild deer's skin thrown loosely over his shoulders, and the rest of his body quite uncovered, we would, like those writers, be inclined to call them naked. The primitive Celtic dress was only a skin loosely thrown over the shoulders, and a piece of coarse rude-made cloth tied round the middle. In the thirteenth century, however, the women among the ancient Scots were rather elegantly dressed. The bishop of Ross says, "that they were clothed with purple and embroidery of the most exquisite workmanship, with bracelets and necklaces on their arms and necks, so as to make a most graceful appearance."

FUNERAL RITES.—The bodies of the common people and of enemies were buried those of chiefs and kings burned, if opportunity allowed. When burned, the ashes were put into earthen urns, as was done among the Greeks and Romans.

AGE OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS.—"It is a very striking circumstance," says an early historian, "that the ancient Britons and Caledonians generally lived to a very great age-140 and 150—and many instances of some of them having lived to 160 years." This may be accounted for, in a great measure, by their having lived chiefly on the produce of the chase, and their drink being the pure unadulterated water of the running brook: in a word, they were real teetotalers.

SAINT COLUMBA.—Columba the apostle, as he has been called, of the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, was the founder and first abbot of the famous monastery of Iona. Iona means "the Island of the Waves." It early became the light of the western world, whence savage nations derived the benefits of knowledge and the blessings of the Christian religion: it stands nine miles from Staffa, and is separated from the island of Mull by a small strait. In any other situation the remains of Iona would be consigned to neglect and oblivion but standing as it does the solitary monument of the religion and literature of past ages, its silent and ruined structures are, by the tourist and the traveller, contemplated with profound awe and veneration.

An account of the life of Columba was written in Latin by two of his successors, Cummin and Adomnan. The former wrote about sixty, and the latter about eighty-three years after his death. Their writings are often interspersed with marvellous details of visions and prophecies, to many of which the modern historian ought to pay little or no regard. Dr. Smith, late minister of Campbelton, wrote a history of the life of Columba, about the beginning of this century, from which some of the following short notices are gleaned:—We make these extracts from the life of this singular man, under the firm conviction and deep impression that the "College Bow" is an ancient Gothic vestige of one of Columba's religious and scientific seminaries and under whose benign influence many were erected, in the dark ages of the fifth and sixth centuries, in the west of Scotland, of which the Ionian was the principal and the origin. It is remarked by ancient writers, especially by Jocelyn, (chap. 89,) that Columba erected more than 300 churches, colleges, and monasteries, in Scotland and Ireland. Saint Constantine, one of his disciples, is said, by Fordun the historian, to have presided over the monastery of Govan, upon the Clyde and to have converted the people of Kintyre to the Christian faith, where he nobly suffered martyrdom. The college at Aicluith or Dumbarton is apparently of a very remote age, and most probably was founded by Columba, or some of his religious successors, under the auspices of Brudius the Seventh, a Pictish king, in 842, who, history says, erected the church and college of Lochleven. (See Pinkerton's Antiquities of Scotland.) In the chartularies of Lennox and Paisley our vicinity is expressly called Lochleven. (See charters of Lennox and Paisley.) The church, chapel, and adjoining hospital, which more modern historians refer to as being founded here by the Duchess of Albany and Countess of Lennox in the year 1450, relate to the Old Parish Church and steeple, &c. on the site of which the present new church and steeple were erected in the year 1811. With the authorities above referred to, and from the zealous labours of Columba and his followers to promulgate the pure gospel, and raise seminaries of religion and learning at an early period in Scotland, and from the apparent age of the "College Bow," we draw the unhesitating conclui. that it must have been reared in an early age by him or i some of his monastic Christian brethren of Iona. it is likely that Saint Cairan, who was cotemporary with Columba, superintended the College of Aicluith'as we find the fountain of our public wells, at Levengrove, called Saint Cheryes or Saint Cairan's Well. (See Burgh Records, 1709.) Saint Cairan was also, for a short time, coadjutor with Saint Constantine in presiding over the monastery at Govan.

Bode tells us expressly that Columba arrived at Iona when Brudius, a most powerful king, reigned over the Picts and it was in the ninth year of his reign and that he converted that nation and the Scots to the faith of Christ by his zealous preaching and example. The Ionian monastery and college was a very different society from the later Roman Catholic monkish institutions for although the Ionian brethren had certain rules, and might deem certain religious regulations necessary, yet their grand and primary design was, by communicating instruction, to train up others for the sacred work of the ministry. These societies, which sprung from them, became the foundation seminaries of the Church of Scotland. They lived, after the example of the venerable fathers and early Christian pastors, by the labour of their own hands.

Columba was originally a native of Ireland, descended from the royal family of that kingdom, and nearly allied to the kings of Scotland: he was born in the year 521: he laboured in the cause of the Saviour for many years in his native country, and was the means of diffusing the Gospel far and wide. Ireland had then, for a long time previously, enjoyed the light of the Gospel, while the Isles and northern parts of Scotland were still covered with heathen darkness, superstition, and idolatry. On these dismal regions Columba looked with a pitying eye, and resolved to become the apostle of the savage Western Isles. Accordingly, in the year 563, he set out from Ireland in a wicker boat covered with hides, accompanied by twelve of his followers and friends, and landed on the island of Iona. He was now in the forty-second year of his age, and required all the vigour of body and mind he possessed to encounter the very great difficulties which presented themselves. The barbarous state of the nation—the opposition of the priests and Druids—the situation of the country, wild, woody, mountainous, and infested with wild beasts—the austerity of his own manners, sometimes fasting for whole days, and even watching and praying for whole nights, were all against his philanthropic mission. He often denied himself the comforts and enjoyments of life. Even at his seventy-sixth year, in his various travellings, his bed was often the bare ground, and a stone his pillow. These were all circumstances very unfavourable in appearance to his making many proselytes. Columba was also primate, and superintended all the affairs of the Pictish, Scottish, and Irish churches, with all their dependencies, and was highly reverenced not only by the king of the Picts, but also by all the neighbouring princes, who courted his acquaintance, and liberally assisted him in all his expensive undertakings. Wherever he visited abroad he was received with the highest demonstration of respect and joy. Crowds attended him on the public highways, and to the places where he lodged at night the respective neighbourhoods sent stores of provisions of every kind to entertain him. When at home he was resorted to for aid and advice, as a physician of both soul and body, by vast multitudes of every rank and denomination: even the little Ionian islet, the place of his more perrnanent residence, was considered as peculiarly sacred and holy and to repose in the dust of it became for ages an object of ambition to kings, princes, and potentates. According to Buchanan the historian, forty-eight kings of Scotland, four of Ireland, and eight of Norway, were interred in Iona—in all sixty kings!! This monastery was perhaps the chief seminary of Christians at the time in Europe, and the famed nursery from which not only all the other monasteries, and above three hundred and eight churches which he himself had established, but also many of the neighbouring nations, were supplied with learned divines and able pastors. It must also be observed, that Columba had a very extraordinary share of address,.of personal accomplishments, and colloquial talents, when he so effectually recommended himself wherever he went, and gained such ascendancy over so many princes, as to be revered and patronised by them all, even when they were in a state of barbarism, and were seldom at peace amongst themselves. To his many other talents, accompanied with the most engaging manners and a cheerful countenance, was joined another very essential property in a preacher, a most powerful and commanding voice, which Adomnan says he could raise on occasions so as to resemble peals of thunder, and make it to be heard distinctly a mile's distance when he chanted psalms.

His natural endowments were highly cultivated by the best education which the times could afford and though we have no particular account transmitted to us of his studies, it would seem they were not entirely confined to the profession which he followed, but extended to the general circle of science. Such was his knowledge of physic that his cures were often considered as Ting partially miraculous.

But a still more striking part of Columba's character was his early, uniform, and strong spirit of deep piety. Devoted from his birth to the service of God, and evidently bent on the pursuit of holiness, he seems to have reached the goal before others think of starting in the race. Far from resting in any measure of sanctity acquired in early life, he laboured often to gain still higher and higher degrees of it even to his latest day.

Next to the salvation of souls, the object which most engaged the heart of Columba was charity. Saint Mobith, who had just built a church, brought Saint Cairan, Saint Kenneth, and Saint Columba to see it, and desired each of them to say with what things he would have it filled, if he had the accomplish- meet of his wish. Cairan, who spoke first, said he would wish to have it filled with holy men ardently engaged in celebrating the praises of God. Kenneth said, his wish would be to have it filled with sacred books, which should be read by many teachers, who would instruct multitudes, and stir them up to the service of God. And I, said Columba, would wish to have it filled with silver and gold, as a fund for erecting monasteries, and churches, and colleges, and for relieving the necessities of the poor and needy.

It is a curious fact in ancient Scottish ecclesiastical hitory, though not so generally known as it deserves, that a large body of pastors and people from this island and other mountains of Scotland, like the ancient Waldenses among the Alps and valleys of Piedmont, maintained, at an early period, the true worship of God in its native simplicity, and preached the gospel in its purity for ninny generations, when it was greatly corrupted in other places. A change much to the worse began to take place amongst them about the beginning of the ninth century, when almost all the men of Ions were destroyed or dispersed by the Danish freebooters, and when those misfortunes commenced which afterwards endured for ages. Society was greatly unhinged by war, anarchy, and desolation, and a seminary in such a state could not be expected to stand the shock of such revolutions. Yet some of the good seed seems to have been still preserved and propagated in the country by the ancient Culdees, who sprung from the schools and seminaries of Columba. Let us now turn our attention for a little to the closing scene of Columba's long and useful life.

A few weeks previous to his death, he went out along with his faithful Christian servant Dermit, and entering the barn, where he saw two heaps of corn, he expressed great satisfaction, and thanked God, whose bounty had thus provided a sufficiency of bread for his dear monks in this year in which he was finally to leave them. "During this year," said Dermit, wiping his eyes, "you have made us all sad by the mention of your death." "Yes, Dermit," said the holy Saint, "but I will now be more explicit with you, on condition that you promise to keep what I tell you a secret till I die." Dermit promised to do so, and the Saint went on. "This day, in the sacred volume, is called 'the Sabbath '—that is 'rest'—and it will be indeed a Sabbath of rest to me, for it is to me the last day of this toilsome life—the day on which I am to rest from all my labour and trouble for on this sacred night of the Lord, at the midnight hour, I go the way of my fathers?' Dennit then wept bitterly, and the Saint administered to him all the consolation in his power.After a little time, Dermit being somewhat composed, they left the barn. Columba afterwards ascended a little eminence on the island, immediately above his monastery, where he stood, and lifting both his eyes and hands to heaven, prayed God to bless and prosper it. He then went to evening service in the church, and, after coming home, sat down on his bed, and gave it in charge to Dermit to deliver the following to his disciples as his last words:-" My dying charge to you, my dear children, is, that you all live in peace, and sincerely love one another and if you do this, as becometh saints, the God who comforts and upholds the good will help you and now that I am going to dwell with him, will request that you may both have a sufficient supply of the necessaries of the present transitory life, and a share in that everlasting bliss which he has prepared fQr those who observe his laws."

After this he rested or remained quiet till the bell was rung for prayers, at the hour of midnight, which was the general practice of Christians in very early ages. Hastily rising and going to the church, he arrived there before any other, and kneeled down before the altar to pray. When Dermit, who did not walk or run so quick, approached the church, he perceived it—as did others—all illuminated, and as it were filled with a heavenly glory or angelic light, which, on his entering the door, immediately vanished upon which Dermit cried with a mournful voice—O, my father, where art thou!! My father, where art thou!! and groping, without waiting for lamps, found the Saint lying before the altar in a praying posture. Dermit, attempting to raise him up a little, sat beside him, supporting the Saint's head upon his bosom, till lights came in. When the brethren saw their father dying, they raised all at once a very doleful cry. Upon this the Saint, whose soul had not yet departed, lifted up his eyes and—as Adomnan, his biographer, relates—looked around him with inexpressible cheerfulness and joy of countenance, seeing no doubt the holy angels come to meet his departing spirit. He then attempted, with Dermit's assistance, to raise his right hand to bless the monks, who were then all about him but his voice having failed, he made with his hand alone the motion which he used in pronouncing his usual benediction: after which heimme- diately breathed out his spirit, still retaining some tranquil smiles. By the brightness and the fresh look of his countenance, he had not the least appearance of one who was dead, but only sleeping. After the spirit had departed, and when the morning hymns were ended, the sacred body was carried from the church to the house of the brethren, amidst the loud singing of psalms and three days and three nights were spent in the sweet praises of God. "The venerable body of our holy and blessed patron," says Adomnan, "was wrapped in fair linen sheets, and put into a coffin prepared for it, and was buried with all due respect, to rise as a luminary in eternal glory on the day of the resurrection. Such was the close of our venerable patron's life, who is now, according to the Scriptures, associated with the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, and thousands of saints, who are clothed in white robes washed in the blood of the Lamb, and who follow him whithersoever he goeth. Such was the grace vouchsafed to his pure and spotless soul by Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with the Father and Holy Spirit, be honour and power, praise and glory, and eternal dominion, for ever and ever."

Thus, on the 9th of June, 597, and in the seventy-seventh year of his age, died Columba, the Christian Apostle of Iona a man whose extraordinary piety and usefulness,—accompanied with a perpetual serenity of mind, cheerfulness of countenance, simplicity of manners, benevolence of heart, and sweetness of disposition,—have deservedly raised him to the first rank of saints and holy men. His life, so zealously devoted to the cause and spread of early Christianity, was very singular and the extent of his usefulness, and the happy results of his labours and exertions, will remain hid till the judgment of the great day unfold them.

Adomnan gives a beautiful and classical description of two ora or dinary visions, which he says had been seen on the night on which Columba died. One of them by a holy man in Ireland, who told to his friends next morning that he had a vision through the previous night, declaring that Columba was dead and the other by a number of fishermen, who had been that night fishing on a loch called Glenfende, from some of whom Adomnan had the relation when he was a boy. The purport of it was—" That on the night and hour on which Columba, the founder of so many churches, had departed, a pillar of fire, which illuminated all the sky with a light brighter than that of the mid-day sun, was seen to arise from Iona, while loud and sweet sounding anthems of innumerable choirs of angels ascending with his soul were distinctly heard, and that when this column reached the heavens the darkness again returned, as if the sun had suddenly set at noonday."

Such lively pictures of the religious opinions of former times will not displease the antiquary, nor appear insignificant to the good and the pious. The cold sceptic may perhaps smile at the credulity of former ages, but credulity is more favourable to the happiness of man and to the interests of society than scepticism. In the history of all ages and nations, we read of some such extraordinary appearances in certain stages of society shall we then refuse all credit to human testimony, or shall we allow that a kind Providence may have adapted itself to the dark state of society, and given such visible and striking proofs of the connection and communication between this world and a world of spirits, as may be properly withheld from more enlightened times, which may need them less, and perhaps less deserve them. Adomnan remarks, that even in his time a heavenly light and manifestation of angels was frequently seen on Iona at Columba's grave.

These latter remarks remind me much of a visit paid to the island of Icolumbkill, or Iona, in the year 1825, by the late Rev. Leigh Richmond, Rector of Turvey, in Bedfordshire, as recorded in his memoirs:—On that occasion he met with upwards of two hundred children, and addressed them and their parents, through the medium of a Gaelic interpreter, on their eternal interests. Before leaving the island, however, he ordered a kind of feast to be prepared for the children on the grassy banks of the sea-shore, for there was no house large enough to contain them on the island. The principal dish at this singular juvenile banquet was the fattest sheep that could be procured on the island, value 68. and two lambs at Is. each and, for lack of eating implements, the children selected fine shells from the sea-shore to supply the deieney of knives and forks. The following beautiful hymn was composed by the reverend gentleman, and sung on the occasion:-

The revolution of ages hurries on imperceptibly, with almost the rapidity of lightning. While our eyes scan over the pages of past history, we are apt to heave an involuntary sigh over the ruins of time, the ravages of death, and the desolations of empires. Where are now the Persian, the Assyrian, and the Roman empires? Where is Tyre, and Nineveh, and Babylon? Where are the ancient cities of Baalbeck, Tadmor in the Desert, and Palmyra ?—supposed to be built by Solomon—the ruins of whose gorgeous buildings appear to have exceeded his famed Temple of Jerusalem. The answer i&-they have all perished in the wreck of ages. The ploughshare of time has erased even their very foundations and no trace of them is now to be found, but some huge pillars and broken columns and capitals strewn along the Palmyrian desert. Such is the history of the empires and cities of our globe. And in a few centuries hence where shall populous London, Empress of the Thames, be found ?—or commercial Glasgow, Queen of the far-famed Clyde? Their names, indeed, may be inscribed on the page of history by the pen of the historian but there will not be found, amongst their present stately buildings, " one stone Left on another that shall not be thrown down." Not only empires and cities are doomed to decay and ruin, to destruction and oblivion, but the fair fabric of this vast universe itself is rapidly hastening to a final end. Yes,


Chronology

1703 The Maryland Assembly grants Scottish immigrant Ninian Beall a tract of 795 acres for his services “[against] all incursions and disturbances of neighboring Indians.” Beall names the property “Rock of Dumbarton,” after the distinctive geologic feature near Glasgow in his native Scotland.

1717 Ninian Beall dies and the property descends in the family.

1751 The Maryland Legislature charters a new town, named George-Town, that includes part of the original Rock of Dumbarton.

Rock of Dumbarton

1796 Thomas Beall, grandson of Ninian, sells approximately four acres of his inheritance (where Dumbarton House now stands) to Peter Casenave, mayor of Georgetown. After two months, Casenave sells to General Uriah Forrest for 20 percent more.

1797 Forrest sells to Isaac Polack for five times what he paid for it.

1798 Polack sells to Samuel Jackson, a merchant from Philadelphia, for less than half what he paid.

1799 Jackson builds a large “two-story brick house with a passage through the center, four rooms on a floor and good cellars” just before our nation’s capital is moved from Philadelphia to Washington. Jackson mortgages the property.

1804 The United States, having acquired the mortgage, sells the property at public auction. Joseph Nourse purchases the property for $8,581.67 as a home for his family.

1813 Nourse sells the property to Charles Carroll, a cousin of the signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll names the house Bellevue, after his former plantation near Hagerstown, Maryland.

1814 On August 24, Charles Carroll, at President James Madison’s request, goes to the president’s house to urge Dolley Madison to leave, as the Americans are retreating from Bladensburg and the British will soon be entering Washington. Dolley, together with Eleanor Jones, wife of the Secretary of the Navy, flees to Carroll’s Bellevue, before going to Virginia to meet Madison.

1815 Carroll vacates Bellevue and over the course of the next 26 years it is occupied by a succession of tenants.

1841 Charles Carroll’s heirs sell the house.

1915 Bellevue is moved about 100 feet to the north. The house had always been located in the middle of today’s Q Street. With the construction of the Dumbarton Bridge connecting Q Street in Washington and Georgetown, however, it was decided that that street should also be made continuous within Georgetown. To avoid demolishing the unfortunately located Bellevue, the house was moved out of the way to its present site.

1928 The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America purchases the property.

1932 The property opens as Dumbarton House, a Federal period historic house museum and headquarters of The National Society, following restoration of its Federal character under the direction of Horace Peaslee, second vice president of the American Institute of Architects, and nationally renowned architectural historian Fiske Kimball.


History Lessons

Restoration of the North Garden Niche

Preservation requires understanding the history and construction of the object or structure being preserved if it is to be done correctly. If not careful, our …

The Hidden Figures of Dumbarton House: Slavery and Servitude within the Nourse family Household

For over a decade interns, volunteers, and staff at Dumbarton House have been researching the question—did the Nourse family have any enslaved workers or indentured …

Digitizing the NSCDA Archives

By Cheyenne Laux, Archives Intern October-December 2020 A small historic house museum, Dumbarton House has been the headquarters of the National Society of The Colonial …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Globe Amaranth

Gomphrena Globosa Globe amaranth, scientifically known as gomphrena globosa, is native to South and Central America and is a member of the Amaranthaceous family. It is …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Cedar

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Yoshino’ The Japanese Cedar is native to forested areas in Japan and China and is a species in the Redwood family. The foliage …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Snowbell

Styrax japonicus Japanese Snowbell is native to China and Japan. It is a graceful, compact, deciduous flowering tree that grows to 20-30 feet tall with …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Chaste Tree

Vitex agnus castus The Chaste Tree is a native of China and India but has become naturalized throughout the South. Peter Henderson, an early American …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Scholar Tree, Pagoda Tree

Sophora japonica Sophora japonica is native to China and Korea, but not Japan. The common name, Pagoda Tree, recognizes the early use of the tree in …


Dumbarton - History

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress it has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The rock was the centre of the Kingdom of the Britons, that stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Known as Dun Breatann - ‘Fortress of the Britons’ or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde). It was the centre of a flourishing Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric, which is now almost entirely forgotten.

Dumbarton Rock Factsheet

    Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress’s well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a ‘great host’ of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships. The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the ‘greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea’. As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf’s luck didn’t hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.


The Kingdom of the Britons

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress Dumbarton Rock has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The Kingdom of the Britons stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Dumbarton Rock, known as Dun Breatann - 'Fortress of the Britons' or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde), was the stronghold of the Strathclyde Britons and a flourishing centre of a Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric - a language now almost entirely forgotten.

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Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

A fascinating account of the Britonnic Scots is provided by Scotland's earliest poetry. 'The Gododdin', written by the Welsh bard Aneirin, tells the tale of a disastrous raid by the warband of the Britons of Edinburgh on the Angles, revelling in their deeds and mourning the loss of so many fine warriors.

By the mid 7th century only Dumbarton, of all the Britonnic Kingdoms of Scotland, had survived the Angles' onslaught. This has left us with the image of the Britons as doomed, heroic losers of the Dark Ages - an image depicted by their own poetry and their seemingly hopeless strategic position, trapped between the powerful Picts to the north and the Angles to the south. However, this is a mistaken image. The Britons were perfectly capable of defeating even the mightiest of their opponents.

For most of the 9th century Dumbarton seems to have avoided the worst of the Viking attacks which ravaged Scotland, that is until 866 AD, when Olaf the White, the Norse King of Dublin, brought a raiding army to plunder Scotland.

Olaf was married to Aud the Deep-minded, whose family controlled the Hebrides, and it seems likely that many Hebridean Vikings joined Olaf's army. For three years Olaf's army wreaked havoc, plundering and extorting money from Picts and Britons alike.

In 869 AD the Britons must have breathed a sigh of relief when Olaf returned to Ireland to curb Irish attacks on Viking Dublin. Never the less, Olaf swiftly returned to achieve one of his greatest feats.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress's well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a 'great host' of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships.

The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the "greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea". As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf's luck didn't hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.

For the Britons worse was to follow. Their king, Artgal, had escaped Dumbarton's destruction, perhaps fleeing to the seeming safety of Pictland but there he too met his end, slain, it was said, 'on the counsel of Constantine'.

It was the end of the road for the Kingdom of Dumbarton but not for the Britons as a people. A new kingdom, further up the river, 'Strathclyde', would soon emerge.

It stretched along the Clyde valley and from Govan in Glasgow down to Penrith in Cumbria. Its royal centre was at Cadzow, near Hamilton, with Partick, in Glasgow, serving as a royal hunting forest.

In 878 the Britons may have gained revenge on the house of MacAlpin when Eochaid, son of Rhun, and his foster father, Giric, forced the house of MacAlpin from the Kingship of Pictland, however, in 889 they returned and expelled Giric and Eochaid.

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For the Britons this may have been a disaster. The following year, Welsh sources note, the men of Strathclyde who didn't accept the new order, went into exile and settled in Gwynedd (or Wales). Following this exodus, Strathclyde seems to have become a sub-kingdom of the new Pictish and Gaelic Kingdom of Alba, with its royal line related to the Kings of Alba.

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The last king of Strathclyde, Owein the Bald, died fighting for Malcolm II, King of Alba, at the Battle of Carham.


Dumbarton Oaks Conference

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Dumbarton Oaks Conference, (August 21–October 7, 1944), meeting at Dumbarton Oaks, a mansion in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., where representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom formulated proposals for a world organization that became the basis for the United Nations.

This conference constituted the first important step taken to carry out paragraph 4 of the Moscow Declaration of 1943, which recognized the need for a postwar international organization to succeed the League of Nations. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals (Proposals for the Establishment of a General International Organization) did not furnish a complete blueprint for the United Nations. They failed to provide an agreed arrangement on such crucial questions as the voting system of the proposed Security Council and the membership provisions for the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. These issues were resolved at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, which also resulted in the proposal of a trusteeship system under the new agency to take the place of the League of Nations mandate system (Vejo Trusteeship Council). The proposals, as thus supplemented, formed the basis of negotiations at the San Francisco Conference, out of which came the Charter of the United Nations in 1945.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan, Senior Editor.


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