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Preço da libra esterlina geral - História

Preço da libra esterlina geral - História

Preço da libra esterlina geral

Sterling Price, nascido em Prince Edward County, VA., Em 20 de setembro de 1809, frequentou o Hampton-Sydney College de 1826 a 1827 e estudou direito com Creed Taylor. Ele foi o representante do condado de Chairton na legislatura estadual de 1836-38 e 1840-4, e foi eleito presidente da Câmara em 1840. Price foi eleito para o Congresso em 1844, mas renunciou em 1846 para entrar na Guerra do México como coronel. Mais tarde, ele se tornou um brigadeiro-general e serviu como governador militar de Chihuahua. O general Price então mudou-se para o Missouri e foi eleito governador em 1852. Ele foi presidente da Convenção Estadual de 1860 e foi colocado no comando da milícia estadual. Depois de reunir 5.000 soldados, o general Price uniu-se às forças do general confederado McCulloch e venceu a batalha de Wilson's Creek em 10 de agosto de 1861. Depois de capturar 3.000 soldados federais em Lexington em setembro, Price retirou-se para Arkansas e ingressou oficialmente no Exército Confederado em abril de 1862. Ele enfrentou reveses em Corinth, Mississippi, em 1862 e em Helena, Arkansas, em 1864 antes de derrotar o Union General Steele em Red River. Ele retirou-se para o Texas em 1864 e em 1865 após a derrota da Confederação, ele fugiu para o México. Após o colapso do império de Maximiliano, o general Price retornou ao Missouri, onde morreu em 29 de setembro de 1867.

(SwRam: t. 633; ​​1. 182 '; b. 30'; dph. 9'3 "; a. 4 9" D.r.)

General Sterling Price (também chamado de Sterling Price e General Price) foi um navio a vapor fluvial de madeira construído em Cincinnati, Ohio, em 1856 como Laurent Millaudon. Ela foi levada para o serviço confederado, renomeado General Sterling Price, convertido em um carneiro e entrou em ação na defesa de Fort Pillow e Memphis, Tenn. Na Batalha de Memphis, em 6 de junho de 1862, o General Sterling Price foi afundado e capturado pelas forças navais sob o comando do oficial de bandeira CH Davis. Criado pelo Exército logo após a batalha, ela foi transferida para o serviço da União sob o tenente LeRoy Fitch em 16 de junho de 1862 e foi transferida para o Cairo, Illinois, para reparos. O carneiro foi anteriormente transferido para a Marinha pelo Quartermaster H. A. Wise no Cairo em 30 de setembro de 1862. Embora naquela época ela fosse rebatizada de General Price, ela continuou a ser referida como General Sterling Price nos despachos.

Concluindo os reparos e a conversão no Cairo em 11 de março de 1863, o General Sterling Price partiu para o serviço no Esquadrão do Mississippi. Na época, o contra-almirante Porter estava tentando transitar pelo raso e coberto de vegetação do Steele's Bayou em um movimento para isolar Vicksburg da retaguarda, e o general Sterling Price juntou-se à expedição. Após vários dias de progresso lento e difícil, perseguidos pelas tropas confederadas, as canhoneiras foram forçadas a se retirar em 22 de março de 1863. O general Sterling Price passou pelas formidáveis ​​defesas confederadas em Vicksburg com a flotilha do almirante Porter em 17 de abril de 1863. Amarrado a estibordo de Lafayette durante a corrida ousada, ela sofreu poucos danos. Porter estava então em posição de atacar Grand Gulf, Miss., E, durante o pesado combate com as baterias lá em 29 de abril e 3 de maio de 1863, o General Sterling Price transportou tropas e transportou transportes sob fogo. O Sul foi forçado a evacuar este ponto vital do rio.

O General Sterling Price partiu de Grand Gulf para o Rio Vermelho em 3 de maio e participou da captura de Alexandria, Louisiana, e da destruição parcial de Fort De Russy, Louisiana, de 3 a 17 de maio. Durante este período, o General Sterling Price atuou brevemente como a nau capitânia do almirante Porter e em 10 de maio ela foi enviada em um reconhecimento até o rio B; ack, onde enfrentou fortes baterias confederadas em Harrisonburg, Louisiana.

À medida que a pressão da União contra Vicksburg aumentava, o general Sterling Price desempenhou um papel importante no bombardeio contínuo da cidade e no apoio aos tiros das tropas da União até que a fortaleza do rio da Confederação finalmente se rendeu em 4 de julho. Ela esteve em Memphis em 16 de julho e partiu de lá para o Cairo e os consertos necessários, que não foram concluídos até cerca de 19 de novembro.

O general Sterling Price voltou ao esquadrão em Memphis em 2 de dezembro de 1863 e logo se tornou parte da expedição planejada do contra-almirante Porter rio acima. Antes de se juntar a Porter, ela acidentalmente abalroou Conestoga em 8 de março de 1864 após uma confusão nos sinais de apito, fazendo com que o último navio afundasse rapidamente, uma perda total. Acompanhando a expedição do Rio Vermelho até Alexandria, o General Sterling Price retornou à foz do rio em 6 de abril transportando comboios.

Ela então assumiu uma estação de cruzeiro regular no baixo rio Mississippi, protegendo transportes, desembarcando grupos de reconhecimento e mantendo o rio livre de guerrilheiros confederados. Enquanto estava nessa missão, ela engajou uma bateria do sul ao largo de Tunica Bend, Louisiana, em 19 de maio, forçou-a a se retirar e conseguiu um grupo em terra que incendiou a sede da Confederação. O General Sterling Price continuou seus deveres de patrulha entre New Orleans e Donaldsonville La, até o final da guerra. Ela descomissionou em Mound City, Illinois, 24 de julho de 1865 e foi vendida em 3 de outubro de 1865 para W. Harrison.


Preço da libra esterlina geral

Nasceu no Condado de Prince Edward, Virgínia
11 de setembro de 1809
Residiu em Chariton County Missouri
1831-1865
Alto falante
Da Câmara dos Representantes
Assembleia Geral do Missouri
1840-1844
Eleito para o Congresso em 1844
Participou da guerra com o México
1846-1848
Subindo do posto de Coronel
Para o do Brigadeiro-General
Presidente da Convenção de 1861
Major General em Comando
Das tropas do estado de Missouri, 1861-1862
Morreu em St. Louis Missouri
29 de setembro de 1867

Erigido em 1915 pelo Estado de Missouri e pelas Filhas Unidas da Confederação.

Tópicos e séries. Este memorial está listado nestas listas de tópicos: Governo e Política & Bull War, Civil dos EUA. Além disso, está incluído na lista da série Filhas Unidas da Confederação.

Localização. 39 & deg 26.083 & # 8242 N, 92 & deg 56.203 & # 8242 W. Marker está em Keytesville, Missouri, no condado de Chariton. O Memorial pode ser alcançado a partir da West Bridge Street a leste da North Park Street, à esquerda ao viajar para o leste. Marcador e monumento estão localizados no Price Park de Keytesville. Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está neste endereço postal ou próximo a este: 198 West Bridge Street, Keytesville MO 65261, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 2 outros marcadores estão dentro de um raio de 8 milhas deste marcador, medidos em linha reta.

Em relação ao preço da libra esterlina geral. General Price é o homônimo do gato malhado laranja de John Wayne nos filmes True Grit e Galo Cogburn.

Veja também . . .
1. Preço em libras esterlinas (Wikipedia) Price foi inicialmente um forte defensor da União. Quando os estados do Deep South se separaram e formaram os Estados Confederados da América, Price se opôs à secessão pelo Missouri. Ele foi eleito presidente da Convenção do Estado de Missouri em 28 de fevereiro de 1861, que votou contra a saída do estado da União. A situação mudou significativamente, no entanto, quando Francis Preston Blair, Jr. e o capitão Nathaniel Lyon, pró-União, tomaram o Camp Jackson da milícia estadual em St. Louis. Indignado com esta declaração virtual de guerra contra o estado, Price deu seu apoio aos separatistas. (Enviado em 11 de abril de 2019, por Cosmos Mariner de Cape Canaveral, Flórida.)

2. Preço em libras esterlinas (1809 e # 8211 1867). Sterling Price foi eleito o 11º governador do Missouri em 1852. Depois de servir como presidente da Câmara do Missouri, ele se tornou um congressista dos EUA e depois se aliou à Confederação durante a Guerra Civil como coronel e depois general de brigada. Price encerrou sua carreira como soldado e

permaneceu leal à causa sulista até sua morte. (Enviado em 11 de abril de 2019, por Cosmos Mariner de Cape Canaveral, Flórida.)

3. General Sterling Price, (escultura). Durante a Guerra Civil, ele favoreceu a União, mas devido a uma variedade de circunstâncias, sentiu-se compelido a apoiar a Confederação. Ele se tornou Confederado Geral em abril de 1862 e participou de várias batalhas importantes. Um projeto de lei foi aprovado em 1911 pela Legislatura do Estado de Missouri, apropriando-se de US $ 5.000 para a construção de um monumento em homenagem a Preço Geral. Parte desse dinheiro datava de um aumento salarial que o General Price recusou-se a aceitar quando era governador em 1852. As Filhas Unidas da Confederação deram um adicional de $ 11.000. (Enviado em 11 de abril de 2019, por Cosmos Mariner de Cape Canaveral, Flórida.)


Conteúdo

Sterling "Old Pap" Price nasceu perto de Farmville, no condado de Prince Edward, Virgínia, em uma família de origem galesa. Sua mãe era Elizabeth Williamson, e seu pai era Pugh Price, cujo ancestral John Price & # 911 & # 93 nasceu em Brecknock, País de Gales, em 1584 e se estabeleceu na Colônia da Virgínia. Price frequentou o Hampden-Sydney College em 1826 e 1827, & # 912 & # 93, onde estudou direito e trabalhou no tribunal perto de sua casa. Ele foi admitido na Ordem dos Advogados da Virgínia e estabeleceu um escritório de advocacia.

No outono de 1831, Price e sua família mudaram-se para Fayette, Missouri. Um ano depois, mudou-se para Keytesville, Missouri, onde administrou um hotel e mercantil. Em 14 de maio de 1833, Price casou-se com Martha Head, do Condado de Randolph, Missouri. Eles tiveram sete filhos, cinco dos quais sobreviveram até a idade adulta & # 913 & # 93 Edwin Williamson, Herber, Celsus, Martha Sterling e Quintus.

Durante a Guerra Mórmon de 1838, Price serviu como membro de uma delegação enviada do Condado de Chariton, Missouri, para investigar distúrbios relatados entre os santos dos últimos dias e turbas anti-mórmons operando na parte oeste do estado. Seu relatório foi favorável aos mórmons, afirmando que eles não eram culpados, em sua opinião, das acusações feitas contra eles por seus inimigos. & # 914 & # 93 Após a capitulação mórmon em novembro de 1838, Price foi mandado pelo governador do Missouri, Lilburn Boggs, para o condado de Caldwell com uma companhia de homens para proteger os santos de novas depredações após sua rendição. & # 915 & # 93 Ele foi eleito para a Câmara dos Representantes do Estado de Missouri em 1836 & # 821138 e novamente em 1840 & # 821144 e foi escolhido como seu orador. Foi então eleito democrata para o 29º Congresso dos Estados Unidos, servindo de 4 de março de 1845 a 12 de agosto de 1846, quando renunciou à Câmara para participar da Guerra Mexicano-Americana. & # 912 e # 93


Preço da libra esterlina (1809-1867)

Sterling Price foi um fazendeiro, político e soldado que serviu como general do Missouri em Arkansas durante a Guerra Civil. Mais notavelmente, ele comandou o Departamento Confederado de Arkansas durante a queda de Little Rock (Pulaski County) para as forças federais e durante a Expedição Camden.

Nascido no condado de Prince Edward, Virgínia, em 20 de setembro de 1809, em uma rica família de plantadores, Price frequentou o Hampton-Sydney College por um ano e depois estudou direito. Os pais de Sterling, Pugh Price e Elizabeth (Williamson) Price, tiveram três outros filhos e uma filha. Por volta de 1831, Price acompanhou seus pais para o oeste, para o Missouri. Lá, ele se casou com Martha Head em 14 de maio de 1833 e atuou em várias empresas, principalmente na produção de tabaco. Residindo perto de Keytesville, no condado de Chariton, Price passou seis anos na legislatura do estado de Missouri, incluindo quatro como presidente da Câmara. Em 1844, Price foi eleito para a Câmara dos Representantes dos EUA.

Em agosto de 1846, Price renunciou ao Congresso e assumiu o comando de um regimento do Missouri para participar da Guerra do México. Designado para Santa Fé, Novo México, Price serviu como comandante das forças americanas na área. Depois de reprimir uma revolta dos índios pueblos locais, ele liderou uma invasão ao próprio México, capturando a cidade de Chihuahua.

Retornando ao Missouri como general de brigadeiro temporário, Price aproveitou seu histórico de guerra e um cisma no Partido Democrata do estado para o governo em 1853. Sua administração foi marcada por uma falta de envolvimento na guerra de fronteira que eclodiu com o Kansas por causa da questão da escravidão . Deixando o cargo em 1857, ele voltou para sua plantação e serviu como comissário de banco. Ele foi eleito um Unionista condicional à Convenção de Secessão de 1861 e presidiu como seu presidente. Quando a guerra estourou, Price testemunhou um incidente no qual tropas federais atiraram contra uma multidão de civis que protestavam contra a prisão de milicianos pró-Sul. Ele logo foi escolhido como comandante da Guarda do Estado do Missouri com o posto de major-general.

Em 10 de agosto de 1861, a Batalha de Wilson’s Creek, Missouri, a Guarda Estadual de Price Missouri e as forças confederadas, incluindo unidades do Arkansas sob o comando do Brigadeiro General Benjamin McCulloch, encontraram o exército da União e empurraram seu avanço para o sudoeste do Missouri. Mais tarde, no verão, Price liderou suas tropas para Lexington, Missouri, onde capturaram a guarnição da União estacionada lá.

Durante o inverno de 1861–1862, muitos dos guardas do Missouri foram transferidos para o exército confederado e duas brigadas do Missouri foram formadas. No início de 1862, o exército federal forçou Price e seus homens a se retirarem do Missouri e entrarem no Arkansas. De 7 a 8 de março, o exército confederado, incluindo as unidades do Missouri e Price, enfrentou o exército da União na Batalha de Pea Ridge. Após a batalha, o exército do Major General Earl Van Dorn foi transferido do Arkansas através do rio Mississippi e movido para defender Corinth, Mississippi. Price, nesse ínterim, finalmente aceitou uma comissão como major-general do exército confederado.

Participando das batalhas em Iuka e Corinth, Mississippi, Price viajou para a capital confederada de Richmond, Virgínia, no início de 1863. Visitando oficiais confederados, incluindo o presidente Jefferson Davis, Price solicitou que ele e as tropas do Missouri fossem transferidos de volta a oeste do Mississippi. Em vez disso, Price voltou ao Trans-Mississippi Theatre sem seus homens.

Price liderou parte do ataque confederado a Helena (condado de Phillips) em 4 de julho de 1863, que foi repelido. Devido à dificuldade do terreno e uma má interpretação das ordens, Price lançou seu ataque bem depois que outros comandantes confederados enviaram seus homens para a frente. Depois de uma luta prolongada, Price foi capaz de agarrar seu objetivo da posição de artilharia federal no topo da Colina do Cemitério, mas as armas foram disparadas e as forças confederadas tiveram que se retirar. Após a batalha, o comando de todo o exército passou para Price, e o exército voltou a Little Rock para se preparar para um ataque da União, que aconteceu no final do verão. Price foi forçado a abandonar a capital com apenas um mínimo de resistência. Os confederados recuaram para Arkadelphia (condado de Clark) e eventualmente Washington (condado de Hempstead) e Camden (condado de Ouachita).

Em 16 de março de 1864, Price recebeu o comando do Distrito Confederado de Arkansas para coincidir com sua designação de campo como comandante das tropas na área. Assim, ele defendeu a capital da Confederação de Arkansas em Washington durante a Expedição Camden no final daquele mês. Privado de todo o apoio de infantaria disponível, Price foi capaz de defender Washington, mas o exército federal sob o comando do General-de-Brigada Frederick Steele foi capaz de mover-se para a cidade anteriormente fortificada de Camden. Price ordenou que suas forças atacassem um trem de abastecimento da União perto de Poison Spring. Após a vitória resultante, Price foi substituído pelo General Edmund Kirby Smith, comandante do Departamento Confederado Trans-Mississippi. No Engagement at Jenkins ’Ferry, Price liderou uma divisão do Arkansas e uma divisão do Missouri para o campo, mas eles foram repelidos.

Embora Price não tenha tido um desempenho excelente durante a campanha, ele serviu de forma adequada para obter permissão para liderar uma invasão ao Missouri para reunir homens, obter suprimentos e interromper as comunicações federais com o objetivo final de tomar St. Louis. No final de setembro de 1864, seu exército de tropas de Missouri e Arkansas reentrou no Missouri e travou várias batalhas campais, mas foi incapaz de tomar St. Louis - ou mesmo chegar perto. Movendo-se pelo estado, o exército de Price foi atacado em Westport, Missouri, onde a maior batalha no Trans-Mississippi Theatre terminou com uma derrota dos confederados. Continuando sua retirada, Price foi novamente derrotado em Mine Creek, Kansas. Após vários pequenos combates e a quase destruição de seu exército, Price voltou para Arkansas e estabeleceu seu quartel-general em Laynesport (Condado de Little River). Price não serviu ativamente no campo novamente durante a guerra.

Com o fim da guerra, Price não se rendeu, mas conduziu alguns de seus homens ao México, onde planejavam se juntar ao Imperador Maximiliano. Depois de morar no México por alguns anos, ele e sua família voltaram para St. Louis, onde morreu em 29 de setembro de 1867. Price está sepultado no Cemitério Bellefontaine.

Para obter informações adicionais:
Castel, Albert. General Sterling Price e a Guerra Civil no Ocidente. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Lause, Mark A. O colapso da invasão de Price: o começo do fim na Guerra Civil Missouri. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2015.

———. Campanha perdida de Price: A invasão de Missouri em 1864. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2011.

Rea, Ralph. Sterling Price: The Lee do Oeste. Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1959.

Reynolds, Thomas. General Sterling Price e a Confederação. St. Louis: Missouri History Museum Press, 2009.

Shalhope, Robert. Preço da libra esterlina: retrato de um sulista. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1971.

Sinsi, Kyle S. A Última Viva: Expedição de Sterling Price no Missouri de 1864. Lanham, MD: Rowman & amp Littlefield, 2015.

Warner, Ezra. Generais em cinza: vidas dos comandantes confederados. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.


Expedição de Price no Missouri (ou Raid de Price)

O ataque de cavalaria malsucedido do Major General Sterling Price em setembro e outubro de 1864, o maior ataque de cavalaria confederado da guerra, buscou capturar St. Louis e recuperar o Missouri para a Confederação. Price acreditava que a expedição iria estimular o recrutamento, contribuir para a derrota de Abraham Lincoln nas eleições presidenciais de novembro e talvez acabar com a guerra.

Em 19 de setembro, o Exército de Price de Missouri, consistindo em três divisões comandadas por John S. Marmaduke, James F. Fagan e Joseph Shelby e totalizando 12.000 homens e 14 canhões, entrou no Missouri do norte de Arkansas. Viajando em três colunas com duas divisões, Price envolveu 1.500 federais fortificados sob o comando do Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing no Pilot Knob. Price imprudentemente ordenou um ataque frontal à estrutura de terra e causou mais de 1.000 mortes. Durante a noite, Ewing explodiu o paiol e escapou sob seu comando, tendo sofrido menos de 100 baixas.

Ao descobrir na manhã seguinte que Ewing havia escapado, Price enviou Shelby e Marmaduke em sua perseguição. Mas Price decidiu não tentar capturar St. Louis devido ao avanço de 4.500 cavalaria federal sob o Brig. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton para reforçar Ewing, e um corpo de infantaria federal de 8.000 homens sob o comando do major-general A. J. Smith, posicionado ao sul de St. Louis. Ainda assim, Price acreditava que a presença de seu exército atrairia voluntários e garantiria suprimentos. Em 30 de setembro, Price começou a marchar para o oeste, seguindo a margem sul do rio Missouri e destruindo pontes e trilhos da ferrovia. Os recrutas se mostraram esparsos e indisciplinados. Seu ritmo lânguido permitiu que quase 7.000 soldados federais fortificassem a cidade de Jefferson. Assediado pela cavalaria de Pleasonton, Price contornou a capital do estado e seguiu para o oeste.

Em Boonville, Price acrescentou cerca de 2.000 recrutas, elevando sua força total para 15.000. Muitos estavam desarmados e sem treinamento. Abundavam os saqueadores e saqueadores, muitos deles guerrilheiros que tinham como alvo os sindicalistas, especialmente alemães e afro-americanos, tanto civis quanto alistados. Suas façanhas fizeram com que o governador (confederado) Thomas Caute Reynolds escrevesse para Price, alegando que essa devastação dificultou a substituição do governo provisório pró-União do estado. Em busca de armas, os regulares de Price capturaram guarnições em Glasgow e Sedalia. Durante a marcha lenta, a cavalaria federal entrou em conflito com a retaguarda de Price sob o comando de Marmaduke, que protegia o pesado trem de abastecimento de 500 vagões e cerca de 5.000 cabeças de gado.

O major-general William Rosecrans, comandante do departamento, mobilizou forças para prender o exército de Price. A cavalaria de Pleasonton perseguiu a retaguarda de Price para retardar seu progresso, enquanto a infantaria de Smith se apressou em St. Louis para flanquear a coluna confederada e 4.500 veteranos da União sob o comando do major-general Joseph A. Mower se mudaram para o norte de Arkansas. O major-general Samuel R. Curtis reuniu mais de 15.000 soldados perto da fronteira com o Kansas. Em 15 de outubro, ele ordenou ao Missouri três brigadas, principalmente milícias, sob o comando do major-general James G. Blunt. A maioria permaneceu perto do Big Blue River, seis milhas a leste de Kansas City, enquanto 2.000 regulares ocuparam Lexington. Essas forças federais separadas somavam mais do que o dobro da força de Price.

Virando-se para o sul, Price esperava posicionar sua força entre Blunt e Smith e derrotou cada um por sua vez antes de atacar a milícia de Curtis. Em 19 e 21 de outubro, Shelby empurrou para trás as unidades líderes de Blunt em Lexington e no Little Blue River e avançou em direção à força principal no Big Blue, entrincheirado na íngreme margem oeste. Depois de uma escaramuça aguda em que o poder de fogo superior dos federais empurrou brevemente para trás os confederados que avançavam, os números superiores de Price logo ameaçaram virar os dois flancos federais, forçando-os a recuar.

Em 22 de outubro, após três duras horas de luta em Byram’s Ford, a travessia principal do Big Blue, o movimento de flanco de Price rio acima empurrou o rio e caiu sobre a direita exposta de Curtis. Com a retirada dos federais, a divisão de Shelby cruzou o Big Blue e dirigiu em direção a Westport, ao sul do qual Curtis reformou sua linha durante a noite.

Na retaguarda de Price, Pleasonton cruzou o Little Blue, conduziu a divisão de Marmaduke através do Independence e empurrou-a quase até o Big Blue. Com seu exército correndo o risco de ficar preso por colunas convergentes e sua grande carruagem capturada enquanto cruzava o vau íngreme, Price decidiu atacar os federais perto de Westport na esperança de seguir para o sul.

Ao amanhecer de 23 de outubro, a divisão de Shelby atacou a posição federal. Durante várias horas de luta, linhas opostas de cavaleiros atacaram e contra-atacaram nas colinas gramadas ao longo de Brush Creek enquanto Pleasonton atacava Marmaduke, que defendia Vau de Byram. Ambos os lados sofreram pesadas perdas. Ao meio-dia, as tropas de Marmaduke, sem munição, percorreram a pradaria com cavaleiros federais em sua perseguição. Centenas de homens de Marmaduke foram capturados na retirada. Simultaneamente, Curtis e Blunt atacaram o flanco direito de Shelby, quase quebrando a linha confederada, e os federais empurraram o último vau defendido em Hickman’s Mill.

A Batalha de Westport provou ser a queda espetacular de Price, como a maior e a última grande ação ocorrida na região trans-Mississippi.

Pressionado em três lados, Price ordenou uma retirada para o sul, deixando Shelby lutando contra a retaguarda. Enquanto Marmaduke e Fagan corriam em direção a Little Santa Fe, apenas a defesa obstinada de Shelby salvou o exército de Price da destruição completa. A Batalha de Westport provou ser a queda espetacular de Price, como a maior e a última grande ação ocorrida na região trans-Mississippi. As vítimas exatas não estão disponíveis, mas as estimativas são de cerca de 1.500 mortos e feridos de cada lado.

Enquanto Price fugia para o sul ao longo da Military Road, o pesado vagão de trem permitiu que perseguidores federais ultrapassassem os confederados em fuga no Kansas, em Trading Post, Mine Creek e no rio Marmiton, 60 milhas ao sul. Após os três encontros, durante os quais Marmaduke foi capturado (em Mine Creek), Price queimou quase um terço de suas carroças. A escaramuça continuou, e Blunt alcançou a coluna em retirada de Price em Newtonia, Missouri, em 28 de outubro. Shelby novamente conseguiu expulsar os federais que avançavam. No dia seguinte, Rosecrans chamou de volta todas as tropas em seu Departamento de Missouri, deixando Curtis com apenas 3.500 cavalaria continuando a perseguição. Price logo dispersou suas forças e marchou através do Território Indígena (atual Oklahoma) até o Texas.

Quando a coluna retornou a Laynesport, Arkansas, em 2 de dezembro, o exército de Price havia viajado 1.488 milhas. O Missouri permaneceu sob o controle da União, Lincoln foi reeleito e a causa confederada na fronteira ocidental sofreu um sério golpe. A Expedição Missouri não conseguiu atingir nenhum de seus objetivos, com uma perda estimada de 4.000 homens, a maioria por deserção.


Preço, Sterling

Censo (EUA) / Escritório do Censo dos EUA. Cronogramas de população. Microfilme. FHL.

Daily Columbus Enquirer. Columbus, GA. 1858 e # x20131873.

Castel, Albert. General Sterling Price e a Guerra Civil no Ocidente. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1968, 1996.

Missouri Bureau of Vital Statistics, Register of Deaths, 1850 & # x20131909, vol. 1, pág. 748, microfilme 2.308.263, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL. & # xA0

Coleção de discos dos EUA e Canadá. FHL.

1860 U.S. Census, Keytesville, Chariton Co., MO, 231 Sobel e Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884 Castel, General Sterling Price,. & # xA0

Censo (EUA) / Escritório do Censo dos EUA. Cronogramas de população. Microfilme. FHL.

Sobel, Robert e John W. Raimo, eds. Diretório biográfico dos governadores dos Estados Unidos, 1789 & # x20131978. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Castel, Albert. General Sterling Price e a Guerra Civil no Ocidente. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1968, 1996.

Diretório biográfico do Congresso americano, 1774 & # x20131961, 1482. & # xA0

Diretório biográfico do Congresso americano, 1774 & # x20131961: O Congresso Continental, de 5 de setembro de 1774 a 21 de outubro de 1788, e o Congresso dos Estados Unidos do Primeiro ao 86º Congresso, de 4 de março de 1789 a 3 de janeiro , 1961, Inclusive. Washington DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1961.

Chariton Co., MO, Deeds, 1826 & # x20131887, vol. C, pág. 237, 11 de outubro de 1832, microfilme 975.963, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL Sobel e Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884. & # xA0

Coleção de discos dos EUA e Canadá. FHL.

Sobel, Robert e John W. Raimo, eds. Diretório biográfico dos governadores dos Estados Unidos, 1789 & # x20131978. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

& # x201CFor Sale, & # x201D Richmond (VA) Enquirer, 28 de outubro de 1831, [1]. & # xA0

Richmond Enquirer. Richmond, VA. 1815 e # x20131867.

Randolph Co., MO, Marriage Records, 1829 e # x20131917, vol. A, p. 15, microfilme 975,183, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL. & # xA0

Coleção de discos dos EUA e Canadá. FHL.

Sobel e Raimo, Diretório Biográfico dos Governadores, 2: 884. & # xA0

Sobel, Robert e John W. Raimo, eds. Diretório biográfico dos governadores dos Estados Unidos, 1789 & # x20131978. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

JS History, vol. C-1, 856 Lucy Mack Smith, História, 1845, 268. & # xA0

JS História / Smith, Joseph, et al. História, 1838 e # x20131856. Vols. A-1 & # x2013F-1 (original), A-2 & # x2013E-2 (cópia regular). Escritório do historiador e # x2019, History of the Church, 1839 & # x2013ca. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, caixas 1 e # x20137. A história do período após 5 de agosto de 1838 foi composta após a morte de Joseph Smith.

Smith, Lucy Mack. História, 1845. CHL. MS 2049. Também disponível em josephsmithpapers.org.

1840 U.S. Census, Chariton Co., MO, 317. & # xA0

Censo (EUA) / Escritório do Censo dos EUA. Cronogramas de população. Microfilme. FHL.

& # x201CDeath of General Sterling Price, & # x201D Daily Columbus (GA) Enquirer, 5 de outubro de 1867, [2] Conard, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 5: 229. & # xA0

Daily Columbus Enquirer. Columbus, GA. 1858 e # x20131873.

Conard, Howard L., ed. Enciclopédia da História de Missouri, um Compêndio de História e Biografia para Referência Pronta. 6 vols. Nova York: Southern History, 1901.

& # x201CPrice, Sterling, & # x201D na Harper Encyclopedia, 612. & # xA0

Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. Editado por Trevor N. Dupuy, Curt Johnson e David L. Bongard. Nova York: Harper Collins, 1992.

Sobel e Raimo, Diretório Biográfico dos Governadores, 2: 884. & # xA0

Sobel, Robert e John W. Raimo, eds. Diretório biográfico dos governadores dos Estados Unidos, 1789 & # x20131978. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Sobel e Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884 Conard, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 1: 230. & # xA0

Sobel, Robert e John W. Raimo, eds. Diretório biográfico dos governadores dos Estados Unidos, 1789 & # x20131978. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Conard, Howard L., ed. Enciclopédia da História de Missouri, um Compêndio de História e Biografia para Referência Pronta. 6 vols. Nova York: Southern History, 1901.

Sobel e Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884 Conard, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 1: 230. & # xA0

Sobel, Robert e John W. Raimo, eds. Diretório biográfico dos governadores dos Estados Unidos, 1789 & # x20131978. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Conard, Howard L., ed. Enciclopédia da História de Missouri, um Compêndio de História e Biografia para Referência Pronta. 6 vols. Nova York: Southern History, 1901.

& # x201CGeneral Sterling Price, & # x201D Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman, 14 de fevereiro de 1867, [2]. & # xA0

Estadista Tri-Semanal de Idaho. Boise, ID. 1864 e # x20131887.

& # x201CDeath of General Sterling Price, & # x201D Daily Columbus (GA) Enquirer, 5 de outubro de 1867, [2]. & # xA0


Adicionado em 2020-11-14 14:50:38 -0800 por Keri Denise Jackson

Ближайшие родственники

Sobre o general Sterling Price, (CSA)

Sterling Price (20 de setembro de 1809 e # x2013 29 de setembro de 1867) foi um advogado, fazendeiro e político do estado americano de Missouri, que serviu como o 11º governador do estado de 1853 a 1857. Ele também serviu como um United Brigadeiro-general do Exército dos Estados durante a Guerra Mexicano-Americana e major-general do Exército Confederado na Guerra Civil Americana. Price é mais conhecido por suas vitórias no Novo México e Chihuahua durante o conflito mexicano, e por suas perdas nas Batalhas de Pea Ridge e Westport durante a Guerra Civil & # x2013, sendo esta última a culminação de sua malfadada Campanha do Missouri de 1864. Seguindo Durante a guerra, Price levou suas tropas restantes para o México, em vez de se render, buscando sem sucesso o serviço com o imperador Maximiliano lá. Ele finalmente voltou para o Missouri, onde morreu na pobreza e foi enterrado em St. Louis.

Sterling & quotOld Pap & quot Price nasceu perto de Farmville, no condado de Prince Edward, Virgínia, em uma família de origem galesa. Sua mãe era Elizabeth Williamson, e seu pai era Pugh Price, cujo ancestral John Price nasceu em Brecknock, País de Gales, em 1584 e se estabeleceu na Colônia da Virgínia. Price frequentou o Hampden-Sydney College em 1826 e 1827, onde estudou direito e trabalhou no tribunal perto de sua casa. Ele foi admitido na Ordem dos Advogados da Virgínia e estabeleceu um escritório de advocacia.

No outono de 1831, Price e sua família mudaram-se para Fayette, Missouri. Um ano depois, mudou-se para Keytesville, Missouri, onde administrou um hotel e mercantil. Em 14 de maio de 1833, Price casou-se com Martha Head, do condado de Randolph, Missouri. Eles tiveram sete filhos, cinco dos quais sobreviveram até a idade adulta Edwin Williamson, Herber, Celsus, Martha Sterling e Quintus.

Durante a Guerra Mórmon de 1838, Price serviu como membro de uma delegação enviada do Condado de Chariton, Missouri, para investigar os distúrbios relatados entre os santos dos últimos dias e turbas anti-mórmons operando na parte oeste do estado. His report was favorable to the Mormons, stating that they were not guilty, in his opinion, of the charges levied against them by their enemies. Following the Mormon capitulation in November 1838, Price was ordered by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs to Caldwell County with a company of men to protect the Saints from further depredations following their surrender. He was elected to the Missouri State House of Representatives from 1836�, and again from 1840�, and was chosen as its speaker. He was then elected as a Democrat to the 29th United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1845, to August 12, 1846, when he resigned from the House to participate in the Mexican-American War.

Price raised the Second Regiment, Missouri Mounted Volunteer Cavalry and was appointed its colonel on August 12, 1846. He marched his regiment with that of Alexander Doniphan to Santa Fe, where he assumed command of the Territory of New Mexico after his superior, Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, departed for California. Price served as military governor of New Mexico, where he put down the Taos Revolt, an uprising of Native Americans and Mexicans in January 1847.

President James K. Polk promoted Price to brigadier general of volunteers on July 20, 1847.[6] Price was named as military governor of Chihuahua that same month, and commanded 300 men from his Army of the West at the Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales on March 16, 1848, where he defeated a Mexican force three times his size. The battle was the last battle of the war, taking place days after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been ratified by the United States Congress on March 10. Although reprimanded by Secretary of War William L. Marcy for his action and ordered to return with his army to New Mexico, Price was never court-martialed or otherwise punished he was honorably discharged on November 25, 1848, and went home to Missouri a hero.

Back in his home state, Price became a slave owner, and farmed tobacco on the Bowling Green prairie. Popular due to his war service, he was easily elected Governor of Missouri, serving from 1853 to 1857. During his tenure, Washington University in St. Louis was established, the state's public school system was restructured, the Missouri State Teachers' Association was first initiated, the railroad network was expanded and a state geological survey was created.[8] Although the state legislature passed an act during his tenure to increase the governor's salary, he refused to accept any more remuneration than he had been receiving prior to the law's adoption.[9] After the expiration of his term, Price became the state's Bank Commissioner from 1857 to 1861. He also secured construction of a railroad through his home county, which now forms part of the Norfolk and Western Railway.

At the beginning of the Civil War, Price was personally opposed to secession. He was elected presiding officer of the Missouri State Convention on February 28, 1861, which voted against the state leaving the Union. Things changed drastically, however, when Francis Preston Blair, Jr. and Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon seized the state militia's Camp Jackson at St. Louis. Outraged by this act, Price threw in his lot with the Southerners, and was assigned by pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson to command the newly reformed Missouri State Guard in May 1861, leading his young recruits (who affectionately nicknamed him "Old Pap") in a campaign to secure Missouri for the Confederacy. One of the major engagements in this endeavor was fought at Lexington, where Price defeated Colonel James A. Mulligan's Union force in the "battle of the hemp bales" and secured the city for the South𠅊lbeit only temporarily, as it turned out. An even greater victory was won by Price at the Battle of Wilson's Creek, which resulted in Lyon's death and temporary Confederate ascendancy in southwestern Missouri. However, growing Union numbers and power in the state ultimately negated his triumph.

Pea Ridge, Iuka, and Corinth

Still operating as a Missouri militia general (rather than as a commissioned Confederate officer), Price was unable to agree with his Wilson's Creek colleague, Brigadier General Benjamin McCulloch, as to how to proceed following the battle this led to the splitting of what might otherwise have become a sizable Confederate force in the West. Price and McCullough became bitter rivals, leading to the ultimate appointment of Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn as overall commander of the Trans-Mississippi district. Van Dorn reunited Price's and McCullough's formations into a force he named the Army of the West, and set out to engage Unionist troops in Missouri under the command of Brig. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis. Now under Van Dorn's command, Price was commissioned in the Confederate States Army as a major general on March 6, 1862.

Outnumbering Curtis's forces, Van Dorn attacked the Northern army at Pea Ridge on March 7𠄸. Although wounded in the fray, Price pushed Curtis's force back at Elkhorn Tavern on the March 7, only to see the battle lost on the following day after a furious Federal counterattack. Price next crossed the Mississippi River to reinforce Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard's army at Corinth, Mississippi. Price was able to seize the Union supply depot at nearby Iuka, but was driven back by Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans at the Battle of Iuka on September 19, 1862. A few weeks later, on October 3𠄴, Price (under Van Dorn's command once more) was defeated with Van Dorn at the Second Battle of Corinth.

Van Dorn was replaced by Maj. Gen. John C. Pemberton, and Price, who had become thoroughly disgusted with Van Dorn and was eager to return to Missouri, obtained a leave to visit Richmond, the Confederate capital. There, he obtained an audience with Confederate President Jefferson Davis to discuss his grievances, only to find his own loyalty to the South sternly questioned by the Confederate leader. Price only barely managed to secure Davis's permission to return to Missouri—minus his troops. Unimpressed with the Missourian, Davis pronounced him "the vainest man I ever met."

Price was not finished as a Confederate commander, however. He contested Union control over Arkansas in the summer of 1863, and while he won some of his engagements, he was not able to dislodge Northern forces from the state. In early 1864, Confederate General Edmund Kirby-Smith, in command of the Western Louisiana campaign, ordered General Price in Arkansas to send all of his infantry to Shreveport. Confederate forces in the Indian Territory were to join Price in the endeavor. General John B. Magruder in Texas was instructed to send infantry toward Marshall, Texas, west of Shreveport. General St. John R. Liddell was instructed to proceed from the Ouachita River west toward Natchitoches. With a force of five thousand, Price reached Shreveport on March 24. However, Kirby-Smith detained the division and divided it into two smaller ones. He hesitated to send the men south to fight Union General Nathaniel P. Banks, whom he believed outnumbered the Confederate forces, a decision which drew the opposition of General Richard Taylor. But the western campaign was nearing its conclusion.

Price's Raid in the Trans-Mississippi Theater, 1864

Despite his disappointments in Arkansas and Louisiana, Price managed to convince his superiors to permit him to invade Missouri in the fall of 1864, hoping to yet seize that state for the Confederacy or at the very least imperil Abraham Lincoln's chances for reelection that year. Confederate General Kirby Smith agreed, though he was forced to detach the infantry brigades originally detailed to Price's force and send them elsewhere, thus changing Price's proposed campaign from a full-scale invasion of Missouri to a large cavalry raid. Price amassed 12,000 horsemen for his army, and fourteen pieces of artillery.

The first major engagement in Price's Raid occurred at Pilot Knob, where he successfully captured the Union-held Fort Davidson but needlessly slaughtered many of his men in the process, for a gain that turned out to be of no real value. From Pilot Knob, he swung west, away from St. Louis (his primary objective) and towards Kansas City, Missouri and nearby Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Forced to bypass his secondary target at heavily-fortified Jefferson City, Price cut a swath of destruction across his home state, even as his army steadily dwindled due to battlefield losses, disease and desertion. Although he defeated inferior Federal forces at Glasgow, Lexington, the Little Blue River and Independence, Price was ultimately boxed in by two Northern armies at Westport, located in today's Kansas City, and forced to fight against overwhelming odds. This unequal contest, known afterward as "The Gettysburg of the West", did not go his way, and he was forced to retreat into hostile Kansas. A new series of defeats followed, as Price's battered and broken army was pushed steadily southward towards Arkansas, and then further south into Texas, where Price remained until the war ended. Price's Raid would prove to be his last significant military operation, and the last significant Confederate campaign west of the Mississippi.

Some of Price's notable battles during the Civil War include (listed in order of occurrence, and indicating whether he was in overall command and where the battle was won or lost):

Battle of Carthage, Missouri not in command won Battle of Wilson's Creek, Missouri in command won First Battle of Lexington, Missouri in command won Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas not in command lost Battle of Iuka, Mississippi in command lost Second Battle of Corinth, Mississippi not in command lost Battle of Helena, Arkansas not in command lost Battle of Prairie D'Ane, Arkansas in command lost Battle of Pilot Knob, Missouri in command lost—Price took the fort, but the Union force escaped Battle of Glasgow, Missouri in overall command, though not commanding on the battlefield won Battle of Little Blue River, Missouri, in command won Second Battle of Independence, Missouri in command won Battle of Westport, Missouri in command lost Battle of Mine Creek, Kansas in command lost

Instead of surrendering at the war's end, Price led what was left of his army into Mexico, where he unsuccessfully sought service with the Emperor Maximilian. This episode of Price's life later became an inspiration for the John Wayne and Rock Hudson film The Undefeated. Price became leader of a Confederate exile colony in Carlota, Veracruz, but when the colony proved to be a failure, he returned to Missouri.

While in Mexico Price started having severe intestinal problems, which grew worse in August 1866 when he contracted typhoid fever. Impoverished and in poor health, Price died of cholera (or "cholera-like symptoms") in St. Louis, Missouri. The death certificate listed the cause of death as "chronic diarrhea".

On October 3, 1867, the funeral of Price was held at the First Methodist Episcopal Church (on the corner of Eighth and Washington), and the funeral precession, with his body carried by a black hearse drawn by six matching black horses, was the largest funeral precession in St. Louis up to that point. He was buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery.

His daughter-in-law Celeste Bolton (nພ Price), wife of his son Celsus, died in childbirth with her newborn child, on the same day as Price. She was the daughter of Thomas Lawson Price.

Modern assessment of Price's Missouri campaign

In his paper "Assessing Compound Warfare During Price's Raid", written as a thesis for the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Major Dale E. Davis postulates that Price's Missouri Raid failed primarily due to his inability to properly employ the principles of "compound warfare", which requires an inferior power to effectively utilize regular and irregular forces in concert (such as was done by the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong against the French and Americans during the Vietnam War) to defeat a superior army. He also blamed Price's slow rate of movement during his campaign, and the close proximity of Confederate irregulars to his regular force, for this outcome.

Davis observes that by wasting valuable time, ammunition and men in his relatively meaningless assaults on Fort Davidson, Glasgow, Sedalia and Boonville, Price offered Union General Rosecrans time he might not otherwise have had to organize an effective response. Furthermore, he says, Price's insistence on guarding an ever-expanding wagon train of looted military supplies and other items ultimately became "an albatross to [his] withdrawal".[14] Price, said Davis, ought to have used Confederate bushwhackers to harass Federal formations, forcing the Unionists to disperse significant numbers of troops to pursue them over wide ranges of territory—which in turn would have reduced the number of effectives available to fight against Price's main force. Instead, Price kept many guerrillas close to his army, even incorporating some into his ranks, largely negating the value represented by their mobility and small, independent formations. This in turn allowed Union generals to ultimately concentrate a force large enough to trap and defeat Price at Westport, effectively ending his campaign.

While the scope of Davis' research is necessarily limited to Price's Missouri expedition, it does provide some overall insight into his tactical and strategic mindset, together with a sense of some of his strengths and weaknesses as a general. While devoted to the Southern cause, Price generally saw Confederate military operations solely in terms of liberating his home state of Missouri. Although he achieved victories during all phases of the war, his strategically most important battles (other than Wilson's Creek) all ended in defeat.

The CSS/USS General Sterling Price

During the Civil War, a wooden river steamer built at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1856 as the Laurent Millaudon was taken into Confederate service and renamed the CSS General Sterling Price. Participating in actions near Fort Pillow, Tennessee on May 10, 1862, she damaged two Federal gunboats before being temporarily put out of action. The General Price was sunk during the Battle of Memphis, raised, repaired, and served in the Union Navy under the name USS General Price although she was still referred to as the "General Sterling Price" in Federal dispatches. As a Union ship, she served in the Vicksburg and Red River campaigns. Price was sold for civilian use after the war.

Sterling Price Camp #145, Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), in St. Louis is named in Price's honor.

There is a statue of Price in Keytesville, Missouri, and a Sterling Price Museum. The tiny city park where it stands is named after him, and the town's chapter of the SCV Post #1743 annually hosts the Sterling Price Days, with a festival and parade.

Another monument to Price stands in the Springfield National Cemetery (Springfield, Missouri). Dedicated August 10, 1901, the bronze figure honors all Missouri soldiers and General Price. It was commissioned by the United Confederate Veterans of Missouri.

Price's exodus to Mexico together with that of his subordinate, General Jo Shelby, provided one inspiration for the plot of the Western film The Undefeated, starring John Wayne and Rock Hudson.

In the 1968 novel True Grit by Charles Portis and the subsequent 1969 feature film based on the novel and its 1975 sequel Rooster Cogburn one of the characters is a brindle cat named "General Sterling Price".


Stirling Price, 1809-1867

He served as his county&rsquos representative in the state legislature from 1836-38 and 1840-44. During his second spell in the legislature he was speaker of the house. In 1844 he was elected to Congress, but only served for two years before resigning in order to volunteer for service in the Mexican War.

He started the war as colonel of the 2nd Missouri Infantry regiment. By the end of the war he had risen to the rank of brigadier-general, and had served as military governor of Chihuahua. After the war he returned to Missouri politics, being elected governor of the State in 1852.

Eight years later that post was about to be held by Claiborne Fox Jackson, a pro-slavery pro-southern politician. As the secession crisis gathered momentum, Jackson began to agitate for Missouri to join with the south. At the end of 1860, as South Carolina seceded, Jackson persuaded the state legislature to organise the election of a convention, hoping that the voters of Missouri would agree with him, and elect a pro-secession convention. They let him down, and on 18 February elected a conditionally pro-Union convention.

Price was chosen to be the president of the convention. Under his leadership, it voted 89 to 1 against Missouri leaving the Union, but 89 to 6 against any attempt to coerce those states that did wish to secede. This was a blow to Jackson&rsquos hopes, but did not stop his plotting. The convention adjourned on 22 March, and soon afterwards Jackson asked Price to take command of the state militia.

Jackson&rsquos target was the U.S. Arsenal at St. Louis, one of the largest in the country. At this point it contained 60,000 muskets, enough to equip a huge army by the standards of the time. The arsenal was commanded by Captain Nathaniel Lyon, soon to become one of the Union cause&rsquos first heroes. In turn he found active and able support from Frank P. Blair, the leader of Missouri&rsquos unionists.

The crisis at St. Louis came after the bombardment of Fort Sumter. On 15 April, President Lincoln issued his call for volunteers. For many conditional unionists this was a step too far. Jackson hoped to use this to move Missouri towards secession. There was already a force of state militia near to St. Louis, under General D. M. Frost, but they had no artillery, which would have made any assault on the arsenal very difficult. Jefferson Davis was more than willing to come to Jackson&rsquos aid, arranging to send guns seized further south to help at St. Louis.

Lyon foiled Jackson&rsquos plan. On 26 April he moved most of the guns into safely Unionist Missouri, only keeping enough to arm Blair&rsquos pro-Union Missouri militia. This should have been enough to frustrate Jackson&rsquos plans, but Lyon was not finished. On 10 May he surrounded and effectively arrested the frustrated militiamen in the camp just outside the city. As the prisoners were marched back into St. Louis, a pro-Confederate mob gathered. Someone shot one of Lyon&rsquos officers. His nervous soldiers fired on the crowd, killing twenty eight civilians.

This was a disaster for the Union cause in Missouri. It pushed many conditional Unionists into the southern camp. Amongst them was Stirling Price. He must already have been moving that way, for he was opposed to any attempts to force the south back into the Union, but the violence at St. Louis tipped him over the edge. Jackson, Price and the State Legislature met at Jefferson City, and continued to prepare for war.

There was one more chance for relative peace in Missouri. On 11 June Price and Jackson met with Lyon and Blair at the Planters&rsquo House in St. Louis. The meeting did not go well, ending with Lyon storming out after declaring &lsquothis means war&rsquo.

Price&rsquos war began badly. On 17 June Lyon, now a Brigadier-General, forced Price and the militia to retreat from Jefferson City. They moved west, along the Missouri River, to Boonville. On 17 June Price&rsquos men were defeated in a minor skirmish at Boonville, and forced to retreat south. By the start of July he had been forced all the way into the south west corner of the state, close to the Arkansas border. Although he now had 8,000 men, rather more that Lyon&rsquos 5,500, but the Union force was well armed and equipped, while many of Price&rsquos men were actually unarmed! However, at Wilson&rsquos Creek Price was joined by another 5,000 men under General Ben McCulloch. Lyon was now badly outnumbered, but he still decided to attack.

On 10 August Price won a significant victory. Lyon split his force, hoping to outflank Price. Instead, Price was able to defeat both attacks. The flank attack, under Franz Sigel, failed first. Price was then able to turn against Lyon&rsquos main force. Lyon was killed in the fighting. His defeated army was forced to pull back to Rolla, in the centre of the state.

Price decided to strike back into the north. His target was Lexington, one of largest cities on the Missouri River. It was poorly defended, and after a short siege (18-20 September) was captured. However, Price could not maintain his position against a strong Union counterattack, and was soon forced to pull back to Springfield in the south of the state. Early in 1861 a Federal advance under Brigadier-General Samuel R. Curtis forced him to pull back even further, into northern Arkansas.

There he once again joined up with McCulloch. By now the two men detested each other - each was dedicated more to their own state than to what the other saw as the general good of the Confederacy. Some semblance of unity was provided by the appointment of Earl van Dorn to overall command west of the Mississippi. On 1 March he took command in person, and prepared to launch an ambitious counterattack that he hoped would liberate Missouri, capture St. Louis and even stop the Federal advance along the Mississippi.

His first problem was what to do about Curtis. The outnumbered Federal army had pulled back the Pea Ridge, on the edge of the Ozark Plateau, and prepared to receive an attack. Van Dorn settled on an ambitious plan based on a double out-flanking manoeuvre. McCulloch was to attack the Federal right, while Van Dorn and Price would continue and attempt to attack Curtis from the rear. The resulting battle of Pea Ridge or Elkhorn Tavern did not go according to plan. On 7 March McCulloch&rsquos attack was defeated. McCulloch and his second in command were both killed in the fighting. Price&rsquos march to the rear was detected, and Curtis was able to hold off the large Confederate forces in his rear for the rest of the day. The next morning Curtis had his army back together again, and easily drove off a final Confederate attack.

The defeat at Pea Ridge ended Price&rsquos immediate hopes of returning to Missouri. Events east of the Mississippi soon called him away even from Arkansas. The spring and summer of 1862 saw the Confederacy loss control of most of the Mississippi. April had been particularly disastrous. A hastily gathered Confederate army had come close to success at Shiloh (6-7 April) before being forced to pull back in the face of Federal reinforcements. New Orleans had fallen to Federal forces at the end of the month. Corinth had been evacuated at the end of May, Memphis fell in June. In an attempt to cope with this series of disasters, Van Dorn and Price were called east.

Price was given command of the Army of the West, based at Tupelo, Mississippi. By the autumn he had an army 15,000 strong, as did Van Dorn, further west at Vicksburg. Braxton Bragg, their commander east of the Mississippi, had led a large army east, where he launched an invasion of Kentucky. Price and Van Dorn were meant to cooperate by launching a similar invasion of western Tennessee. The Federal commander, General Halleck, had split his army into several small detachments to deal with the newly conquered territories. Price and Van Dorn were faced locally by forces under General Rosecrans, under the command of U.S. Grant.

The Confederate plan was for an attack on Corinth. On 13 September Price captured Iuka, twenty miles south east of Iuka. Grant decided to launch a counterattack, making an attempt to trap Price in Iuka. Price detected this move, and despatched half of his army to deal with Rosecran&rsquos flanking move. The second part of the Federal force, under General Ord, was meant to attack when it heard the sound of fighting, but unusual weather conditions caused an acoustic shadow, which prevented the sound reaching them. Despite this, Price was unable to defeat Rosecrans, who held his ground for two hours. Luckily for Price, he failed to block all of the roads south out of Iuka, and overnight Price was able to make his escape.

From Iuka he travelled west and joined with Van Dorn. The combined army was now just over 20,000 strong. Van Dorn was the senior commander. He decided to continue with the attack on Corinth, even though Rosecrans now had a similar sized army, and would be fighting on the defensive. The attack went in on 3 October (Battle of Corinth). The following day, Van Dorn and Price&rsquos men managed to break into the city, but their attack ran out of steam in the street fighting that followed. Eventually Federal reinforcements began to arrive, and the Confederate commanders were forced to retreat. The next day the retreating Confederate armies were nearly trapped at Hatchie Bridge (5 October), but managed to find an escape route in time, and returned to relative safety further south.

The next year Price was posted back across the Mississippi. Edmund Kirby Smith had been put in command of the Confederate trans-Mississippi. Price was transferred to Arkansas, to serve under General Theophilius H. Holmes. Price found a state that was on the brink of a Federal conquest. The north west of the state had been secured for the Union at the Battle of Prairie Grove (7 December 1862). At the start of 1863 Arkansas Post had been captured (10-11 January 1863), giving Union forces easy access to the heart of the state. Along the Mississippi every significant position was in Federal hands.

Holmes and Kirby Smith were under great pressure to do something to help the besieged garrison at Vicksburg. They decided to launch an attack on Helena, Arkansas, a comparatively weakly held Union enclave on the west bank of the Mississippi. Price had command of one division in the army that attacked Helena on 4 July 1863. His division was given the task of capturing Graveyard Hill, in the centre of the Union defences. He succeeded in this, but the rest of the attack failed, and Price&rsquos men came under heavy fire from the entire Union line, and from a gunboat on the Mississippi. Eventually Holmes was forced to order an withdrawal from this vulnerable position. Price&rsquos division had suffered very heavily in the fighting, losing 156 of the 173 Confederate dead and 587 of the 687 wounded.

After the failure at Helena, a Federal invasion of Arkansas was almost inevitable. That attack was launched at the start of August 1863. Major-General Frederick Steele, with 12,000 men, was soon approaching Little Rock. Price was temporarily in command, with 8,000 men, in the absence of Holmes. He attempted to stop Steele east of Little Rock, but his position on the north bank of the Arkansas River was outflanked on 10 September (Bayou Forche or Little Rock), and once again Price was forced to retreat to the south west corner of a conquered state.

Events were to give him one more chance in Missouri. The Red River campaign of 1864 was one of the more disastrous Federal attacks of 1864. Part of the plan had been for General Steele to advance south from the Arkansas River towards Shreveport, Louisiana, where it would meet up with General Banks&rsquos, moving in from the south. However, when Banks was defeated, Steele found himself exposed to attack by Price, who had recently been reinforced, giving him an army possibly 12,000 strong. Price pressed Steele all the way to Jenkin&rsquos Ferry, on the Saline River. There Steele was forced to turn and fight, inflicting a heavy defeat on Price (30 April 1864). Steele was able to continue his retreat to Little Rock unopposed.

Price&rsquos real target was St. Louis, Missouri. Like so many other Confederate leaders in other states, Price believed that Missouri would rise for the Confederacy the moment there was an army in the state. There was certainly some evidence for continuing Confederate support in the state. Gangs of guerrillas roamed the state. Amongst them were many of the most famous in the war, men such as William Quantrill and &lsquoBloody Bill&rsquo Anderson. Price was probably the military head of an organisation known as the &lsquoOrder of American Knights&rsquo, which was expected to lead a Confederate uprising in the state. Some of their Union counterparts were very nearly as ruthless.

Price and his army crossed into northern Arkansas at the start of September and were soon in Missouri. He had between 12,000 and 15,000 men, mostly veterans. Quantrill and Anderson raised chaos around the state, although the Order of American Knights proved to be a very feeble force. However, the biggest obstacle to Price&rsquos success was that by this stage in the war the Union could easily raise enough troops to overwhelm him.

He received his first setback at Pilot Knob (26-27 September), close to St. Louis, where his attack was held off by a garrison only 1,000 strong. Overnight on 27 September that force withdrew to St. Louis. After a brief look at the defences of St. Louis, Price turned west, following the line of the Missouri to the state capitol, at Jefferson City, but he was repulsed there as well. His next target was Kansas, but once again enough Federal forces could be found to hold him off, close to the Kansas border. Finally, on 23 October he was forced to turn back south. When he finally reached relative safety in Arkansas, his force had been reduced to 5,000 men.

Price&rsquos raid was one of the more disastrous undertaken by Confederate forces. Not only was his own army almost destroyed, but most of the guerrilla bands that had been plagued Missouri had joined with it, and left the state when it did. &lsquoBloody Bill&rsquo Anderson had been killed. Quantrill&rsquos gang was dispersed, and he himself killed while travelling east (he planned to assassinate Lincoln). Price did not report it in quite those terms, focusing instead on the distance he had marched (1,434), the number of battles and skirmishes he had fought (43) and the number of prisoners he had captured (over 3,000). Still, he had at least managed to get some of his men back, and forced the Union to divert men and resources from other areas.

The end of the war was now rapidly approaching. In 1865 Price retreated to Texas, and then to Mexico. His refuge there was short-lived. In 1866 the French intervention in Mexico came to an end when the Emperor Maximilian was deposed. Price returned to the United States, dying the next year.

Price was one of many men to argue with Jefferson Davis during the war. After one conference Davies described him as the &lsquovainest man he had ever met&rsquo, although this was after a meeting in which Price had threatened to resign when he had been refused permission to move west of the Mississippi. Davis&rsquos well known preference for West Point graduates may help to explain why Price rarely held independent command, although the early failure of his and Governor Jackson&rsquos attempts to get Missouri into the Confederacy probably also contributed. He was a competent General, although his most famous victory at Wilson&rsquos Creek had as much to do with his opponent&rsquos weaknesses as his own strengths. His final campaign, the Missouri raid, was a disaster, but by the end of 1864 the Confederacy had no choice but to take such risks.


Sterling Price Quick Facts

Sterling is of English
origin and means
“pure, high quality”.

Vital Stats

Aniversário:
September 14, 1809
Birth Name:
Sterling Price
Birthplace:
Farmville, Virginia
Date of Death:
September 29, 1867
Cause: Cholera
Place of Death:
St. Louis, Missouri
Nationality: American
Ancestry: Welsh
Occupation before Civil War:
Politician (Missouri state
legislator, U.S. Representative,
Governor of Missouri, Missouri
bank commissioner), planter,
military officer in
Mexican American War.
Occupation during Civil War:
General in Confederate Army
Occupation after the Civil War:
Homem de negocios

Major Battles

Wilson’s Creek, Pea Ridge,
Iuka, Corinth, Helena, Camden Expedition,
Price’s Missouri Expedition (various
battles including Westport and
Mine Creek).

Father: Pugh Williamson Price
(1775-1848)
Mother: Elizabeth Williamson
Brother: Edwin Price (September 10, 1795-January 24, 1858)
Sister: Pamela Price (August 11, 1800-February 19, 1891)
Brother: Robert Price (December 1, 1803-February 10, 1873)
Brother: John Randolph Price May 4, 1811-May 3, 1880)

Married: Martha Head (May 2, 1810-March 5, 1970
on May 14th, 1833.

Son: Edwin Williamson Price (June 10, 1844-January 4, 1908)
Daughter: Amanda Price (1837-1838)
Son : Celsus Price (March 1, 1841-September 5, 1909)
Son: Heber Price (January 31, 1844-June 1, 1868)
Daughter: Martha Sterling Price (April 23, 1846-March 25, 1912)
Son: Quintus Price (September 21, 1851-January 19, 1943)
Son: Athol Price (December 5, 1856-November 2, 1860)


The CSS/USS General Sterling Price [ edit | editar fonte]

USS General Price on1 January 1864

During the Civil War, a wooden river steamer built at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1856 as the Laurent Millaudon was taken into Confederate service and renamed the CSS General Sterling Price. Participating in actions near Fort Pillow, Tennessee on May 10, 1862, she damaged two Federal gunboats before being temporarily put out of action. o General Price was sunk during the Battle of Memphis, raised, repaired, and served in the Union Navy under the name USS General Price although she was still referred to as the "General Sterling Price" in Federal dispatches. As a Union ship, she served in the Vicksburg and Red River campaigns. Preço was sold for civilian use after the war.


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